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posthumous work published in 1696. 3. “ Sorberiana, sive excerpta ex ore Samuelis Sorbiere,” Toulouse, 1691, 1714, Paris, 1694, and 1732. His other works were dissertations on medals and antiquities, most of which are printed with the “ Sorberiana.” In the Journal des Savans for March 1685, two considerable works are announced by him, which the persecution he afterwards met with probably prevented him from completing; the one was a collection of letters to several crowned heads, written by cardinal Sadolet in the name of Leo X.; the other, a “ Bibliotheque du Languedoc," a kind of literary journal, in which he was to give the lives of the eminent men of that province, and particulars of its history, &c.'

GRAVEROL (John), a learned protestant divine, brother to the preceding, was born at Nismes, September 11, · 1636. He was minister at Lyons, but left that place on the revocation of the edict of Nantes, and went to Amsterdam, and afterwards to London, where he exercised the ministerial office, and died in 1718. His works are nume. rous; the principal one is, “ Moses vindicatus,” Amsterdam, 1694, 12mo, in which he brings proofs of the creation, and of the account given by Moses, against Dr. Thomas Burnet's “ Archæologia Philosophica.''' • GRAVES (RICHARD), an English divine and miscella. neous writer, was a younger son of Richard Graves, esq. of Mickleton, in Gloucestershire, where he was born in 1715. His father, who was an able antiquary, died in 1729. His son, Richard, was educated partly at home, under the rev. Mr. Smith, curate of the parish in which his father resided, and partly at a public school at Abingdon, in Berkshire, whence, at the age of sixteen, he was chosen a scholar of Pembroke college, Oxford. Soon after his arrival he joined a party of young men who met in the evening to read Epictetus, Theophrastus, and other Greek authors, seldom read at schools; and a short time after became the associate of his contemporaries, Shenstone the poet, and Anthony Whistler, who used to meet to read poetry, plays, and other light works. In 1736 he was elected a fellow of All Souls college, where he acquired the particular intimacy of sir William Blackstone; but instead of pursuing the study of divinity, according to his original intention, he now devoted his attention to

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physic, and attended in London two courses of anatomy. A severe illness, however, induced him to resume, the study of divinity, and in 1740, after taking his master's degree, he entered into holy orders. About the same time he removed with Mr. Fitzherbert, father of lord St, Helen's, to the estate of that gentleman at Tissington, in Derbyshire, where he remained three years enjoying in his house the highest pleasures of refined society. At the end of that period, he set off to make the tour of the north, and while at Scarborough, accidentally met with a distant relation, Dr. Samuel Knight, archdeacon of Berkshire, and the author of the Lives of Colet and Erasmus, by whose recommendation he obtained a curacy near Oxford. This was particularly gratifying to Mr. Graves, who was then coming, by turn, into office in the college, and had been for some time desirous of procuring such a situation. He immediately took possession of his curacy, but as the parsonage-house was out of repair, he took a lodging with à gentleman-farmer in the neighbourhood. The attractions of the farmer's youngest daughter made such a powerful impression on the heart of Mr. Graves that he resigned his fellowship and married her. After residing about two years on his cúracy, he was presented by Mr. Skrine to the rectory of Claverton, where he went to reside in 1750, and till his death, was never absent from it a month at a time. As the narrowness of his circumstances obliged him to superintend in person the education of his children, he likewise resolved to take other pupils under his tuition ; and this practice he continued, with great credit to himself, upwards of thirty years. In 1763, through the interest of Ralph Allen, esq. of Prior-Park, he was presented to the living of Kilmersdon, in addition to tbat of Claverton, and that gentleman likewise procured him the appointment of chaplain to lady Chatham. His conversation was rendered highly agreeable by that epigrammatic turn which points his writings of the lighter kind. His constant good humour rendered him an acceptable companion in every society, his colloquial impromptus being frequently as happy as the jeux d'esprit of his pen, while both were invariably the unmeditated effusions of a sportive fancy and guileless heart. He died at Claverton, Nov. 23, 1804, at the advanced age of ninety.

