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Psalm lxxxix. (d)

My song shall be alway of the loving-kindness of the Lord : with my mouth will I ever be shewing thy truth from one generation to another.

2. For I have said, Mercy shall be set up (e) for ever : thy truth shalt thou stablish in (g) the heavens.

3. (A) "I have made a cove"nant with my chosen : I have "sworn unto David my servant;

4. "Thy (*') seed will I sta"blish for ever : and set up thy "throne from one generation to "another."

5. O Lord, the very heavens (k) shall praise thy wondrous works : and thy truth in the congregation of the saints.

6. For who is he among the clouds : that shall be compared unto the Lord?

7. And what is he among the gods : that shall be like unto the Lord?

8. God is very greatly to be feared in the council of the saints : and to be had in reve

rence of all them that are round about him.

9. O Lord God of Hosts, who is like unto thee? thy truth, most mighty Lord, is on every side.

10. Thou rulest the raging of the sea : thou stillest the waves thereof, when they arise.

11. Thou hast subdued Egypt, and destroyed it : thou hast scattered thine enemies abroad with thy mighty arm.

12. The heavens are thine, the earth also is thine : thou hast laid the foundation of the round world, and all that therein is.

13. Thou hast made the north and the south : Tabor (/) and Hermon shall rejoice in thy Name.

14. Thou hast a mighty arm: strong is thy hand, and high is thy right hand.

15. Righteousness and equity are the habitation of thy seat: mercy and truth (m) shall go before thy face.

16. Blessed is the people, O Lord, that (n) can rejoice in thee: they shall (o) walk in the light o thy countenance.

(d) A memorial (in some period of great distress) of God's power, of his former favours, and of one of his great promises, and an anxious prayer for deliverance. The first thirty-six verses are in a triumphant strain, and were, perhaps, written in prosperity, and it is not unlikely that in some period of great national calamity, the spirited composition of happier times wag called to mind, to shew how dreadfully their situation was altered; or the whole Psalm may be prophetical, looking forward solely to the Messiah, and intimating in the last sixteen verses, his humiliation, and the indignities he should suffer. Dr. Hales considers it as applying wholly to Christ. See 5. Hales's Dissertations, 91 to 110. It is one of the proper Psalms for Christmas Day.

(«) ». 2. "For ever; "not for a time "only, but throughout all generations."

(g) "In," or " as," (so two MSS.) "as "fixed and permanent as the heavens "themselves."

(A) v. 3. This is the truth referred to in verse 2.

(«') v. 4. "Thy seed," i. e. " in the per"son of the Messiah."

(k) v. 5. " Shall praise," or " praise."

(I) v. 13. "Tabor and Hermon," put figuratively for the east and west. Tabor was a mountain in the eastern part of Judea; Hermon in the west.

(m) v. 15. «' Truth," i. e. (probably) "justice." See note on Psalm lxxxv. 10.

(n) v. 16. " Can rejoice," or " rejoice:" so in the original.

(o) " Shall walk, &c." i. e. (probably) "shall have the light of thy countenance, "thy favour and protection, to guide and "assist them."


17. Their delight shall be daily in thy Name : and in thy righteousness shall they make their boast.

18. For thou art the glory of their strength : and in thy lovingkindness thou shalt lift up our horns.

19. For the Lord is our defence : the Holy One of Israel is our king.

20. Thou spakest sometime in visions unto thy saints, and saidst: "I have laid help upon one that "is mighty; I have exalted one "chosen out of the people;

21. "I have found David (p) "my servant : with my holy oil "have I anointed him;

