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1610, 4to. 8.“ Taxandria,”? ibid. 1610, 4to. 9. * Antiquitates Gaudenses,” Ant. 1611, 4to. 10. “ Africa illustrata,” Torn. 1622, 4to. 11. “ Diarium rerum Argelæ gestarum,” Col. 1623, 12mo. These are his observations during his captivity. 12. “Respublica Namurcensis," Amst. 1634, 24o. 13. “ Specimen Litterarum et Linguarum universi orbis,” Athi. 4to.'

GRAMM (JOHN), a learned philologist, antiquary, and historian of Copenhagen, was born at Aalburg in Jutland, Oct. 28, 1685. "His father, who was a clergyman, carefully superintended his education until he was fit to go to the university. He went accordingly in 1703 to Copenhagen, where he very soon distinguished himself as a classical scholar and critic. In 1705 he took his bachelor's degree with great credit, and in 1707 published the first speci. men of his learned researches, entitled “ Archytæ Tarentini fragmentum nepi TNS Madmualinens, cum disquisitione chronologica de ætate Archytæ.” This was followed by other dissertations, which raised his fame so highly that he was made professor of Greek at Copenhagen, and was also appointed counsellor of justice, archivist, historiographer, and librarian, to the king, whom he had taught when a youth. In 1745, he was made counsellor of state, and died March 19, 1748, leaving an elaborate work, “ Corpus diplomatum ad res Danicas facientium.” This work, which he undertook by order of Christian VI. is still in MS. and probably consists of several folio volumes. Gramm laid the first foundation of the academy at Copenhagen, and contributed very frequently to the literary journals of his time. He was a man of very extensive learning, but particularly skilled in Greek and Latin, and in history, and of such ready memory that he was never consulted on books or matters of literature without giving immediate information. He corresponded with many of the literati of Germany, England, Italy, and France, but was most admired by those who were witnesses of his amiable private character, his love of literature, and his generous patronage of young students.

GRAMONT (GABRIEL BARTHOLOMEW, SeigneUR DE), in Latin, GRAMONDUS, president of the parliament of Toulouse, and son of the dean of the counsellors to the

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I Foppen Bibl. Belg.--Clement Bibl. Curieuse.
2 Harles de Vitis Philologorum, vol. III.

same parliament, descended from an ancient family in Rouergue, who were long in possession of the estate of Gramont. He wrote in Latin a History of the reign of Louis XIII, from the death of Henry IV. to 1629. This history, the best edition of which is 1643, fol. may be considered as a supplement to that of the president du Thou, although much inferior both as to style and fidelity : the author flatters cardinal de Richelieu because he hoped for his favour; and abuses Arnauld d'Andilly, and others, from whom he had no expectations. He died in 1654. In 1623 he published his “ Historia prostratæ a Ludovico XIII. Sectariorum in Gallia rebellionis,” 4to, which contains some curious and interesting facts, mixed with strong prejudices against the protestants, which lead him to such excess of bigotry as to vindicate the horrible massacre of St. Bartholomew.?

GRAMONT. (PHiLibert, Count of), son of Antony duke of Gramont, served as a volunteer under the prince of Condé, and Turenne, and came into England about two years after the restoration. He was under a necessity of leaving France for having the temerity to pay his addresses to a lady to whom Lewis XIV. was known to have a tender attachment. He possessed in a high degree every qualification that could render him agreeable to the licentious court of Charles II. He was gay, gallant, and perfectly well-bred, had an inexhaustible fund of ready wit, and told a story with extraordinary humour and effect. His vivacity infused life wherever he came, and was generally inoffensive. He had also another qualification very well suited to the company he kept. He had great skill and success in play; and seems to have been chiefly indebted to it for support. Several of the ladies engaged his attention upon his first coming over; but miss Elizabeth Hamilton, whom he afterwards married, seems to have been his favourite, though some say he endeavoured to break off the connection. She was the daughter of sir George Hamilton, fourth son of James first earl of Abercorn. His “ Memoirs" were written from his own information, and probably in much the same language in which they are related, by his brother-in-law, Anthony, who, following the fortunes of James II. entered the French ser. vice, and died at St. Germain's, April 21, 1720. He was

1 Gen. Dict.-Moreri. Clement Bibl. Curieuse. "

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generally called Count Hamilton, Count Gramont died Jan. 10, 1707. There have lately been several editions of the “ Memoirs” printed here, both in French and English, and in a splendid form, illustrated with portraits. They contain many curious particulars respecting the intrigues and amusements of the court of Charles II. but present upon the whole a disgusting picture of depraved manners." · GRANCOLAS (John), a Parisian, doctor of the Sorbonne, to which honour he was admitted in 1685, was author of many works on ecclesiastical rites, ceremonies, and general history, the principal of which are, 1.“ De l'Antiquité des Ceremonies des Sacremens.” 2. “ Traité de Liturgies." 3. “ L'Ancien Sacramentaire de l'Eglise." 4.“ Traduction Françoise de Catécheses de S. Cyrille de Jérusalem.” 5.“ Commentaire historique sur le Breviaire Romain,” &c. This last is much esteemed. 6. “ Critique des Auteurs Ecclesiastiques," 2 vols. 8vo. 7. La Science des Confesseurs,” 2 vols. 12mo. 8. “ Hist. abrégée de l'Eglise de Paris," 2 vols. 12mo. This history was suppressed because of the freedoms the author took with the cardinal de Noailles. He died August 1, 1732, at Paris. The whole of his works are more valuable for the matter than the manner. ?

