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others by his death, which happened Nov. 12, 1712, in the vigour of his age. He was interred in Westminsterabbey, where a marble monument, with his effigy at full length, in a sitting posture, and a suitable inscription underneath, was erected at the expence of the lord-treasurer Harley. He was attended in his last illness by Dr. Smalridge, who gave ample testimony of his sincere piety, and fully refuted the aspersions cast on his moral character by Casimir Oudin. He desired upon his death-bed that his dying in the faith and communion of the church of England might be made public. He thought it a sound and pure part of the catholic church, notwithstanding some defects which he thought he perceived in the reformation. He expressed also his most hearty wishes for the union of all Christians, according to the primitive and perfect model. He was, however, a little scrupulous about communicating publicly in the English church, at least unless he could place an entire confidence in the priest that was to officiate, or except in case of necessity. Yet, with all these scruples, which is our days will not be clearly understood, he always professed more esteem for the church of England than for any other part of the catholic church. He had so great a zeal for promoting the ancient government and discipline of the church, among all those who had separated themselves from the corruption and superstitions of the church of Rome, that he formed a plan, and made eome advances in it, for restoring the episcopal order and office in the territories of the king of Prussia, his sovereign ; and he proposed, moreover, to introduce a liturgy much after the model of the English service, into that king's dominions. He recommended likewise the use of the Euglish liturgy itself, by ineans of some of his friends, to a certain neighbouring court. By these methods, his intention was to unite the two main bodies of Protestants in a more perfect and apostolical reformation than that upon which either of them then stood, and thereby fortify the common cause of their protestation against the errors of popery, against which he left several MSS, finished and unfinished, in Latin, of which the titles in English are to be found in Dr. Hickes's account of his MSS. Among these also were several letters, which he wrote with success to several persons, to prevent their apostacy to the church of Rome, when they were ready to be reconciled to it; and in his letters he challenged the priests to meet him in
conferences before the persons whom they had led astray; but they knowing, says Dr. Hickes, the Hercules with whom they must have conficted, wisely declined the challenge.
He left a great number of MSS. behind him, wbich he bequeathed to Dr. Hickes for his life, and after his decease to Dr. George Smalridge. The former of these divines carefully performed his request of making it known, that he had died in the faith and communion of the church of England, in an account of his life, prefixed to a tract of our author's, which he published with the following title : 6 Sonie Instances of the Defects and Omissions in Mr. Whiston's Collections of Testimonies, from the Scriptures and the Fathers, against the true Deity of the Holy Ghost, and of misapplying and misinterpreting divers of them, by Dr. Grabe. To which is premised, a discourse, wherein some account is given of the learned doctor, and his MSS. and of this short treatise found among bis English MSS. by George Hickes, D. D.” 1712, 8vo. There came out afterwards two more of our author's posthumous pieces: 1.“ Liturgia Græca Johannis Ernesti Grabii.” This liturgy, drawn up by our author for bis own private use, was published by Christopher Matthew Pfaff, at the end of " Ire. næi Fragmenta Anecdota,” printed at the Hague, 1715, 8vo. 2. “ De Forma Consecrationis Eucharistiæ, hoc est, Defensio Ecclesiæ Græcæ,” &c. i. e. “A Discourse concerning the Form of Consecration of the Eucharist, or a defence of the Greek church against that of Rome, in the article of consecrating the Eucharistical Elements; written in Latin, by John Ernest Grabe, and now first published with an English version.” To which is added, from the same author's MSS. some notes concerning the oblation of the body and blood of Christ, with the form and effect of the eucharistical consecration, and two fragments of a preface designed for a new edition of the first liturgy of Edward VI. with a preface of the editor, shewing what is the opinion of the church of England concerning the use of the fathers, and of its principal members, in regard to the mat. ter defended by Dr. Grabe in this treatise, 1721, 8vo.
Thirlby and Le Clerc are the only writers of reputation who have endeavoured to undervalue Grabe's abilities, which have received due tribute from his other learned contemporaries. It is, however, with regret we find by a letter lately published from the Harleian MSS. that the year before his death, he was sinking under the compli
tely Pulish Muse), a cel Bilbilis, in
cated load of penury and ill-health. We can only hope that the lord treasurer, Harley, to whom the letter was addressed, administered such relief as was in his power; and this is the more probable from his having honoured his remains by a monument in Westminster-abbey. It remains yet to be noticed that his “ Collatio codicis Cottonjani Geneseôs cum editione Romana,” which lay long unnoticed in the Bodleian library, had ample justice done to it in 1778, by the attention and accuracy of Dr. Henry Owen; and that the whole of the Alexandrian MS. has since been very accurately published in fac-simile by the late rev. Dr. Woide of the British Museum.'