22. "My hand shall hold him

(p) v. 21. "David." David was a type of the Messiah, and there are many passages, long after David's death, in which his name is used to signify some future person; and it is to the Messiah that many even of the Jews have considered this part of the Psalm to apply. Hosea, who wrote about 200 years after David's death, Bays, (chap. iii. verse 4, 5.) "The children "of Israel shall abide many days without "a king, and without a prince, and with"out a sacrifice, and without an image, "and without teraphim ; afterwards shall 'the children of Israel return, and seek ** the Lord their God, and David their "king, and shall fear the Lord and his "goodness in the latter days." Jeremiah, who wrote about 200 years afterwards, says of Israel and Judali, (Jer. xxx. 9.) "They shall serve the Lord their God, "and David their king, whom I will raise "up unto them." In Ezekiel, who lived at the same time as Jeremiah, are these passages: "Thus saith the Lord God, I "will save my flock, and they shall be no "more a prey, and I will set up one shep"herd over them, and he shall feed them, 4t even my servant David; he shall feed "them, and he shall be their shepherd, "and I the Lord will be their God, and "my servant David a prince among them: "I the Lord have spoken it." Ezek. xx*iv. 20. 22, 23, 24.; and again, Ezek. xxxvii. 21. 24, 25. "Thus saith the Lord

fast : and my arm shall strengthen him;

23. "The enemy shall not be able to do him violence: the son of wickedness shall not hurt him.

24. "I will smite down his foes before his face: and plague them that hate him.

25. "My truth also and my mercy shall be with him : and in my Name shall his horn be exalted.

26. "I will set his dominion (</) also in the sea: and his right hand (r) in the floods.

27. " He shall call me, Thou art my Father (s): my God, and my strong salvation.

28. "And I will make him my

"God, Behold I will take the children of "Israel from among the heathen whither "they be gone, and will gather them on "every side, and bring them into their "own land; and David my servant shall "be king over them, and they all shall "have one shepherd: they shall also walk "in my judgments, &c. &c. and my servant "David shall be their prince for ever." The ancient Jewish writers understood all these passages as looking forward to the Messiah.

(q) v. 26. - His dominion, &c." So in Ps. lxxii. 8. where the future success of the Messiah's kingdom is probably contemplated, «' His dominion shall be also "from the one sea to the other, and from "the flood unto the world's end:" and Zech. ix. 10. "His dominion shall be from '* sea even to sea, and from the river even "to the ends of the earth."

(r) " Right hand," i. e. "power, con"troul."

(s) v. 27. "My father, &c." So 1 Chron. xvii. 13, 14. where God promise* to raise up David's seed after him, (alluding probably to the Messiah,) he says, "I will be his father, and he shall be njf "son, and I will settle him in my house "and in my kingdom for ever: and h* "throne shall be established for ever "more;" and see 2 Sam. vii. 14. 1 Chron. xxii. 10. and Hebr. i. 5.

"first-born (/): higher than the "Kings of the earth.

29. "My mercy will I keep "for him for evermore: and my "covenant shall stand fast (u) "with him.

30. "His seed (v) also will I "make to endure for ever: and "his throne (w) as the days of "heaven.

31. "But if his children (v) for"sake my law: and walk not in "my judgements;

32. "If they break my statutes, "and keep not my command"ments: I will visit their of"fences with the rod, and their "sin with scourges.

33: "Nevertheless, my loving"kindness will I not utterly take "from him: nor suffer my truth "to fail.

34. "My covenant will I not "break (.r), nor alter the thing "that is gone out of my lips: I

"have sworn once by my holi"ness, that I will not fail "David.

35. "His seed shall endure for "ever: and his seat is like as "the sun before me.

36. "He shall stand fast for "evermore as the moon: and "as the faithful witness (y) in "heaven."

37. But thou hast abhorred and forsaken thine anointed: and art displeased at him.

38. Thou hast broken the covenant (z) of thy servant: and cast his crown to the ground.

39. Thou hast overthrown all his hedges: and broken down his strong holds.

40. All they that go by spoil him: and he is become a reproach to his neighbours.

41. Thou hast set up the right hand of his enemies: and made all his adversaries to rejoice.

(t) v. 28. " First-born," i. e. "above "all others," as the first-born is above his brethren. In Col. i. 15. our Saviour is called " the first-born of every crea"ture."