GRAND (ANTHONY LE), a Franciscan friar, was born at Douay, in the early part of the seventeenth century, and has been styled the abbreviator of Descartes. He was an eminent professor both of philosophy and divinity in the university of Douay, where he associated much with the English, and was sent by them as a missionary into Eng. land. His residence was chiefly in Oxfordshire, where he led a retired life. He is said to have been the first who reduced the Cartesian system to the method of the schools, and his work on this subject, which was frequently printed in England, first in 1671, 12mo, and afterwards, much enlarged in 4to, was also translated and published in folio. He carried on a controversy for some time with a Mr. John Serjeant on metaphysical subjects. He was alive in Oxfordshire in 1695, but no farther particulars of his history are now known. Among his works we find the following mentioned: 1.“ L'homme sans passions, selon les sentimens de Seneque,” Hague, 1662, 12mo. 2. “ Scydro.

| Moreri.- Preface to the Memoirs.-Collins's Peerage, by sir E. Brydges. % Moreri.

media, seu Sermo quem Alphonsus de la Vida habuit, coram Comite de Falmouth, de monarchia,” 1669, 16mo. 3." Apologia Renati des Cartes contra Sam. Parkerum," London, 1679, 12mo. 4. “ Historia naturæ variis experimentis elucidata,'' ibid. 1673, 8vo, reprinted there in 1680, and at Norimb. 1678. 5. “ Compendium rerum jucundarum, et memorabilium naturæ," Norimb. 1681, 8vo. 6. “ Dissertatio de carentia sensus et .cognitionis in Brutis," Leyden, 1675, 8yo. 7. “ L'Epicure Spirituel, ou l'empire de la volupté sur les vertus,” Paris, 8vo. 8.“ His. toria sacra a mundo condito ad Constantinum magnum," which is said to be his best performance."

GRAND (JOACHIM LE), a French historical writer, was born Feb. 6, 1653, at St. Lo, in Normandy. After studying philosophy at Caen, he entered into the congregation of the oratory in 1671, where he applied to the belles lettres and theology, but quitted it in 1676, and went to Paris, where he engaged in the education of two young men of rank, the marquis de Vins, and the duke d'Estrees, and at the same time applied himself to the study of history under the direction of father Le Cointe, who formed a very high opinion of him. He first appeared as a writer in 1688, in « A History of the Divorce of Henry VIII, and Catharine of Arragon," in three vols. 12mo. · The main object of this work is to refute certain facts and arguments contained in the first two books of Burnet's History of the Reformation. In 1685, when Burnet was at Paris, he had an interview with Le Grand in the presence of Messrs. Thevenot and Auzout, in which the latter proposed his doubts, and the former answered them, both preserving a tone of elegance and mutual respect. The publication of the above work, however, produced a controversy, in the course of which, in 1691, Le Grand addressed three letters to the bishop, to which he replied. How long the controversy might have continued is uncertain, as Le Grand was necessarily diverted from it in 1692, when he received the appointment of secretary to the abbè d'Estrees, in his embassy to Portugal. In this situation he continued till 1697. The leisure which his diplomatic functions allowed was employed in translations of voyages and travels from the Portuguese. In 1702 he accompanied the same minister in Spain, where he remained about two years as secretary. Soon after this, the marquis de Torci, minister of state, took . him into his service, and employed his pen in drawing up several memorials concerning the Spanish monarchy, and other political topics, in which he acquitted himself with great ability, but most of them were printed without his name. He employed much of his time in writing a life of Louis XI. ; but, although this was quite finished in 1728, it still remains in manuscript. In that year, however, he published his translation of Lobo's History of Abyssinia, with many additions; and about the same time his treatise “ De lą succession à la Couronne de France.” He died of an apoplectic stroke, April 30, 1733. He had been possessed of church preferment, and had held, for a time, the office of censor royal of books.' : GRAND (JOHN BAPTIST LE), was born at Amiens, June 3, 1737, and was surnamed d’Aussy, because his father was a native of Auxy-le-Château, in the department of Pas-de-Calais. He received his education in the college of the Jesuits at Amiens; at the age of eighteen entered into the society of his preceptors; and, a few years afterwards, had the honour of being elected to the rhetorical chair at Caen. At the age of twenty-six he was thrown on the world by the dissolution of the order, and was soon employed in the elaborate work of the French Glossary, projected by Lacurne de Sainte-Palaye, and in an examination of the very rich library of the marquis de Paulmy. In 1770 he was appointed secretary in the direction of the studies of the military school. He afterwards co-operated, under the marquis de Paulmy, and again with the count de Tressan, in the “ Bibliothéque des Romans ;" after which he became still deeper engaged in collecting, translating, extracting, and commenting upon the “ Fabliaux,”. or tales of the old French: poets of the twelfth and thir-, teenth centuries. In 1782 he published, in three volumes, 8vo, his “ Histoire de la Vie privée des Français ;” and in 1788 his far more celebrated i Tour to Auvergne,” which province he visited the preceding year, at the entreaty of his Jesuit brother Peter Theodore Lewis Augustin, who was then prior of the abbey of Saint André, in the town of, Clermont. This Tour he first published in one volume, 8vo; but he afterwards enlarged and republished it in 1795, in three volumes of the same size. His contributions :

| Dodd's Church Hist.-Moreri.

| Niceron, vol. XXVI.- Moreri.

far mored the pre Theodott An

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