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"you all things: 4. But flesh (p) "with the life thereof, which is the "blood thereof, shall you not eat. "5. And surely (q) your blood of your "lives will I (r) require: at the hand of "every beast will I require it; and at "the hand of man, at the hand of every "man's brother will I require the life "of man. 6. Whoso sheddeth man's "blood, by man shall his blood be shed: "for (s) in the image of God made he "man. 7. And you, be ye fruitful and "multiply; bring forth abundantly in the "earth, and multiply therein." 8. And God spake unto Noah, and to his sons with him, saying, 9. "And I, behold, "I establish my covenant with you, and "with your seed after you; 10. And "with every living creature that is with "you, of the fowl, of the cattle, and of "every beast of the earth with you, from "all that go out of the ark, to every beast "of the earth. 1 ]. And I will establish "my covenant with you, neither (t) shall "all flesh be cut off any more by the "waters of a flood: neither shall there "any more be a flood to destroy the "earth." 12. And God said, "This is "the token of the covenant which I

precious in God's sight, and that God had still as great an abhorrence of murder, the wilful killing of man, as before.

(p) v. 4. "With the life thereof, which "u the blood thereof, &c." The meaning of this command was, (as some suppose,) that they should not take off a part from the living animal, which would be most cruel, or that they should not eat it immediately after its death, before the blood had properly drained from it, or before it had been properly dressed: but the more general understanding is, that it was intended altogether to prohibit the eating of blood; that the blood might be deemed sacred, and dedicated to God. It was a special injunction afterwards to the Israelites not to "eat blood, but to pour it upon the earth "like water, Lev. xvii. 13.—Deut. xii. 23." and this reason is given for it, Lev. xvii. 11. "for the life of the flesh is in the blood: "and I have given it to you upon the altar, "to make an atonement for your souls: "for it is the blood that maketh an atone"ment for your souls." The object probably was, to prepare their minds for the

"make between me and you, and every "living creature that is with you, for "perpetual generations: 13.1 do set (a) "my bow in the cloud, and it shall be "for a token of a covenant between me "and the earth. 14. And it shall come "to pass, when I bring a cloud over "the earth, that the bow shall be seen "in the cloud: 15. And I will remem"ber my covenant which is between me, "and you, and every living creature of "all flesh; and the waters shall no more "become a flood to destroy all flesh. "16. And the bow shall be in the cloud, "and I will look upon it, that (x) I may "remember the everlasting covenant "between God and every living creature "of all flesh that is upon the earth." 17. And God said unto Noah, "This "is the token of the covenant which I "have established between me and all "flesh, that is upon the earth." 18. And the sons of Noah that went forth of the ark, were Shem, and Ham, and Japheth: and Ham is the father of Canaan. 19. These are the three sons of Noah: and (y) of them was the whole earth overspread.

great atonement by the blood of the Messiah.

(q) v. 5. " Your blood of your lives, &c." They were not to suppose, from the licence to kill animals, that the life of man was to be less sacred than before, and this injunction is introduced to put them most particularly upon their guard against this high offence.

(r) "Require." Psalm ix. 12. speaks of God as " making inquisition for blood," as if it were particularly his care to bring murder to light.

Is) v. 6. "For in the image, &c." A striking reason, to point out the enormity of the offence, and the presumption in committing it.

(0 D. 11. "Neither, &c." or, " that all "flesh shall never more be cut off, &c." Wils. 16.

(u) v. 13. "My bow," called, Ps.lxxxix. 36. " the faithful witness in heaven." See II. X. 28.

(x) 16. " That I may remember, &c." or "for a memorial of. Wils. 17."

(y) v. 19. "Of them,&c." All thehistoCHAP. XII.

Now the Lord (z) had said unto Abram, "Get thee out of thy country, "and from thy kindred, and from thy "father's house, unto a land that I will "shew thee. 2. And I will make of "thee (a) a great nation, and I will bless "thee, and make thy name great; and "thou shalt be a blessing. 3. And I will "bless them that bless thee, and curse "him that curseth thee: and (b) in "thee shall all families of the earth be "blessed." 4. (c) So Abram departed, as the Lord had spoken unto him; and Lot went with him: And Abram was seventy and five years old when he departed out of Haran. 5. And Abram

ries of ancient nations are consistent with this account. Noah is the Saturn of many nations, Pole; 3 Hales, 15; the Xisuthrus of the Chaldeans, 1 Shuckf. 101. 1 Newt. 148,149;theFohi of the Chinese, 1 Shuckf. 102; and the Bacchus of the Indians, 2 Shuckf. 50.

