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our of Philip on a charge indicated his

favour of Philip II. Under the duke of Albuquerque he was imprisoned on a charge of conspiracy against the life of John Baptist Monti, but vindicated his own cause, and was not only released, but admitted to public employment under the succeeding governors of Milan. · He died Feb. 12, 1587, leaving behind him several works, that obtained for him high reputation; of these the principal are, 6 The Life of Ferdinand Gonzaga," 1579, 4to.66 Three Conspiracies," &c. 1588, 8vo. “ Rime,” or a collection of poems, several times reprinted. “ Discourses.” “ Letters,” &c.; and he translated into Italian a French work entitled “ A true account of things that have happened in the Netherlands, since the arrival of Don Juan of Austria."

GOSSON (STEPHEN), a divine and poet, was born in Kent in 1554, and was admitted scholar of Christ-church, Oxford, in April 1572, but left the university without completing his degrees, and came to London, where he commenced poet, and wrote some dramatic pieces which were never published. He then retired into the country, as tutor to a gentleman's sons, and became by some means a bitter enemy to the drama and all its concerns. This occasioned some dispute with the father of his pupils, whose service be therefore quitted, and took orders. His first promotion was to the living of Great Wigborow, in Essex; and his next in 1600, the rectory of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate-street, where he died Feb. 13, 1623. He was a contemporary of Speyser and sir Philip Sidney, whom he imitated, and was thought to have excelled in pastoral poetry. His unpublished plays were, l. " Cataline's Conspiracies.”. 2. « The Comedy of Captain Mario;" and the “ Praise at parting.” In opposition to theatrical amusements be wrote, « Play confuted in five several actions," 1580, and “ The School of Abuse,” 1587; the latter a professed invective against poets, players, and, jesters, but with much good sense and good temper. He wrote also the “ Ephemerides of Phialo," 1579, and a sermon entitled “ The Trumpet of War."2

GOTHOFRED. See GODEFROI.

GOTTESCHALCUS, surnamed FULGENTIUS, and ce·lebrated for propagating and exciting a controversy on the doctrines of predestination and free grace, was born

I Gen. Dict.Moreri.Tiraboschi.
: Alb. Ox. vol. I.-Gent. Mag. vol. LXV.-Biog. Dramatica,

with Nodestination, make the combishop undertonned Gottes

with Notingus, or who prevailed on Kalf what was called

in Germany, in the beginning, probably, of the ninth cen. , tury. From early life he had been a monk, and had devoted himself to theological inquiries. He was peculiarly fond of the writings of St. Augustine, and entered with much zeal into his sentiments. About the year 846, he left his monastery at Fulda, and went into Dalmatia and Pannonia, where he spread the doctrines of St. Augustine, under a pretence, as his enemies said, of preaching the gospel to the infidels. At his return, he remained some time in Lombardy, and in the year 847 held a conference with Notingus, or Nothingus, bishop of Vienne, concerning predestination, who prevailed on Rabanus, archbishop of Mentz, to undertake the confutation of what was called a new heresy. This the archbishop undertook, and was supported by a synod at Mentz, which condemned Gotteschalcus. He was farther prosecuted by Hincmar, archbishop of Rheims, was degraded from the priesthood, and ordered to be beaten with rods, and imprisoned. But as nothing was proved against him, except bis adherence to the sentiments of Augustine, which were still held in estimation in the church, this shews, in the opinion of Dupin, that he was an injured man. He was, however, so severely whipped in the presence of the emperor Charles and the bishops, that his resolution failed him, and he complied with their commands so far as to throw into the fire a writing in which he had made a collection of scripture texts in order to prove his opinion. After this he was kept a close prisoner by Hincmar in a monastery, where he continued to maintain his opinions until his death in the same prison in the year 870. Hincmar, hearing that he lay at the point of death, sent him a formulary, wbich he was to subscribe, in order to his being received into the communion of the church; Gotteschalcus, however, rejected the offer with indignation, and therefore, by orders of Hincmar, was denied Christian burial. But even in that age there were men who loudly remonstrated against the barbarity with which he had been treated. Remigius, archbishop of Lyons, distinguished himself among these; and, in a council held at Valence, in Daupbiny, in the year 855, both Gotteschalcus and his doctrine were vindicated and defended, and two subsequent councils confirmed the decrees of this council. The churches also of Lyons, Vienne, and Arles, vigorously supported the sentiments of Gotteschalcus, whom nothing bùt the secular influence of

VOL. XVI.

so far failed himor Charter

Hincmar could have detained in prison, while his cause · was thus victorious. The only writings of this confessor that have reached the present times are, two." Confessions of Faith,” inserted in archbishop Usher's “ Historia Gotteschalci," printed at Dublin in 1641; an epistle to Ratramnus, published in Cellot's “ Historia Gotteschalci," at Paris, in 1655, and some fragments of other pieces, noticed by Cave. In 1650, the celebrated Maguin published, at Paris, a collection of the treatises produced on both sides of this controversy, entitled “Veterum Auctorum qui nono sæculo de Prædestinatione et Gratia scripserunt, &c.” 2 vols. 4to. ? • GOTTI (VINCENT LEWIS), a learned cardinal, was born at Bologna Sept. 5, 1664. He was the son of James Gotti, a doctor of laws, and professor in the university of Bologna. In 1680 he became of the Dominican order, and having completed his course of philosophy at Bologna, was sent to study theology for four years at Salamanca in Spain. Up on his return in 1688, he was appointed professor of philosophy in the university of Bologna, and was also made prior and provincial of his order, and inquisitor of Milan. In 1728, pope Benedict XIII. created him a cardinal, and three years afterwards appointed him member of the congregation for examining bishops; and such was his reputation, that in the last conclave, held during his time, a considerable number of the cardinals were for his being raised to the papal throne. Soon after this he died at Rome in 1742. His works are much valued by the catholics in Italy, and display considerable erudition. Of these the principal are, 1. “De vera Christi Ecclesia,” Rome, 1719,

