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GRANET (FRANCIS), deacon of the church of Aix, was born in 1692, at Brignolles in Provence, of a mercantile family. He was educated in his own country, but came young to Paris, where his literary taste and talents procured him many friends, by whose assistance he increased his stores of knowledge, and as his income was very limited, entered upon a course of literary labours. He was a contributor, as far as vol. XIX. to the “ Bibliotheque Françoise," a well-known journal printed in Holland; and when Desfontaines was obliged to discontinue his.“ Nouvelliste du Parnasse," (in which Granet had written) and obtained permission to carry it on again under another title, he engaged Granet's services in this new undertaking called “Observations sur les ecrits modernes.” It began in 1735, and was published weekly until Sept. 1743, when the King revoked the privilege. Busied as Granet was on this work, he found leisure to undertake in 1738 the continua-. tion of a journal entitled “ Reflexions sur les ouvrages de litterature.” This he extended as far as twelve volumes. It contains many extracts and remarks given with taste and judgment, but others that are merely repetitions of what he had written for the “ Observations sur les ecrits modernes.” He had also a trick of inserting letters to himself, when he wished to publish satire without beiug accountable for it, but it is not thought that this disguise was of much avail. It was perhaps his misfortune that he was obliged by the narrowness of his circumstances to employ himself thus on the labours of others, and in preparing new editions, when he might have executed original works that would have done him credit. Indeed a few months before his death he hinted to his friends that necessity only had forced him to this drudgery, and that he had no consolation but in the hope that he should one day or other be at liberty to employ his talents in a more creditable way. He had learned English, and in order to make that a source of profit, translated sir Isaac Newton's " Chronology," which he published at Paris in 1728, 4to, with an excellent preface, of which he took care to speak very highly in the 14th vol. of the “ Bibliotheque Françoise, and, probably by way of blind, speaks very differently there of some of his contemporaries, from what he had advanced in his preface. In short he appears to have perfectly understood the trade of reviewing. One of his best editions is that of the works of M. de Launoy, wbich was

a life, and aeri gives a nuorote prefaces

published at Geneva, 10 vols. fol. with a valuable preface, a life, and a “ Launoiana," consisting of very curious articles. Moreri gives a numerous list of other editions and publications to which he wrote prefaces and notes. He died at Paris April 2, 1741, and a spirited eloge was writ, tep on him by the abbé Desfontaines.'

GRANGE (JOSEPH DE CHANCEL DE LA), a French satirist and dramatic poet, was born 1676, in Perigord. He wrote a little comedy in three acts, when but nine years old, which was performed several days successively in the college of Bourdeaux, where he was a scholar; and at sixteen, produced his tragedy of “ Jugurtha ;" but the work. which has made him most known, is a satire against the duke of Orleans, then regent, entitled, “The Philippicks,” in which he accused that nobleman of the most atrocious crimes. To avoid the punishment this work deserved, he fed to Avignon, in which city was a French officer, who had taken refuge there in consequence of having committed a murder, and received a promise of pardon if he could entice the author of the “ Philippicks” into the French dominions. His attempt succeeded, and La Grange was conducted to the isle of St. Margaret ; but finding means to make friends of his keepers, escaped in a boat to Villa Franca, notwithstanding a violent, storm. The king of Sardinia gave him a considerable sum of money, and he went from thence into Spain; afterwards into · Holland, where he remained till the duke of Orleans was dead. He was then permitted to end his days in France, where he died in 1758, at the castle of Antoniat, his family seat. His works have been collected in 5 vols. small 12mo, and his tragedies have been as much admired, as his lyric efforts bave been depreciated.?

GRANGER (JAMES), a well-known biographer, but who has been himself left without any memorial, was the son of Mr. William Granger, by Elizabeth Tutt, daughter of Tracy Tutt. Of the condition of his parents, or the place of his education, we have not been able to recover any particulars. He studied, however, for some tine at Christ-church, Oxford, which he probably left without taking a degree; and having entered into holy orders, was presented to the vicarage of Shiplake, in Oxfordshire, a living in the gift of the dean and chapter of Windsor. He 1 Moreri --Dict. Hist.

