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heads.". These pieces are printed in his works, under the title of “ A Vindication of General Monk,” &c. and “A Vindication of Sir Richard Greenville, General of the West to King Charles I." &c. They were answered by Old. mixon, in a piece entitled “ Reflections historical and politic,” &c. 1732, 4to, and by judge Burnet, in “ Remarks,” &c. a pamphlet. His lordship replied, in “ A Letter to the author of the Reflections," &c. 1732, 4to, and the spring following, there came out a very rough answer in defence of Echard, by Dr. Colbatch, entitled “ An Examination of Echard's Account of the Marriage Treaty,” &c. - He continued abroad at Paris almost the space of ten years; and, being sensible that many juvenilities had es. caped his pen in his poetical pieces, made use of the op. portunity furnished by this retirement, to revise and correct them, in order to republication. Accordingly, at his return to England in 1732, he published these, together with a vindication of bis kinsman just mentioned, in two volumes, 4to. To these may be added a tract in lord Somers's collection, entitled “ A Letter from a nobleman abroad to his friend in England," 1722. The late queen Caroline having honoured him with her protection, the last verses he wrote were to inscribe two copies of his poems, one of which was presented to her majesty, and the other to the princess royal Anne, late princess dowager of Orange. The remaining years of his life were passed in privacy and retirement, to the day of his death, which happened January 30, 1735, in his sixty-eighth year ; having lost his lady a few days before, by whom having no male issue, the title of Lansdowne became in him extinct.

His character, as drawn by Dr. Johnson, seems now un. contested. He was, says that eminent critic, a man illustrious by birth, and therefore attracted notice; since he is styled by Pope “the polite," he must be supposed elegant in his manners, and generally loved; he was in times of contest and turbulence steady to his party, and obtained that esteem which is always conferred upon firmness and consistency. As a poet, Dr. Johnson has appreciated his merit with equal justice. He was indeed but a feeble imitator of the feeblest parts of Waller, and is far more to be praised for his patronage of poets, and the judgment he shewed in the case of Pope, than for any pretensions to rank among them. His prose style, however, is excellent,

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and far beyond that of his early contemporaries. Dri Warton notices, as proofs of this, his “ Letter to a young man on his taking orders;" his “ Observations on Burnet," his “ Defence of his relation sir Richard Greenville,” his. translation of some parts of Demosthenes, and his Letter to his father on the Revolution, written in 1688. The same critic, who must have been acquainted with some who knew him intimately, adds that his conversation was most pleasing and polite; and his affability, and universal benevolence and gentleness, captivating.'

GRASSWINKEL (THEODORE or THIERRI), a learned lawyer, was born at Delft in 1600. He wrote various works upon legal and political subjects, by which he acquired a considerable reputation. Among these are “Libertas Veneta, seu Venetorum in se et suos imperandi Jus." This was published in 1634, and in 1644 he defended the republic of Venice, in a dispute with the duke of Savoy concerning precedence; for which service, that republic created him a knight of St. Mark. He had also before this, attempted to confute Buchanan's treatise “ De Jure Majestatis," in a work dedicated to Christina, queen of Sweden, who was known to be a great assertor of regal privileges. Grasswinkel defended the liberty of the seas against Selden, and Burgus, a native of Genoa, in his work “ Maris Liberi Vindiciæ,” and with so much judgment, in their opinion, that the States of Holland gave him a pension of 500 forins, with the title of Advocate-general of the marine, until an opportunity offered of rewarding his merit with a more honourable employment; which was afterwards that of advocate of the exchequer, and register and secretary of the chambre-mi-partie. He was author, likewise, of a treatise in two volumes, 4to, “On the Sovereignty of the States of Holland." He died of an apoplexy at Mechlin, Oct. 12, 1666.

GRATAROLUS (WILLIAM), a learned physician of the sixteenth century, was born at Bergamo in Italy in 1510, and was educated at Padua,, where he took his degrees with great reputation ; but having embraced the doctrines of the reformers, with which Peter Martyr made bim acquainted, he was obliged to make his escape, and went into Germany, that he might live undisturbed in the

i Biog, Brit.-Johnson and Chalmers's Poets, 1810,-Bowles's edition of Pope ; see Index.-Park's edition of Lord Orford's Royal and Noble Authors.

3 Moreri. Gen. Dict. ---Foppen Bib), Belg.

protestant religion. After some stay at Basil; he was invited to · Marpurg to be physic-professor ; but in a short time returned to Basil, and died there in 1562, or as some think in 1666, or 1668, which last seems most correct. He wrote a great many books, as, “ De Memoria reparanda, augenda, conservanda, ac Reminiscentia. De Prædictione Morum, Naturarumque Hominum facili, & Inspectione partium corporis. Prognostica Naturalia de Temporum mutatione perpetua, ordine Literarum. De Literatorum & eorum qui Magistratibus funguntur, conservanda, preservandaque valetadine. De Vivi Natura, artificio & usu ; Deque omni Re Potabili. De Regimine iter Agentium, vel Equitum, vel Peditum, vel Navi, vel Curru viatoribus quibusque Utilissiini Libri duo." He likewise made a collection of several tracts touching the sweating-sickness in England. . Some of these works are honourable to his talents, and evince a large share of knowledge; but in others he shews an attachment to the absurdities of alchemy, much superstition, and opinions. which do not imply a sound judgment.'.