3 vols. and reprinted with additions at Milan in 1734. 2. .« Theologia Scholastico-dogmatica, justa mentem divi

Thomæ Aquinatis, &c.” 6 vols. 4to. 3.“ Colloquia Theologica-polemica, in tres classes distributa, &c.” Bologna, 4to. 4. “ De Eligenda inter Dissidentes Christianos Sententia," written in answer to a piece with the same title, by Le Clerc; and an elaborate work in defence of the truth of the Christian religion against atheists, idolaters, Mahometans, Jews, &c. 1735-1740, in 12 vols. He was employed at the time of his death in writing “A Commentary on the Book of Genesis.” A long life of him, “ De vita et studiis, &c.” 4to, was published at Rome in 1742. 1 Cave Dupin.-Moreri.-Milner's Church Hist, vol. III. p. 242. Moreri. ; GOTTSCHED (JOHN CHRISTOPHER), a German poet, rather, however, in theory than practice, was born at Konigsberg in 1700, and attained the office of professor of philosophy, logic, and metaphysics at Leipsic, where he . died in 1766. His works, both original and republished, contributed in a considerable degree to diffuse a taste for

elegant literature in Germany, as well as to refine the · German language. Among these we find, 1.“ An Introduction to Dramatic Poetry, or a Review of all the trage

dies, comedies, and opera's, which have appeared in Ger... many from 1450 to the middle of the eighteenth century,"

Leipsic, 1757. 2. “ The German Poets, published by John Joachim, a Suabian," ibid. 1736. He also compiled various books of instruction in style and elocution adapted

to the then state of the German schools; and might have * deserved the praise of an acute critic, had he not unfortunately illustrated his principles by his own poetical effusions, in which there is only a mediocrity of taste and ge. nius. He died in December 1766.-His wife, Louisa Maria, had also very considerable literary talents, and had studied philosophy, mathematics, the belles lettres, and music, with success. She published a metrical translation of Pope's “Rape of the Lock;' and since her death, in : 1762, a collection of her letters has been published, which is held in high esteem. Frederick the Great of Prussia, who preferred Gellert to Gottsched, speaks with greater respect of this lady than of her husband, but seems to think that both discovered more pedantry than taste. - GOUDELIN (PETER), a Gascon poet, was born at Tou. louse in 1579, where his father was a surgeon. He was

educated for the law, but the muses charmed him from " that profession, and he devoted himself to their service. · His verses and the wit of his conversation procured him

easy access to the tables of the great, but he profited so * little by their patronage, that he would have been left to

starve in bis old age, had not his fellow citizens bestowed · a pension on him from the public funds, which he enjoyed

until his death, Sèpt. 10, 1619. Such was his reputation that they also placed his bust in the gallery of the townhall, among those of other illustrious men whom Toulouse had produced; and his works were long cited with delight and admiration. They were published in a single volume,

3 Dict. Hist.

and often printed at Toulouse; and at Amsterdam in 1700. His poem on the death of Henry IV. is one of his best, and one of the few that has borne a translation from the Gas. con language.

GOUDIMEL (CLAUDE), one of the early and most ce- , lebrated composers of music to the metrical French translations of the psalms for the use of the protestants, was a native of Franche-Comté, who lost his life at Lyons, on the day of the massacre of Paris in 1572, for having set to music the psalms of Clement Marot. Goudimel has been much celebrated by the protestants in France for this music, wbich was never used in the church of Geneva, and by the catholics in Italy for instructing Palestrina in the art of composition, though it is doubtful whether this great harmonist and Goudimel had ever the least acquaintance or intercourse together. He set the “ Chansons Spirituelles"); of the celebrated Marc-Ant. De Muret, in four parts, which were printed at Paris, 1555. We may suppose Goudimel, at this time, to have been a catholic, as the learned Muret is never ranked among heretics by French biographers. Ten years after, when he set the psalms of Clement Marot, this version was still regarded with less horror by the catholics than in later times ; for the music which Goudimel had set to it was printed at Paris by Adrian Le Roy, and Robert Ballard, with a privilege, 1565. It was reprinted in Holland, in 1607, for the use of the protestants. His works are become so scarce, that his name and reputation are preserved by protestant historians, more in pity of his misfortunes, than by any knowledge of their excellence. The earliest mention of Goudimel, as a composer, is in a work entitled “ Liber quartus Ecclesiasticarum Cantionum quatuor vocum vulgo Motetæ vocant," printed at Antwerp, by Susato, 1554, eighteen years before his death. These motets resemble in gravity of style, simplicity in the subjects of fugue, and purity of harmony, the ecclesiastical compositions of our venerable countryman Bird. Some of his letters are printed among the poems of his intimate friend Melissus, published under the title of 66 Melissi Schediasmatum Reliquiæ," 1575, 8vo.?

GOUGE (WILLIAM), a very celebrated puritan divine, was born at Bow near Stratford, Middlesex, Nov. 1, 1575,

1 Moreri.-Dict. Hist. ? Gen. Dict. Dr. Burney, in Rees's Cyclopædia. --Hawkins's Hist. of Music.

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