(u) v. 29. "Fast," " immoveable."

(r) v. 30. and 31. " His seed," and "his "children," i. e. (perhaps) " the professors "of Christianity." See Is. liii. 10.

(10) '* His throne, &c." A prophecy of the duration of Christ's kingdom, which is still fulfilling! So in the prophecy, Dan. vii. 13. (which refers to the Messiah) "Behold one like the Son of Man came 'with the clouds of heaven, and came to "the Antient of days," (i. e. God); " and "they brought him near before him: and "there was given him dominion, and "glory, and a kingdom, that all people, "nations, and languages should serve "him: his dominion is an everlasting "dominion, which shall not pass away; "and his kingdom that which shall not "be destroyed." And when the angel saluted the Virgin Mary, and foretold our Saviour's birth, he said of him, (Luke i. 32, S3.) "He shall be great, and shall

"be called the Son of the Highest, "and the Lord God shall give unto him "the throne of his father David; and "he shall reign over the house of Jacob "for ever, and of his kingdom there shall "be no end."

(x) v. 34.. " Break, &c." So about 400 years after David's death, "The word "of the Lord came unto Jeremiah, say"ing, "Thus saith the Lord, If you can "break my covenant of the day, and my "covenant of the night, that there should "not be day and night in their season, "then may also my covenant be broken "with David my servant, that he should "not have a son to reign upon his throne, "and with the Levites, the priests, my "ministers: as the host of heaven cannot "be numbered, neither the sand of the "sea be measured; so will I multiply "the seed of David my servant, and the "Levites that minister unto me. Jer. "xxxiii. 21. 22."

(y) v. 36. "Faithful witness," i. e. «the "rainbow."

(z) v. 38. " The covenant, &c." i.e. " the "assurance thou gavest him."

42. Thou hast taken away the edge of his sword: and givest him not victory in the battle.

43. Thou hast put out his glory: and cast his throne down to the ground.

44. The days of his youth hast thou shortened: and covered him with dishonour.

45. Lord, how long wilt thou hide thyself for ever? and shall thy wrath burn like fire?

46. O remember how short my time is: wherefore hast thou made all men for nought?

47. What man is he that liveth, and shall not see death: and shall he (a) deliver his soul from the hand of hell?

48. Lord, where are thy old loving kindnesses: which thou swarest unto David in thy truth?

49. Remember, Lord, the rebuke (6) that thy servants have: and how I do bear in my bosom the rebukes of many people?

50. Wherewith thine enemies have blasphemed thee, and slandered (c) the footsteps of thine

Anointed: praised (rf) be the
Lord for evermore. Amen, and

Psalm xc. (e)

Lord, thou hast been our refuge: from one generation to another.

2. Before (g) the mountains were brought forth, or ever the earth and the world were made: thou art God from everlasting, and world without end.

3. Thou turnest man to destruction: again thou sayest, "Come again, ye children of "men."

4. For a thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday: seeing (A) that is past as a watch (»') in the night.

5. As soon as thou scatterest them (A.) they are even as a sleep: and fade away suddenly like the grass.

6. In the morning it is green, and groweth up: but in the evening it is cut down, dried up, and withered.

(a) v. 47. "And shall he," or "that » shall."

(b) v. 49. "The rebuke, &c." because God is spoken of with disrespect, from the sufferings of his people. See Psalm lxxix. 13.

(c) v. 50. "Slandered, &c." by insinuating that God's Anointed, the Messiah, would never come, and turning the expectation of him into ridicule: like the scoffers mentioned 2 Pet. iii. 4. "Where is the "promise of his coming? for since the "fathers fell asleep, all things continue "as they were from the beginning of the "creation."

(d) "Praised, Ac." probably an addition. This is the conclusion of the Third Book.

