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but, having failed in the first cause he pleaded, he felt the disappointment so acutely as to relinquish the profession, and retire into a convent. He chose the order of the Feuillans, and entered amongst them in 1604. He was so much esteemed in his order that he always enjoyed some office in it, and was at last made general. The name he took when he became a monk, was Dom John of St. Francis. As he understood the Greek tongue, he translated into French Epictetus's Manual, Arrian's Dissertations, some of St. Basil's treatises, and the works of Dionysius Areopagita; to which he added a vindication of this St. Dionysius's works. He also revised his father's Latin translation of St. Gregory Nyssen against Eunomius, and published it. He also wrote a book against Du Moulin's treatise of the calling of pastors, “ De la Vocation des Pasteurs ;” the Life of Francis de Sales, bishop of Geneva; and a Funeral Oration on Nicholas le Fevre, preceptor to Lewis XIII. ; but it is said that he never delivered it. He did not, however, gain so great reputation by all those writings as by his angry controversy with Balzac, already noticed in our account of that writer. Goulu died Jan. 5, 1629.1

GOURNAY (MARY DE JARS, lady of), a French female wit, the daughter of William de Jars, lord of Neufoi and Gournay, was born either in Paris, or in Gascony, about 1565. From her infancy she had a strong turn to literature; and Montagne publishing his first essays about this time, she conceived an enthusiastic veneration for the author. These declarations soon reached the ears of Montagne, who returned her compliments by corresponding regard for her talents. Her esteem by degrees growing into a kind of filial affection for Montagne, when her father died she adopted him in his stead, even before she had seen him; and, when he was at Paris in 1538, she paid bim a visit, and prevailed upon him to accompany her and her mother the lady Gournay, to their country mansion, where he passed two or three months. In short, our young devotee to the muses was so wedded to books of polite literature in general, and Montagne's Essays in para ticular, that she resolved never to have any other associate to her happiness. Nor was Montagne sparing to pay the just tribute of his gratitude, and foretold, in the second

i Gen. Dict.-Moreri.

book of his Essays, that she would be capable of great eminence in the republic of letters. Their affectionate regard extended through the family; Montagne's daughter, the viscountess de Jamaches, always claimed mademoiselle de Jars as a sister; and the latter dedicated her piece, “ Le Bouquet de Pinde,” to this sister. Thus she passed many years, happy in her new alliance, until she received the melancholy news of Montagne's death, when she crossed almost the whole kingdom of France to mingle her tears and lamentations, which were excessive, with those of his widow and daughter. Nor did her filial regard stop here. She revised, corrected, and reprinted an edition of his “ Essays” in 1634 ; to which she prefixed a preface, full of the strongest expressions of devotion for his memory.

She wrote seyeral things in prose and verse, which were collected into one volume, and published by herself in 1636, with this title, « Les avis et les presens de la Demoiselle de Gournai.” She died at Paris in 1645, and epitaphs were composed for her by Menage, Valois, Patin, La Mothe Vayer, and others. It is not, however, very easy to appreciate her real character from these. Living at a time when literature was not much cultivated by the females in France, it is probable that she earned her reputation at no great expence of talents, and it is certain that her writings are little calculated to perpetuate her fame. It appears equally certain that she was as frequently the subject of ridicule among the wits, as of admiration among the courtiers. Those, however, who think her character an object of curiosity, may find ample information in our authorities.'

GOURVILLE (John HERAULD DE), a French politician, was born at Rochefoucauld in 1625, and was taken by the celebrated duke of that name into his service as valet de chambre, from which situation he rose to be his confidential friend. He was also equally honoured by the great Condè, and was employed by the superintendant Fouquet, in public business, and was involved in his disgrace. But such was the value put upon his political talents and integrity, that he was at one time proposed to the king as successor to Colbert in the ministry. He died in 1705, leaving “ Memoirs of his Life from 1642 to 1698," 2 vols. 12mo, written with frankness and simplicity, and containing very

1 Gen. Dict.--Moreri in art. Jars de Gournai.--Niceron, vol. XVI.

Jively characters of the ministers and principal persons of his time, of which, it is said, Voltaire made much use in bis “ Siecle de Louis XIV.”

It was on Gourville that Boileau was said to have written an epitaph, in which he described him as speaking well, though he knew little; as being a gentleman in manners, although of low birth; and as caressing all the world, although he loved nobody. He proved himself, however, the most sincere of all Fouquet's friends; not only lending madame de Fouquet upwards of 100,000 livres for her support, but settling the same sum on her son.?

GOUSSET (JAMES), an eminent protestant divine, was born Oct. 7, 1635, of a good family at Blois, and was cousin-german to the celebrated Isaac Papin. He was appointed minister at Poitiers in 1662, and remained there till the revocation of the edict of Nantes in 1685. He then went to England, and afterwards to Holland, where he was chosen minister of the Walloon church at Dort. Five years after he was appointed professor of Greek and divinity at Groningen, where he died Nov. 4, 170't, leaving a great number of works, both printed and in MS. : the principal are, a Hebrew dictionary, or “ Commentarii Linguæ Hebraicæ;" a valuable work, the best edition of which is that of Leipsic, 1743, 4to; a refutation, in Latin, of rabbi Isaac's “ Chizzouck Emounak," or Shield of Faith, Dort, 1688, 8vo, and Amsterdam, 1712, fol. This refutation has been much praised by several among the learned; but others doubt whether it merits such high encomiums: the book against which it was written may be found in Wagensal's “ Tela ignea Satanæ.” He also published “ Considerations théologiques et critiques contre le Projet d'une nouvelle Version de la Bible,” 1698, 12mo. This last was written against Charles le Cene's project of a translation of the Bible, which should favour the Arminian doctrines.