2 Dict, Hist..

informs us, in the dedication of his “ Biographical Hiso · tory,” that his name and person were known to few at the time of its publication (1769), as he had “ the good fortune to retire early to independence, obscurity, and content.” He adds, that “ if he has an ambition for any thing, it is to be an honest man and a good parish priest," and in both those characters he was highly esteemed by all who knew him. To the duties of his sacred office, he attended with the most scrupulous assiduity and zeal, and died in the performance of the most solemn office of the church. Such was his pious regard for the day appointed for religious' observances, that he would not read the proofs of his work while going through the press on that day; and with such an impression of what was his duty, found no great difficulty in resisting the arguments of his bookseller, Tom Davies, who endeavoured to persuade him that this was a “ work of necessity.” It appears that some time before his death he was anxious to obtain a living within a tenable distance of Shiplake, but did not succeed. In 1773 or 1774 he accompanied lord Mount, stuart, now earl of Bute, on a tour to Holland, where his Jordship made an extensive collection of portraits. In 1772 he published a sermon entitled " An Apology for the Brute Creation, or Abuse of Animals censured.” This was preached in his parish-church, Oct. 18, 1772, and, as we are informed in a postscript, gave almost universal disgust; “ the mention of horses and dogs was censured as a prostitution of the dignity of the pulpit, and considered as a proof of the author's growing insanity ;" but inore competent judges, and indeed the public at large, applauded him for exerting his humanity and benevolence in a case which is so often overlooked, the treatment of the brute creation. Mr. Granger, who was a man of some humour, and according to the evidence of his friend and correspondent the rev. Mr. Cole, a frequent retailer of jokes, dedicated this serinon “ To T. B. Drayman,” for which he gives as a reason that he had seen this man exercise the lash with greater rage, and heard him at the same time swear more roundly and forcibly, than he ever heard or saw any of his brethren of the whip in London. Mr. Granger appears to have taken some pains with this man, but to little purpose. He was, however, afterwards killed by a kick from one of the horses whom he delighted to torment, which gave Mr. Granger an opportunity of strength,

ening his arguments with his parishioners by a warning like this, which could not fail, for some time at least, to make an impression on their minds. In 1773 he printed another sermon, entitled " The nature and extent of Industry,” preached before his grace Frederic, archbishop of Canterbury, July 4, 1775, in the parish church of Shiplake. This was gravely dedicated, “To the inhabitants of the parish of Shiplake who neglect the service of the church, and spend the Sabbath in the worst kind of idle. ness, this plain sermon, which they never heard, and probably will never read, is inscribed by their sincere wellwisher and faithful minister J. G.”. Both these discourses were favourably received by the public, and many clergymen and others purchased quantities of them for distribution. His memory, however, is best preserved by his "Biographical History of England from Egbert the Great to the Revolution,” at which he employed himself for many years, and lived to see two editions sold, and a taste created for collections of portraits, which is indeed the principal intention of the author, his biography including only those persons of whom some engraved portrait is extant. It was first published in + thin 4to vols. in 1769, but the second and subsequent editions have been printed in 8vo. The preparation of such a work could not fail to yield the author much amusement, and likewise procured him the correspondence of many eminent scholars and gentlemen who were either collectors of portraits, or conver- : sant in English biography. He had amassed considerable materials for a continuation of this work, which was prevented by his sudden and much-lamented death.' On Sunday April 14, 1776, he read prayers and preached apparently in good health, but while afterwards at the communion-table, in the act of administering the sacrament, he was seized with an apoplectic fit, and notwithstanding immediate medical assistance, died next morning. This affecting circumstance was happily expressed by a friend in these lines:

“ More happy end what saint e'er knew?

To whom like mercy shown?
His Saviour's death in rapturous view,

And unperceived his own.” He was, if we mistake not, about sixty years old. His brother John died at Basingstoke in 1810, aged 80. His very numerous collection, of upwards of fourteen thousand portraits, was sold by Greenwood in 1778, but the sale is

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said to have been not very productive. That his cele, brated work, the “ Biographical History,” is an amusing one, cannot well be denied; and its principal excellence consists in the critical accuracy and conciseness with which he has characterized the persons who are included in his plan; but, as he includes all persons without distinction, of whom any portrait is extant, we find him preserving the memory of many of the most worthless and insignificant of mankind, as well as giving a value to specimens of the art of engraving which are beneath all contempt. Mr. Walpole said that Granger had drowned his taste for portraits in the ocean of biography; and though he began with elucidating prints, he at last only sought prints that he might write the lives of those they represented. His work was growii, and growing so voluminous, that an abridgment only could have made it useful to collectors. Perhaps a more serious objection might be offered, which the author could not have foreseen. While this work has excited a taste for collecting portraits not only harmless, but useful, when confined to men of probity, it has unfortunately at the same time created a trade very little connected with the interests of literature or common honesty, a species of purveyors who have not only lessened the value of books by robbing them of their portraits, but have carried their depredations into our public libraries, and bave found encouragement where they ought to have met with detection and punishment.

GRANT or GRAUNT (EDWARD), a man of eminent learning in the sixteenth century, was educated at Westminster-school, from whence he was removed either to Christ-church or Broadgate's-hall, in the university of Oxford, where he took the degree of B. A. February 27, 1571, and that of anaster the 27th of March, 1572 ; about which time he was appointed master of Westminster school, where a great many persons who were afterwards éminent in church and state, were educated under his care. Iu 1575 he published at London in 4to, “ Græcæ Linguæ Spicilegium,” which was afterwards epitomized by his learned usher, Mr. William Camden, and printed at London, 1597, in 8vo, under the title of “ Institutio Græcæ

1 Granger's Hist.-Correspondence published by Mr. Malcolm.-Continuation of his History by the Rev. Mark Noble, 1806, 3 vols. Svo.-Cole's MS Correspondence, in the British Museum. - Gent. Mag. vols. XLVI. LII. LXXIII, and LXXX.

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