(x) v. 1. " Had said," or " said." There is nothing in the original to insinuate that the narrative refers to an antecedent command. Terah, Abraham's father, had before this taken Abraham and Sarah and Lot from Ur of the Chaldees, in Mesopotamia, in order to go into the land of Canaan; but when they reached Haran, which was also in Mesopotamia, 300 miles from the land of Canaan, they stopped and dwelt there. See Gen. xi. SI. Abulfaragi says, they sojourned there 14 years. 2 Hales, 123. This, therefore, was a command to Abraham to advance from Haran. In Acts vii. 2, 3. St. Stephen says, "the God "of glory appeared unto our father Abra'< ham, when he was in Mesopotamia, be"fore he dwelt in Charran (i. e. Haran), « and said unto him, " Get thee out of thy ** country, and from thy kindred, and come "into the land which I shall shew thee. "Then came he out of the land of the "Chaldeans, and dwelt in Charran: and "from thence when his lather was dead, "he removed him into this land, wherein "ye now dwell." There might therefore have been two commands, one whilst they were at Ur, in Terah's life-time, the other whilst they were at Haran, after Terah's death. See Poole. 2 Hales, 123 to 125.

(a) v. 2. "A great nation." Besides the descendant.-, of Ishmael, Abraham's first

took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother's son, and all their substance thai they had gathered, and the souls that they had gotten in Haran; and tinwent forth to go into the land of Canaan, and into the land of Canaan they came. 6. And Abram passed through the land unto the place of Sicheni, unto the plain of MorelI. And the Canaauite Trasthen in the land. 7. And the Lord appeared unto Abram, and said, " Unto thy seed "will I give this land:" and there builded he an altar unto the Lord, who appeared unto him. 8. And he removed from thence unto a mountain on the east of Beth-el, and pitched his tent, having Beth-el on the west, and Hai Oh the east: and there he builded an altar

son, (amongst whom are the Saracens and Arabs of the present day) and besides the descendants of Esau, (one of Abraham's grandsons,) the descendants of his other grandson (Jacob) had so multiplied in less than 500 years, that the males of eleven of the tribes, from twenty years old and upwards, that were able to go to war, (excluding therefore old men, women, and children), were 603,550; the males of the other tribe, from two years old and upwards, were 22,000. See Numb. i. 46. Numb. iii. 39. See also post, Exod.xii.S7. — And the Jews, a part of his descendant. have formed a distinct people to the present time.

(b) v. 3. " In thee, &c" One of the promises to Abraham! Others occur, Geo. xviii. 18. "All the nations of the earth "shall be blessed in him;" and Gen. uui. 18. " In thy (viz. Abraham's ) seed shall al; "the nations of the earth be blessed." 1> was by bis seed (viz. Christ) that the serpent's head was bruised, that a way »a> opened for avoiding that curse which Adam's sin had introduced, and that everlasting life was made attainable by all the nations of the earth.

(c) v. 4. " So Abraham departed." Abraham had 300 miles to go to Canaan; he had no knowledge of the country, and had to pass the dangerous and barren desart* of Palmeryna. Patr. His obedience is accordingly applauded, Heb. xi. 8. "ify.M^ '• Abraham, when he was called to g» out "into a place which be should after re"ceive for an inheritance, obeyed: and hf 't-went out, not knowing whither he wentSee 1 Chrys. 256.

unto the Lord, and called upon the name of the Lord. 9. And Abram journeyed, going on still towards the south. 10. And there was a famine in the land: and Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there; for the famine was grievous in the land. 11. And it came to pass when he was come near to enter into Egypt, that he said unto Sarai his wife, "Behold, now I know that "thou art a fair woman to look upon. "12. Therefore it shall come to pass, "when the Egyptians shall see thee "that they shall say, This is his "wife: and they will kill me, but they "will save thee alive. 18. Say, I pray "thee, thou art my sister: that it may "be well with me for thy sake; and (d) "my soul shall live because of thee." 14. And it came to pass, that when Abram was come into Egypt, the Egyptians beheld the woman that she was very fair. IS. The princes also of Pharaoh saw her, and commended her before Pharaoh: and the woman was taken into Pharaoh's house. 16. And he entreated Abram well for her sake: and he had sheep, and oxen, and heasses, and men-servants, and maid-servants, and she-asses, and camels. 17. And the Lord plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues, because of Sarai Abram's wife. 18. And Pharaoh called Abram, and said, "What is this that "thou hast done unto me? Why didst "thou not tell me that she was thy wife? "19. Why saidst thou, She is my sister? "so I might have taken her to me to "wife: now, therefore behold thy wife, "take her, and go thy way." 20. And Pharaoh commanded his men concerning him: and they sent him away, and his wife, and all that he had.

CHAP. xvm. And (e) the Lord appeared unto (g) him in the plains of Mamre: and he (g) sat in the tent-door, in the heat of the

(d) v. 13. " My soul shall live," i.e. " I "shall save my life."

