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in the Institute were numerous, and, for the most part, possessed of merit. For some years before his death, he had conceived the plan of a complete history of French poetry, and had even begun to carry it into execution; and as he stood in need of all the treasures of the national library, he was fortunately nominated, in 1796, conservator of the French MSS. of this library ; and he now not only renewed his intention, but enlarged his scheme : he included in it the history of the French tongue; that of lite. rature in all its extent, and all its various ramifications; as well as that of science, of arts, and their utility in different applications-a monument too vast for the life and power of an individual to be able to construct. He had, however, accomplished some part of his design, when, after a slight indisposition which caused no alarm, he died suddenly in 1801. : He was upon the whole a retired and taciturn scho. lar. " His life," says his biographer, “jike that of most other men of letters, may be comprized in two lines : What were his places of resort? The libraries. Among whom did he live? His books. What did he ever produce ? Books. What did he ever say? That which appears in his books.”

In 1779, he published his “ Fabliaux," or Tales of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, Paris, 1779, 5 vols. 8vo. His object in this collection appears to have been an ardent zeal for the reputation of his country, to which he has successfully restored some tales claimed by other nations, and particularly the Italians. Whether these tales, which shock all probability, were worth his pains, the English reader may discover by a prose translation published in 1786, 2 vols. 12mo, or by Mr. Way's metrical translation), 1800, 2 vols. 8vo. These were followed by “ Contes devots, Fables et Romans anciens, pour servir de suite aux Fabliaux," 1781, 8vo. He published also “ Vie d'Apollonius de Tyanes,” 2 vols. Svo.

GRANDET (JOSEPH), was a pious and learned curate of St. Croix at Angers, whose memory was long revered in that city, and throughout the diocese, for the benefits, both spiritual and temporal, which he procured to his parish. He died in 1724, aged seventy-eight. He left the following works: 1. “La Vie de M. Creté, Curé de Normandie;" 2. “ La Vie de Mademoiselle de Melun, princesse d'Epinoy, Institutrice des Hospitaliéres de Baugé et de.

Memoirs of the National Institute--Dict. Hist. VOL. XVI.

d'Epine;" works!".-724,

N

esteem in the the lives of*: " La Vie

Beaufort en Anjou ;" 3. " La Vie du Comte de Moret, fils naturel de Henri IV.;" 4. “ La Vie de M. Dubois de la Fertè,” and the lives of some other persons held in great esteem in the Roinish church.'

GRANDIER (URBAN), curate and canon of Loudun in France, famous for his intrigues and tragical end, was the son of a notary royal of Sablé, and born at Bouvere near Sablé, in the latter part of the fifteenth century, but we know not in what year. He was a man of reading and judgment, and a famous preacher; for which the monks of Loudun sóon hated him, especially after he had urged the necessity of confessing sins to the parochial priests at Easter. He was a handsome man, of an agreeable conversa. tion, neat in his dress, and cleanly in his person, which made him suspected of loving the fair sex, and of being beloved by them. In 1629, he was accused of having had a criminal conversation with some women in the very church of which he was curate; on which the official condemned him to resign all his benefices, and to live in penance. He brought an appeal, this sentence being an: encroachment upon the civil power; and, by a decree of the parliament of Paris, he was referred to the presidial of Poitiers, in which he was acquitted. Three years after, some Ursuline nuns of Loudun were thought, by the vulgar, to be possessed with the devil ; and Grandier's enemies, the capuchins of Loudun, charged him with being the author of the possession, that is, with witchcraft. They thought, however, that in order to make the charge succeed according to their wishes, it was very proper to strengthen themselves with the authority of cardinal Richlieu. For this purpose, they wrote to father Joseph, their fellowcapuchin, who had great credit with the cardinal, that Grandier was the author of the piece entitled “ La Cordonnierre de Loudun,” or “ The Woman Shoemaker of Loudon," a severe satire upon the cardinal's person and family. This great ininister, anong many good qualities, harboured the most bitter resentment against the authors of libels against him; and father Joseph having persuaded him that Grandier was the author of “ La Cordonniere de Loudun," he wrote immediately to De Laubardemont, counsellor of state, and his creature, to make a diligent inquiry into the affair of the nuns. De Laubardemont ac.

. Morerin ---Dict. Hist.

Loces chosen lected to De up and shim. In secara

cordingly arrested Grandier in Dec. 1633 ; and, after he had thoroughly examined the affair, went to meet the car. dinal, and to take proper measures with him. In July 1634, letters patent were drawn up and sealed, to try Grandier; and were directed to De Laubardemont, and to twelve judges chosen out of the courts in the neighbourhood of Loudun; all men of honour indeed, but very credulous, and on that account chosen by Grandier's enemies. In Aug. 18, upon the evidence of Astaroth, the chief of possessing deyils; of Easas, of Celsus, of Acaos, of Eudon, &c. that is to say, upon the evidence of the nuns, who asserted that they were possessed with those devils, the commissaries passed judgment, by which Grandier was declared well and duly attainted, and convicted of the crinie of magic, witchcraft, and possession, which by his means happened on the bodies of some Ursuline nuns of Loudun, and of some other lay persons, mentioned in his trial; for which crimes he was sentenced to make the amende honorable, and to be burnt alive with the magical covenants and characters which were in the register-office, as also with the MS. written by him against the celibacy of priests ; and his ashes to be thrown up into the air. Grandier heard this dreadful sentence without any emotion; and, when he went to the place of execution, suffered his punishment with great firyness and courage, April 18, 1634. i

