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of Schulting, actually nominated to the professorship of Duisburg by the elector of Brandenburgh: who at the same time yielded to his desire of visiting Antwerp, Brussels, Lorrain, and the neighbouring countries; in order to complete the plan he had laid down for finishing his studies before he entered upon the exercise of bis office. Young as he was, he appeared every way qualified for this office, but held it no longer than two years; when he closed with an offer of the professorship of Deventer, which, though of less value than Duisburg, was more acceptable to him on many accounts. He had a singular affection for the place where first he indulged his inclination for these studies, and he had the pleasure of succeeding his much-beloved Gronovius, and that too by a particular recommendation, on his removal to Leyden. It must be remembered also, that he was a proselyte to Calvinism, which was the established religion at Deventer, and scarcely tolerated at Duisburg; and in Holland also it might occur to him that there was a fairer prospect of preferment, and in this he was not disappointed, as in 1661, the States of Utrecht made him professor of eloquence in that university, in the room of Paulus Æmilius.
Here he fixed his ambition, and resolved to move no more, and rejected solicitations both from Amsterdam and Leyden. The elector Palatine likewise attempted in vain to draw him to Heidelberg, and the republic of Venice to Padua, but he had become in some degree naturalized to Holland : and the States of Utrecht, being determined not to part with him, added to that of eloquence the professorship of politics and bistory in 1673. In these station's he had the honour to be sought after by persons of different countries; several coming from Germany for the benefit of his instructions, many from England. He had filled all these posts, with a reputation nothing inferior to any of his time, for more than thirty years, when he was suddenly carried off by an apoplexy, Jan, 11, 1703, in his 71st year.
He had eighteen children by his wife, whom he married in 1656, but was survived only by four daughters. One of his sons, a youth of great hopes, died 1692, in his 23d year, while he was preparing a new edition of Callimachus, which was finished afterwards by his father, and printed in 1697.
Grævius did great service to the republic of letters," not so much by original productions of his own, as by procure G. C
. vols. folio.' Theca were printed after hiesaurus
ing many editions of authors, which he enriched with notes and excellent prefaces, as Hesiod, Callimachus, Suetonius, Cicero, Florus, Catullus, Tibullus, Propertius, Justin, Cæsar, Lucian. He published also, of the moderns, Casaubon's " Letters," several pieces of Meursius, Huet's “ Poemata,” Junius - De pictura veterum," Eremita “ De Vita aulica & civili," and others of less note. But his chef d'æuvre is his “ Thesaurus Antiquitatum Romanarum," in 12 vols. folio; to which he added afterwards “ Thesaurus Antiq. & Histor. Italiæ," which were printed after his death, 1704, in 3 vols. folio. There also came out in 1707, “ J. G. Grævii Prælectiones & CXX Epistolæ collectie ab Alb. Fabricio;" to which was added “ Burmanni Oratio dicta in Grævii funere,” to which we are obliged for the particulars of this memoir. In 1717 was printed “ J. G. Grævii Orationes quas Ultrajecti habuit," 8vo. A great number of his letters were published by Burman in his “ Sylloge Epistolarum," in 5 vols. 4to. And the late Dr. Mead, who had been one of his pupils, was possessed of a collection of original letters in MS. written to Grævius by the most eminent persons in learning, as Basnage, Bayle, Burman, Le Clerc, Faber, Fabricius, Gronovius, Kuster, Limborch, Puffendorff, Salmasius, Spanheim, Spinosa, Tollius, Bentley, Dodwell, Locke, Potter, Abbé Bossuet, Bignon, Harduin, Huet, Menage, Spon, Vaillant, &c. from 1670 to the year of his death.T
GRAFIGNY (FRANCES D'ISEMBOURG D'HAPPONCOURT, DAME DE), a French lady of literary reputation, was the daughter of a military officer, and born about the year 1694. She was married, or rather sacrificed to Francis Hugot de Grafigny, charnberlain to the duke of Lorraine, a man of violent passions, from which she was often in danger of her life; but after some years of patient suffering, she was at length relieved by a legal separation, and her husband finished his days in confinement, which his improper conduct rendered necessary. Madame de Grafigny now came to Paris, where her merit was soon acknowledged, although her first performance, a Spanish novel, did not pass without some unpleasant criticisms, to which, says our authority, she gave the best of all possible answers, by
• 1 Burmanni Oratio ubi supra.-Niceron, vols. II. and X.-Gen. Dict.-Bur. manni Trajectum Eruditum. --Saxii Onomasticon.--Dr. Mead's collection of letters, mentioned above, were sold at bis sale for twenty-one guinéas, but we have not learned who was the purchaser, They amounted to three thousand two hundred letters, all originals,
writing a better, which was her “ Lettres d'une Peruvienne," 2 vols. 12mo. This had great success, being written with spirit, and abounding in those delicate sentiments which are so much admired in the French school, yet an air of metaphysical speculation has been justly objectéd, as throwing a chill on her descriptions of love. She also wrote some dramatic pieces, of which the comedies of .$ Cenie” & “ La Fille d'Aristide” were most applauded. Having resided for some time at the court of Lorraine, she became known to the emperor, who had read her “ Peruvian Letters" with much pleasure, and engaged her to .write some dramatic pieces proper to be performed before the empress and the younger branches of the royal family at court. This she complied with, and sent five or six such pieces to Vienna, and in return received a pension of 1500 livres, but with the express condition that she was not to print these dramas, nor give copies to any other theatre. She long retained the esteem and patronage of the court of Vienna, and was chosen an associate of the academy at Florence. She died, much esteemed by all classes, at Paris įn 1758. A complete edition of her works was published at Paris in 1788, 4 vols. 12mo ; and her “ Letters of a Peruvian Princess,” were published in English, by F. Ashworth, 1782, 2 vols. 8vo."