(e) v. 1. " The Lord." Heb. "Jehovah." (g) "Him" and " he" i. e. " Abraham." (A) v. 2. " Three men" i. e. (as Dr. Hales

apprehends) the Lord and two attendant

day. 2. And he lift up his eyes, and looked, and lo, three (h) men stood by him: and when he saw them, he ran to meet them from the tent-door, and bowed himself toward the ground, 3. and said, "My Lord, if now I have found "favour in thy sight, pass not away, I "pray thee, from thy servant. 4. Let a "little water, I pray you, be fetched, "and wash your feet, and rest your"selves under the tree. 5. And I will "fetch a morsel of bread, and comfort "ye your hearts; after that you shall "pass on: for therefore are ye come "to your servant." And they said, " So "do, as thou hast said." 6. And Abraham hastened into the tent unto Sarah, and said, "Make ready quickly three "measures of fine meal, knead it, and "make cakes upon the hearth." 7. And Abraham ran unto the herd, and fetcht a calf tender and good, and gave it unto a young man; and he hasted to dress it. 8. And he took butter, and milk, and the calf which he had dressed, and set it before them; and he stood by them under the tree, and they did eat. 9. And they said unto him, "Where is Sarah "thy wife?" And he said, "Behold, "in the tent." 10. And he said, "I "will certainly return unto thee accord"ing to the time of life; and lo, Sarah "thy wife shall have a son." And Sarah heard it in the tent-door, which was behind him. 11. Now Abraham ami Sarah were (i) old, and well stricken in age: and it ceased to be with Sarah after the manner of women. 12. Therefore Sarah laughed within herself, saying, "After I am waxen old, shall I have "pleasure, my lord being old also?" 13. And (k) the Lord said unto Abraham, "Wherefore did Sarah laugh,say** ing, Shall I of a surety bear a child, "which am old? 14. Is any thing too "hard for the Lord? At the time ap"pointed will I return unto thee, ac

angels. 2 Hales, 131. and so Justin M. Dial, cum Tryphone, 275.

(*) v. 11. "Old." See Is. li. 1. note. Rom. iv. 18 to 22. and Heb. xi. 11, 12.

(k) v. IS. 17.20. 26. 33. "The Lord." Heb. " Jehovah." Gr. "Iwjv

"cording to the time of life, and Sarah "shall have a son." 15. Then Sarah denied, saying, "I laughed not:" for she was afraid. And he said, "Nay, "but thou didst laugh." 16. And the men rose up from thence, and looked towards Sodom t And Abraham went with diem to bring them on the way. 17. And the Lord said, " Shall I hide "from Abraham that thing which I do; "18. seeing that Abraham shall surely "become a great and mighty nation, and "(I) all the nations of the earth shall "be blessed in him? 19. For 1 know •' him, that he will command his chil"dren, and his houshold after him, and "they shall keep the way of the Lord, "to do justice and judgment; that "the Lord may bring upon Abra"ham that which he hath spoken of "him." 20. And the Lord said, "Be"cause the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah "is great, and because their sin is very "grievous; 21.1 will go down now, and "see whether they have done altogether "according to the cry of it, which is "come unto me; and if not, I will "know." 22. And the men turned their faces from thence, and went towards Sodom : but Abraham stood yet before the Lord. 23. And Abraham drew near, and said, "Wilt thou also de"stroy the righteous with the wicked? * 24. Peradventure there be fifty right"eous within the city: wilt thou also "destroy, and not spare the place for ** the fifty righteous that are therein?

"25. That be far from thee to do after "this manner, to slay the righteous with "the wicked: and that the righteous "should be as the wicked, that be far "from thee: shall not the judge of all "the earth do right 7" 26. And the Lord said, "If I find in Sodom fifty "righteous within the city, then I will "spare all the place for their sakes." 27. And Abraham answered, and said, "Behold now, (m) I have taken upon me "to speak unto the (») Lord, which am "but dust and ashes. 28. Peradventure "there shall lack five of the fifty right"eous: wilt thou destroy all the city for "lack of five?" And he said, "'if I "find there forty and five, I will not "destroy it." 29. And he spake unto him yet again, and said, "Peradventure "there shall be forty found there." And he said, "I will not do it for forty's "sake." 30. And he said unto him, "0, "let not the («) Lord be angry, and I "will speak: Peradventure diere shall "thirty be found there." And he said, "I will not do it, if I find thirty there."

31. And he said, "Behold now, I haw "taken upon me to speak unto the (») "Lord: Peradventure there shall be "twenty found there." And he said, "1 "will not destroy it for twenty's sake."