GRATIAN, a celebrated Benedictine of the twelfth. century, was born at Chiusi, and spent near twenty-four years at the monastery of Bologna in composing a work which has gained him great fame, and which he published about 1151, under the title of “ Decretal,” or “ Concordantia discordantium Canonum," in which he endeavours to reconcile those canons, which seem to contradict each other ; but as this author has been guilty of some errors, by mistaking a canon of one council, or a passage of one father, for another, and has frequently quoted spurious decretals, several writers have endeavoured to correct these faults, particularly Anthony Augustine in his valuable work entitled “ De emendatione Gratiani,” an excellent edition of which was published by Baluze. The popes are indebted principally to Gratian's Decretal for the high authority, they exercised in the thirteenth and following centuries, but all their pretensions are supported in this work upon suppositious canons, which that age was too ignorant to suspect. This work forms one of the principal parts of the canon law. The editions of Rome, 1582, 4 yols. folio, and of Lyons, 1671, 3 vols. folio, are the best. There is a separate edition of this Decretal, Mentz, 1472, folio.”

sitious his work. ditions folio, areviz, 147

I Niceron, vol. XXXI.-Gen. Dict.-Moreri.- Preheri Theatrum.-Saxii Onomasticon. . 2 Cave. Dupin.-Moreri.-Saxii Onomasticon.

GRATIANI (ANTONIO MARIA), a learned bishop of Amelia, was born in 1536 in the little city called Borgodi-san-Sepulcro in Tuscany. He was educated by cardinal Commendo, who trusted him with the most important affairs, and gave him a rich abbey. After this cardinal's death, Gratiani was secretary to pope Sixtus V. then to cardinal Montalto; and Clement VIII. who was partly indebted to him for his elevation to the papal chair, made him bishop of Amelia, sent him to Venice as nuncio, and 'would have even created him cardinal, but was dissuaded from it by cardinal Aldobrandino, because Gratiani was the duke of Florence's subject. The air, of Venice not agreeing with his health, he retired to Amelia, devoted himself to the duties of a holy bishop, and died there, 1611. He left 6 Synodal Ordinances ;" “ The Life of Cardinal Commendo,” 4to, which has been translated into French by M. Flechier; “ De Bello Cyprio,” 4to; “De Casibus adversis illustrium virorum sui ævi,” 4to, translated into French by le Pelletier. In 1745, a posthumous work was published at Florence, “De Scriptis invita Minerva ad Aloysium fratrem libri viginti,” 4to." · GRATIUS (FALISCUS), an eminent Latin poet, is supposed to have been contemporary with Ovid, and pointed out by him in the last elegy of the fourth book “ De Ponto," " Aptaque venanti Gratius arma dedit.” We have a poem of his, entitled “ Cynogeticon, or, The Art of hunting with Dogs ;” which in strictness can only be called a fragment. The style of this poem is reckoned pure, but without elevation; the poet, like others who have adopted the didactic plan, having been more solicitous to instruct than to please his reader. He is also censured by the critics as dwelling too long on fables; and as he is counted much superior to Némesianus, who has treated the same subject, so he is reckoned in all points inferior to the Greek poet, Oppian, who wrote his Cynogetics and Halieutics under Severus and Caracalla, to whom he presented them, and who is said to have rewarded the poet very magnificently. The first edition of the “ Cynogeticon” was published in 1504, Bonon. folio, along with Nemesianus, and often reprinted; but the best edition is that of London, 1690, in 8vo, “cum Notis perpetuis Thomæ Jonson, M. A.”)*

1 Moreri.-Erythræi Pinacotheca. ? Vossius de Poet. Lat.Fabric. Bibl. Lat.

litio with Neticon' wasmagnificed who it's and c

- GRATIUS (ORTUINUS), a native of Holhwic in the dio. cese of Munster, whose name was Graes, taught ethics and philosophy at Cologn, in a college of which he became the head, and died there May 22, 1542. His attachment to the catholic religion involved him in disputes with Reuchlin, Hutten, and other professors; who, to ridicule the style of the Romish divines, the monks, and some religious ceremonies, are supposed to have published “ Epistolæ obscurorum virorum ad Dominum Magistrum Ortuinum Gratium,” 1516 and 1517, 4to, in two parts, of which there have been editions since. But it is more probable that this book was really written by Van Hutten and John Jæger, alias John Crotus, Luther's contemporary and friend, and who afterwards returned to the church of Rome, and was then reproached by Christopher Olearius for writing such a satire. Erasmus is said to have been so pleased with it, as to be thrown into a violent fit of laughter, which burst an imposthume in his face. In 1710, a beautiful edition was published in 12mno, at London, dedicated to the author of the Tatler. It was condemned by Leo X. March 15, 1517; and Gratius wrote in opposition to it, “ Lamentationes obscurorum virorum non prohibitæ per Sedem Apostolicam," Cologn, 1518, 8vo, reprinted in 1649. He also published “ Triumphus B. Job,” in elegiac verse, in three books, Cologn, 1537, folio ; “ Fasciculus rerum expetendarum et fugiendarum," Cologn, 1535, folio, reprinted under the inspection of Edward Brown, London, 1690, 2 vols. folio; which is a curious collection of pieces respecting the council of Basil.' · GRAUNT, EDWARD. See GRANT.

GRAUNT (JOHN), the celebrated author of the “ Observations on the Bills of Mortality," was the son of Henry Graunt of Hampshire, who being afterwards settled in Birchin-lane, London, had this child born there, April 24, 1620. Being a rigid puritan, he bred him up in all the strictness of those principles; and designing him for trade, gave him no more education than was barely necessary for that purpose; so that, with the ordinary qualifications of vesdiner weitinndrithmetiche reading, writing, and arithmetic, he was put apprentice to a haberdasher in the city, which trade he afterwards followed, but became a freeman of the Drapers' company. He came early into business, and in a short time grew so much into the esteem of his fellow-citizens, that he was

Moreri.- Foppen Bibl. Belg.

NT, LOHN), the Mortality is after

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