GRACIAN (BALTASAR), a celebrated Spanish Jesuit, was born at Catalaiud, formerly Bilbilis. He taught the belles-lettres, philosophy, and theology, in his society, preached during some years, and was rector of the college at Tarragona, where he died December 6, 1658, leaving a considerable number of works in Spanish, published at Madrid in 1664, but which are not much suited to the present taste, 2 vols. 4to. The chief of those that have been translated into French are, “ Le Heros,” by P. de Courbeville, a Jesuit, Rotterdam, 1729, 12mo; « Reflexions politiques sur les plus grands princes, et particulierement sur Ferdinand le Catholique," by M. de Silhouette, Amo sterdam, 1731, 12mo, translated also by P. de Courbeville, under the title of “ Le Politique Dom. Ferdinand le Catholique,” Paris, 1732, 12mo, with notes. “ L'Homme Universel,” by P. de. Courbeville, 12mo. "L'Homme detrompé, ou le Criticon," by Maunoy, 3 vols. 12mo. “L'Homme de Cour," by Amelot de la Houssaye, with notes, 12mo. P. de Courbeville has likewise translated it, with the title of “ Maximes de Balthasar Gracian, avec des Reponses aux Critiques de L'Homme Universel,” Paris, 1730, 12mo. His “ Manual on the Art of Prudence," was published in English, in 1694, 8vo. S
GRÆME (JOHN), a young man of Scotland whose genius, and learning have been most injudiciously heightened, was born at Carnwarth, in Lanarkshire, in 1748. He was the youngest of the four sons of a poor farmer, and having discovered an uncommon proficiency in the learning taught at the school of the village, it was resolved to educate him
1 Biog, Brit..Gen. Dict. Nichols's Bowyer.Saxii Onomasta * Moreri ---- Dict. Hist,
for the church. At the age of fourteen he was placed at the school of Lanark, where his progress in grammatical learning is said to have been rapid, and, considering his early disadvantages, incredible. In 1766 he was removed to the university of Edinburgh, where, we are likewise told that in classical learning he surpassed the most industrious and accomplished students of his standing, and spoke and composed in Lạtin with a fluency and elegance that had few examples. And, of mathematics, natural philosophy, and metaphysics, his knowledge was considerable. To this was owing a certain proneness to disputation and metaphysical refinement, for which he was remarkable, and which he often indulged to a degree that subjected him to the imputation of imprudence, and of free-thinking. His turn for elegant composition first appeared in the solution of a philosophic question, proposed as a college-exercise, which he chose to exemplify in the form of a tale, conceived and executed with all the fire and invention of eastern imagination. This happened in 1769; and his first attempts in poetry are of no earlier date.
About this time he was presented to an exhibition (or bursary, as it is called) in the university of St. Andrew, which he accepted, but found reason soon after to decline, upon discovering that it subjected him to repeat a course of languages and philosophy, which the extent of his acquisitions, and the ardour of his ambition, taught him to hold in no great estimation. In 1770, therefore, he resumed his studies at Edinburgh, and, having finished the usual preparatory course, was admitted into the theologi. cal class : but the state of his health, which soon after be. gan to decline, did not allow him to deliver any of the ex. ercises usually prescribed to students in that society. In autumn 1771, his ill-bealth, that had been increasing almost unperceived, terminated in a deep consumption; the complicated distress of which, aggravated by the indigence of his situation, be bore with an heroic composure and magnanimity, and continued at intervals to compose, verses, and to correspond with his friends, until after a tedious struggle of ten months, he expired July 26, 1772, in the 24th year of his age. His poems, consisting of elegies and miscellaneous pieces, were collected, and printed at Edinburgh, 1773, 8vo. There are few of them entitled to superior praise, and certainly none that can justify the length to which the detail of his life and opinions has been
extended. Unfortunately also, these poems were reprinted in a late collection, and among them a specimen of his Latin poetry, called a Sapphic ode, and styled "a correct and manly performance for a boy of fifteen.” But so far from being correct, it is not even a decent attempt, and the lines are formed with such total ignorance of the Sapphic measure, that it has justly been said, “ a boy producing such at one of our public schools could only be considered as intending to insult the master.” It seems difficult, therefore, to form any judgment of the illiteracy of those “ most industrious and accomplished students of his standing," whom he surpassed in a classical learning."! :'
GRÆVIUS, or GREVIUS (JohŃ GEORGE), a celebrated Latin critic, was born January 29, 1632, at Naumbourg, in Saxony; and, having laid a good foundation of classical learning in his own country, was sent to finish his education at Leipsic, under the professors Rivinus and Straucbius. This last was his relation by the mother's side, and sat opponent in the professor's chair, when our author performed his exercise for his degree; on which occasion he maintained a thesis, “ De Moribus Germanorum.” As bis father designed to breed him to the law, he applied himself a while to that study, but not without devoting much of his time to polite literature, to which he was early attached, and which he afterwards made the sole object of his application. With this view he removed to Deventer in Holland, attended the lectures of John Francis Gronovius, whose frequent conversations and advice entirely fixed him in his resolution. He was indeed so much pleased with this professor, that he spent two years in these studies under his direction, and frequently used to ascribe all his knowledge to his instructions. Being desirous in the mean time of every opportunity of enlarging his acquaintance with the ablest men of his time, he went from Deventer, first to Leyden to hear Daniel Heinsius, and next to Amsterdam ; where, attending the lectures of Alexander Monus and David Blondel, this last persuaded him to renounce the Lutheran religion, in which he had been bred, and to embrace Calvinism.
His reputation for literary talents and acquirements was so high before he had reached his twenty-fourth year, that he was judged qualified for the chair ; and, upon the death