(e) A humble acknowledgment that our lives depend on God, a thankful re

membrance of his former protection, an exhortation to consider his power ami follow his will, and an earnest prayer for a return of his favour. It is supposed to have been written by Moses, when the Israelites were detained in the wilderness 40 years. See note on Ps. xcv. 8. ante, p. 3. It is one of the Psalms in the Burial Service.

{g) v. 2. " Before, &c." See Prov. Te 23. 25.

(h) v. 4. " Seeing, &c." or, "it passeti "even as a watch in the night." It is not because they are past that they are but as yesterday, for God knows what » to come as distinctly and completely as what is past.

(1) "A watch," i. e. "four hours. The night was divided into three watches.

(k) v. 5. "Them," i. e. "the children "of men," mentioned in verse S.

7. For we consume away in thy displeasure: and are (T) afraid at thy wrathful indignation.

8. Thou hast set our misdeeds before thee: and our secret sins in the light of thy countenance.

9. For when thou art angry, all our days are gone: we bring our years to an end, as it were a tale that is told.

10. The days of our age are threescore years and ten; and though men be so strong, that they come to fourscore years: yet is their strength then but labour and sorrow; so soon passeth it away, and we are gone.

11. But who regardeth (m) the power of thy wrath? for even thereafter (») as a man feareth, so is thy displeasure.

12. So teach us to number our days: that we may apply our hearts unto wisdom.

13. Turn thee again, O Lord, at the last: and be gracious unto thy servants.

14. O satisfy us with thy mercy, and that soon: so shall we rejoice and be glad all the days of our life.

15. Comfort us again, now after (o) the time that thou hast plagued us: and for the years wherein we have suffered adversity.

16. Shew thy servants thy work: and their children thy glory.

17. And the glorious majesty of the Lord our God be upon us: prosper thou the work of our hands upon us, O prosper thou our handy-work.

Psalm xci. (p)

Whoso dwelleth under the defence of the Most High: shall

(0 f.7. "Afraid," or, "hurried away," "carried off."

(m) ell." Who regardeth, &c." "Who "a brought to recollect that the judgments "upon man depend upon himself: that his "repentance will turn away God's wrath, "and that he will have blessing or punish"went according to his piety or disobedi"ence."

(n) " As, &c." The meaning perhaps u> "If a man regards the power of thy

wrath, by humbling himself under thy "judgments, and turning unto thee when "thy vengeance is upon the earth, he will "procure for himself an abatement of thy "displeasure." Agreeably to Ezek. xviii. 27- " When the wicked man turneth away "from the wickedness that he hath com"mitted, and doeth that which is lawful 'and right, he shall save his soul alive."

(o) c. 15. " After," i. e. (perhaps) "in "proportion to." - Let us have as long 'and signal a continuance of thy favour "as we have had of thy displeasure;" not onlike the idea, Is. lxi. 7. "for your M shame you shall have double," that is,

m recompence for past sufferings you "«hall have a double portion of good."

(/>) Upon the extent and other qualities of God's protection: the security, success, and reward of piety. Bp. Patrick thinks it was written upon the dreadful pestilence in David's time, 2 Sam. xxiv. (and this was the opinion of more ancient writers, see Pole in loco,) to impress upon the minds of the people, from that awful calamity, the advantages of a reliance upon God. Bishop Smalridge says of it, that "it elegantly sets forth the reliance "upon God for security in all dangers "and distresses; verse 1. stating the safety "of those who dwell under the defence "of the Most High; verse 2. the answer "of a by-stander, who with great alacrity "of spirit declares a resolution to trust "in God; the following verses pointing "out instances of the protections God "would vouchsafe; and at verse 14. God "himself being introduced to inspire the "fullest confidence." It is said of it (Pole's Synopsis), that "nothing more solid "or splendid can be written; and that no "poem can be compared to it." Dr. Hales considers it as prophetical, applying to the Messiah; and Bishop Lowth thinks it refers to some greater personage than it BBS

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