GOUSSIER (JOHN JAMES), a learned French physician, professor of mathematics, and a member of several learned societies, was born at Paris March 7, 1722. His first public services in the literary world were the arrangement and preparation for the press of M. la Condamine's memoir on the measure of the first three degrees of the meridian in the Southern hemisphere. In the Encyclopædia he was

1 Moreri.-- Dict. Hist. 2 Niceron, vol. II. and X.-Moreri,

Hebrworks, he

ad a still empo connes

chosen for the department of the mechanic arts, and his numerous articles are remarkable for accuracy and perspicuity. He had a great turn for mechanics, and invented several machines still employed in agriculture and chemistry, &c. in France. In connexion with the unfortunate baron de Marivetz, he published a learned and elaborate work entitled “ Physique du monde,” five volumes of which he published during the life of his colleague, and afterwards three others. The whole was to have been comprized in 14 vols. 4to, but of these eight only have appeared. In 1779 he published “Prospectus d'un traité de geometrie physique particuliere du royaume de France,” 4to. He died at Paris in 1890.'

GOUTHIER, or GUTHIERES (JAMES), in Latin GuTHERIUS, a learned and judicious antiquary, and lawyer, was born at Chaumont in Bassigny, and was admitted advocate to the parliament of Paris. After having attended the bar with honour for forty years, he retired into the country, and devoted himself wholly to study. He died in 1638. His principal works are, 1.“ De vetere Jure Pontificio urbis Romæ," 1612, 4to, which gave so much satisfaction at Rome, that the senate conferred the rank of Ronian citizen on him and his posterity. 2. “ De Officiis domûs Augustæ, publicæ et privatæ," 1628, 4to, and Leipsic, 1672, 8vo, &c. 3. “ De jure Manium,” Leipsic, 1671, 8vo. He wrote also two small tracts, one “ De Orbitate toleranda ;” the other, “ Laus cæcitátis," &c. These works are all esteemed, and some Latin verses which he wrote have been admired for their elegance. · GOUVEST DE MAUBERT. See MAUBERT.

GOUX (FRANCIS LE) DE LA BOULAYE, a celebrated traveller in the 17th century, was the son of a gentleman af Baugé, in Anjou, where he was born about 1619. How, or for what profession he was educated, does not appear, but he seems to have been of a rambling disposition, and spent ten years in visiting most parts of the world. He published an account of his travels, 1653, 4to, which contain some particulars that are not uninteresting. When he returned from his first voyage, he was so altered, that his mother would not own him, and he was obliged to com. mence a suit against her to recover his right of eldership. Being sent ambassador to the Turks, and the great mogul, in 1668, he died in Persia during his journey. ? Dict. Hist. Moreri.---Dict. Hist. Moreri.—Dict. Hist.

Toatiques pour servicio “ Observation enty-five. His

GOUYE (THOMAS), a French mathematician, was born Sept. 18, 1650, at Dieppe, and entered among the Jesuits in 1667. He early acquired reputation for his skill in mathematics, and was admitted into the academy of sciences in 1699. He assisted constantly at the meetings of that academy, whose members entertained a high opinion of his genius. He died at Paris, in the professed house of the Jesuits, March 24, 1725, aged seventy-five. His principal work is entitled, “ Observations Physiques et Mathematiques pour servir à la perfection de l'Astronomie, et de la geographie, envoyées de Siam, à l'academie des sciences de Paris, par les P. P. Jesuites missionaires ;" with notes and remarks, in 2 vols. the first, 8vo, the second, 4to. These remarks may also be found in tom. 7. of the “ Memoires” of the above academy."

GOVEA (ANDREW), in Latin GOVEANUS, a learned Portuguese, of the fourteenth century, was born at Beja, and appointed principal of the college of St. Barbe at Paris, where he educated three nephews, who became celebrated for their learning. MARTIAL Govea, the eldest, was a good Latin poet, and published a “ Latin Grammar" at Paris. ANDREW, his next brother, a priest, born in 1498, succeeded his uncle as principal of St. Barbe, and gained so great a reputation there, that he was invited to acoept the same office in the college of Guienne, at Bourdeaux. This invitation be accepted in 1534, and continued at Bourdeaux till 1547, when John III. king of Portugal, recalled him to his dominions, to establish a college at Coimbra, similar to that of Guienne; and Govea took with him into Portugal the celebrated Buchanan, Grouchi, Guerenti, Fabricius, la Costa, and other men of learning, well qualified to instruct youth. He died June 1548, at Coimbra, leaving no printed work. ANTHONY Govea, the youngest of these three brothers, and the most eminent of all, wrote several pieces on philosophy and law, and is mentioned with great encomiums by Thuanus, Ronsard, and all the learned. He taught with reputation at Bourdeaux, after- wards at Cahors, and Valence in Dauphiny, and died in 1565, aged sixty, at Turin, to which place Philibert had invited him. His principal works are, an “ Apologetical Discourse" against Calvin, who had accused' him of atheism in his treatise on scandal; some works on law, fol.; “ Va

1 Moreri.--Dict. Hist.

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