GRAFTON (RICHARD), an English printer and historian, was descended of a good family, and appears to have been brought up a merchant, and his works, as an author, evince him to have had a tolerable education. He tells us himself that he wrote the greatest part of Hall's chronicle (who died in 1547), and next year printed that work, entitled “ The union of the two noble and illustre famelies of Lancastre and Yorke," &c. continued to the end of the reign of Henry VIII. from Hall's MSS. according to Ant. Wood. It had been printed by Berthelet in 1542, but brought down only to i532. In 1562 Grafton's “ Abridg. ment of the Chronicles of England," was printed by Ř. Tottyl, and reprinted the two succeeding years, and in 1572. And as Stowe had published his “ Summarie of the Englyshe Chronicles” in 1565, Grafton sent out, as a rival, an abridgement of his abridgement, which he entitled “A Manuell of the Chronicles of England;" and Stowe, not to be behind with him; published in the same year his
En RAFTON of a good Ind his work on. He
"“ Summarie of Chronicles abridged.” . This rivalship was accompained by harsh reflections on each other in their respective prefaces. In 1569 Grafton published his “ Chronicle at large, and meere History of the affaires of England," &c. some part of which seems to have been unjustly censured by Buchavan. In the time of Henry VIII. soon after the death of lord Cromwell, Grafton was imprisoned six weeks in the Fleet, for printing Matthews's Bible, and what was called " The Great Bible" without notes, and, before his release, was bound in a penalty of 1001, that he should neither sell nor print, or cause to be printed, any more bibles, until the king and the clergy should agree upon a translation. As Whitchurch was concerned with him in printing those Bibles, he very probably shared the same fate. Grafton was also called before the council, on a charge of printing a ballad in favour of lord Cromwell; and his quondam friend bishop Bunner being preseit, aggravated the cause, by reciting a little chat between them, in which Grafton had intimated his “ being sorry to hear of Cromwell's apprehension;" but the lord chancellor Audof Cromwelc'apprehensio ley, disgusted probably at this meanness of spirit in Bonner, turned the discourse, and the matter seems to have ended. In a few years after, Grafton was appointed printer to prince Edward, and he with his associate Whitchurch had special patents for printing the church-service books, and also the Primers both in Latin and English.
In the first year of Edward VI. Grafton was favoured with a special patent granted to him for the sole printing of all the statute books, or acts of parliament; and in Dec, 1548, he and Whitchurch were authorized by another patent, to take up and provide, for one year, printers, compositors, &c. together with paper, ink, presses, &c. at reasonable rates and prices. Ames seems to be of opinion that he was also a member of parliament, but Herbert, apparently on good grounds, doubts this. It does not appear with certainty in what circumstances he died. Strype supposes him to have been reduced to poverty, and there is not much reason to think that he died in affluent circumstances. No particulars, however, have been handed down to us of his sickness, death, or interment, nor do we find any account of him after 1572, when by an accidental fall be broke his leg. He printed some of the earliest, most correct, and splendid of the English Bibles, and many other works of great importance in the infancy of the reformation. His “ Chronicle” has not preserved its reputation, and has been usually sold at a price very inferior to that of the other English Chronicles; but upon that account, however, it appears to have obtained a wider circulation.'
GRAHAM. See MACAULEY. · GRAHAM (GEORGE), clock and watch maker, the most ingenious and accurate artist in his time, was born at Horsgills, in the parish of Kirklinton in Cumberland, in 1675. In 1688 he came up to London, and was put apprentice to a person in that profession"; but after being some time with his master, he was received, purely on account of his merit, into the family of the celebrated Mr. Tompion, who treated him with a kind of parental affection as long as he lived. That Mr. Graham was, without competition, the most eminent of his profession, is but a small part of his character: he was the best general mechanic of his time, and had a complete knowledge of practical astronomy; so that he not only gave to various movements for measuring time a degree of perfection which had never before been attained, but invented several astronomical instruments, by which considerable advances have been made in that science: he also made great improvements in those which had before been in use; and, by a wonderful manual dexterity, constructed them with greater precision and accuracy than any other person in the world.
A great mural arch in the observatory at Greenwich was made for Dr. Halley, under Mr. Graham's immediate inspece tion, and divided by his own hand: and from this incomparable original, the best foreign instruments of the kind are copies made by English artists. The sector by which Dr. Bradley first discovered two new motions in the fixed stars, was of his invention and fabric. He comprised the whole planetary system within the compass of a small cabinet; from which, as a model, all the modern orreries have been constructed. And when the French academicians were sent to the north, to make observations for ascertaining the figure of the earth, Mr. Graham was thought the fittest person in Europe to supply them with instruments; by which means they finished their operations in one year; while those who went to the south, not being so well fur
! Ames and Herbert's Typographical Antiquities.. Vol. XVI. i . M :