The story of this unhappy person shews how easily an innocent man may be destroyed by the malice of the few, working upon the credulity and superstition of the many : for, Grandier, though certainly a bad man, was as certainly innocent of the crimes for which he suffered. Renaudot, a famous physician, and the first author of the French ga. zette, wrote Grandier's eulogium, which was published at Paris in loose sheets. It was taken from Menage, who openly defends the curate of Loudun, and calls the possession of those nuns chimerical. In 1693 was published at Amsterdam" Histoire des Diables de Loudun ;" from wbich very curious account it appears, that the pretended possession of the Ursulines was an horrible conspiracy against Grandier's life. As an author he is known only for a funeral oration for Scævola de St. Martha, which is said to be an eloquent performance,

GRANDIN (MARTIN), a learned French divine, was born at St. Quentin, Nov. 11, 1604, and was educated in

Moreri.-Gen. Dict.

classical learning at Noyon and Amiens. At the age of seventeen he came to Paris, where he studied divinity under the Jesuit Mairat, and afterwards taught a course of philosophy in the college of cardinal Le Moine. He was then admitted a doctor of the Sorboune, and in 1638 appointed professor of divinity, which office he retained until his death, Nov. 16, 1691. He was a man of piety and talents, and an elegant and correct speaker. His course of theological lectures was published by M. du Plessis d'Argentre, 1710-1712, in 6 vols. 4to, under the title of “ Opera Theologica.” 1

GRANDIUS, or GRANDI (GUIDO), a philosopher and mathematician, was born Oct. 1, 1971, at Cremona, where his father, a branch of a decayed family, carried on the business of an embroiderer. His mother, a woman of considerable talents, taught him Latin, and gave him some taste for poetry. Being disposed to a studious life, he chose the profession of theology, that he might freely indulge his inclination. He entered into the religious order of Camaldolites, at Ravenna, in 1687, where he was distinguished for his proficiency in the different branches of literature and science, but was much dissatisfied with the · Peripatetic philosophy of the schools. He had not been here long before he established an academy of students of his own age, which he called the Certanti, in opposition to another juvenile society called the Concordi. To his philosophical studies he added those of the belles lettres, music, and history. It appears to have been his early ambition to introduce a new system in education, and with that view he obtained the professorship of philosophy at Florence, by the influence of father Caramelli, although not without some opposition from the adherents to the old

opinions. He now applied himself to the introduction of : the Cartesian philosophy, while, at the same time, he be

came zealously attached to mathematical studies. The works of the great Torricelli, of our countryman Wallis, and of other celebrated mathematicians, were his favourite companions, and the objects of his familiar intercourse. His first publication was a treatise to resolve the problems of Viviani on the construction of arcs, entitled “Geometrica Demonstratio Vivianeorum problematum,” Florence, · 1699, 4tó. He dedicated this work to the grand duke

| Moreri.Dict. Hist.

Cosmo III. who appointed the author professor of philosophy in the university of Pisa. From this time Grandius pursued the higher branches of mathematics with the utmost ardour, and had the honour of ranking the ablest mathematicians among his friends and correspondents. Of the number may be named the illustrious Newton, Leibnitz, and Bernouilli. His next publications were, “ Geometrica demonstratio theorematum Hugenianorum circa logisticam, seu Logarithmicam lineam,” 1701, 4to, and “ Quadratura circuli et hyperbolæ per infinitas hyperbolas et parabolas geometrice exhibita," Pisa, 1703, 8vo. He then published "Sejani et Rufini dialogus de Laderchiana historia S. Peuri Damiani,” Paris, 1705, and “ Dissertationes Camaldulenses,” embracing inquiries into the bistory of the Ca-' maldolites, both which gave so much offence to the community, that he was deposed from the dignity of abbot of St. Michael at Pisa; but the grand duke immediately appointed him his professor of mathematics in the university. He now resolved some curious and difficult problems for the improvement of acoustics, which had been presented to the royal society in Dublin, and having accomplished his object, he transmitted the solutions, by means of the British minister at the court of Florence, to the Royal Society at London. This was published under the title of “ Disquisitio geometrica in systema sonorum D. Narcissi (Marsh) archiepiscopi Armachani," in 1709, when he was chosen a fellow of the royal society. This was followed by his principal work, “De infinitis infinitorum, et infinite parvorum ordinibus disquisitio geometrica," Pisa, 1710, 4to, and by many other works' enumerated by his biographer, few of which appear in the catalogues of the public libraries in this country. Among other subjects he defendeu Galileo's doctrine respecting the earth's motion, and obtained a complete victory over those who opposed it. He was deeply versed in subjects of political economy; and various disputes were referred to his decision respecting the rights of fishery, &c. He was appointed commissioner from the grand duke and the court of Rome jointly, to settle some differences between the inhabitants of Ferrara and Bologna, concerning the works vecessary to preserve their territories from the ravages of inundation. For these and other important public services, he was liberally rewarded by his employers. He died at the age of se.. venty-two, in July 1742.?.

Moreri.Fabroni Vitæ Italoruni.

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