32. And he said, "O, let not the («) M Lord be angry, and I will speak yet "but this once: Peradventure ten shall "be found there." And he said, "1 "will not destroy it (o) for ten's sake." S3. And the Lord (p) went his way as

(I) v. 18. " All the nations, &c." because from him the Messiah, the great Redeemer, should descend. See ante, note on Gen. «ii. 3.

(m) v. 27. "I, &c." or ««I, which am but "dust and ashes, have taken upon me to "speak unto the Lord."

(n) v. 27. 30, 31, 32. "The Lord." Heb. "Adonai."

(o) v. 32. "For ten's sake." So that there may be cases in which the fate of a country may depend upon the goodness of one person. The aggregate of goodness or wickedness in any place is made up of the goodness or wickedness of individuals, and the addition of one to the number of the good may avert God's vengeance. "The

"fervent prayer of a righteous man availed "much. Jam. v. 16." And though Gal has spoken, "concerning a nation, and "concerning a kingdom, to pluck up, and "to pull down, and to destroy it, if that * "tion against whom he has pronounced. "turn from their evil, God will repent oi "the evil that he thought to do unto them. "Jer. xviii. 7, 8." Goodness, therefore, may be the truest patriotism.

(») v. 33. " The Lord." "And who** "this, (says Eusebius,) that appeared in "the likeness of man (see t>. 2.), but he "who subsisted before all things, »ne "Word of God, Euseb. Eccl. H»t b. i. '« c. 2. p. 4- and c. 4. p. 12."

soon as he had left communing with Abraham: and Abraham returned unto his place.

CHAP. XIX.—to verse 30.

And there came two (q) angels to Sodom at even; and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom; and Lot seeing them, rose up to meet them; and he bowed himself with his face upon the ground; 2. And he said, "Behold now my (r) lords, turn in, "I pray you, into your servant's house, "and tarry all night, and wash your "feet, and ye shall rise up early, and "go on your ways." And they said, "Nay, but we will abide in the street "all night." 3. And he pressed upon them greatly; and they turned in unto him, and entered into his house: and he made them a feast, and did bake unleavened bread, and they did eat. 4. But before they lay down, the men of the city, even the men of Sodom, compassed the house round, both old and young, all the people from every quarter. 5. And they called unto Lot, and said unto him, "Where are the men which came in to "thee this night? bring them out unto "us, that we may know them." 6. And Lot went out at die door unto them, and shut the door after him. 7. And said, '' I pray you, brethren, do not so wick"edly. 8. Behold now, I have two "daughters, which have not known "man; let me, I pray you, bring them "out unto you, and do ye to them as is "good in your eyes: only unto these 'men do nothing; for therefore came :i they under the shadow of my roof." 5. And they said, " Stand back." And hey said again, " This one fellow came 'in to sojourn, and he will needs be a 'judge." Now will we deal worse with hee than with them. And they pressed ore upon the man, even Lot, and came lear to break the door. 10. But the men

(q) v. 1. " Two angels," i. e. " the two who had been with Abraham in the preceding chapter." JustinM. considers that ley proceeded on their way, whilst the lird person called "the Lord,'! (one of te persons of the Trinity,) was conimun

put forth their hand, and pulled Lot into the house to them, and shut to the door. 11. And they smote the men that were at the door of the house, with blindness, both small and great: so that they wearied themselves to find the door. 12. And the men said unto Lot, "Hast "thou here any besides? son in law, and "thy sons, and thy daughters, and what"soever thou hast in die city, bring "them out of this place. 13. For we "will destroy this place: because the "cry of them is waxen great before the "face of the Lord, and the Lord hath "sent us to destroy it." 14. And Lot went out, and spake unto his sons in law, which married his daughters, and said, " Up, get ye out of this place; for "the (s) Lord will destroy this city:" but he seemed as one that mocked unto his sons in law. 15. And when the morning arose, then the angels hastened Lot, saying, " Arise, take thy wife, and "thy two daughters, which are here; "lest thou be consumed in the iniquity "of the city." 16. And while he lingered, the men laid hold upon his hand, and upon the hand of his wife, and upon the hand of his two daughters; the (s) Lord being merciful unto him: and they brought him forth, and set him without the city. 17. And it came to pass, when they had brought them forth abroad, that he said, " Escape for "thy life; look not behind thee; nei"ther stay thou in all the plain; escape "to the mountain, lest thou be con"sumed." 18. And Lot said unto them, "O not so, my (t) lord. 19. Behold "now, thy servant hath found grace in "thy sight, and thou hast magnified "thy mercy, which thou hast shewed "unto me in saving my life; and I "cannot escape to the mountain, lest "some evil take me, and I die. 20. Be"hold now this city is near to flee unto, "and it is a little one: O let me escape

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