Mr. Graves's publications were very numerous. His first was “ The Festoon; or, a collection of Epigranıs, with an

chodists, Oguage of his maine sting nora taliano: Henothers, cancripture, object, inso

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Essay on that species of composition.” In 1772 he produced “The Spiritual Quixote,” in 3 vols. intended as a satire, on the itinerant and illiterate preachers among the methodists, and which might have been pronounced one of the most amusing and interesting novels of his time, had he not, in pursuit of his main object, incautiously introduced the language of scripture, which, whether used by methodists, or others, can never be a legitimate subject of ridicule. He next published “A Translation from the Italian of Galates; or, å treatise on Politeness, by De la Casa, archbishop of Benevento.” He soon after published 66 Columella, or the distressed Anchoret,” in 2 vols. to show the consequence of a person of education and talents retiring to solitude and indolence in the vigour of youth : in this it is thought he alluded to his friend Shenstone. He also published two volumes of poems under the title of “ Euphrosyne,” which have gone through several editions, but he is rather entitled to the merit of an agreeable veršifier, than that of a genuine poet. Then appeared his 6 Eugenius; or, Anecdotes of the Golden Vale,” in 2 vols. In 1778 appeared “Recollections of some particu. lars in the life of William Shenstone, esq. in a series of letters to W. Seward, esq. F. R. S.” This was published to vindicate the character of his friend from the criticisms and censure of Dr. Johnson, Mr. Gray, and Mr. Mason. The following is a list of his subsequent publications, although probably not in chronological order. “ Plexippus; or, the aspiring Plebeian,” in 2 vols. ; “ Hiero on the condition of Royalty,” from the Greek of Xenophon; " Fleurettes," a translation of Fenelon's Ode on Solitude, and other French authors; “ The Life of Commodus," from the Greek of Herodian ; “ The Rout," from a young man in town to his friend in the country; “ The Meditations of Antoninus, translated from the Greck;"> - The Reveries of Solitude," consisting of pieces of prose and verse; “ The Coalition; or, Opera rehearsed,” a comedy, in three acts; “ The Farmer's Son," a moral tale, in the ballad metre; “ Sermons on various subjects,” in 1 vol.; « Senilities,” consisting of pieces in prose and verse. His last publication was “ The Invalid, with the obvious means of enjoying Life, by a Nonagenarian.” The above, we believe, is a tolerably correct list of the publications of Mr. Graves; whose works, although the “ Spiritual Quixote" only will be much called for hereafter, will always be read

VOL. XVI.

ained to the haich was peculiand epigram

with pleasure, there being a sprightliness and epigrammatic turn in his writings which was peculiar to himself, and which he retained to the last. In Mr. Graves ended the bright associates of their tiine, composed of Shenstone, Whistler, and Jago. 1

S'GRAVESANDE (WILLIAM James), an eminent Dutch philosopher, was born Sept. 26, 1688, at Bois-le-duc, in Holland, of an ancient and honourable family. He was educated with the greatest care, and very early discovered an extraordinary genius for mathematical learning. He was sent to the university of Leyden, in 1704, with an intention to study the civil law; but at the same time he cultivated with the greatest assiduity his favourite science. Before he was nineteen, he composed his treatise on perspective, which gained him great credit among the most eminent mathematicians of his tinje. When he had taken his doctor's degree in 1707, he quitted the college, and settled at the Hague, where he practised at the bar. In this situation he contracted and cultivated an acquaintance with learned men; and made one of the principal members of the society that composed a periodical review, entitled “ Le Journal. Littéraire.” This journal began in May 1713, and was continued without interruption till 1722. The parts of it written or extracted by Gravesande were principally those relating to physics and geometry. But he enriched it also with several original pieces entirely of his composition, viz. “ Remarks on the construction of Pneumatical Engines;" "A moral Essay on Lying;" and a celebrated “ Essay on the Collision of Bodies;'" which, as it opposed the Newtonian philosophy, was attacked by Dr. Clarke, and many other learned nien.

In 1715, when the States sent to congratulate George I. on his accession to the throne, Gravesande was appointed secretary to the embassy. During his stay in England he was admitted a member of the royal society, and became intimately acquainted with sir Isaac Newton. On his return to Holland, when the business of the embassy was over, he was chosen professor of the mathematics and astronomy at Leyden; and he had the honour of first teaching the Newtonian philosophy there, which was then in its infancy. The most considerable of his publications is << An Introduction to the Newtonian Philosophy; or, a treatise on the Elements of Physics, confirmed by experiments.” This performance, being only a more perfect copy of his public lectures, was first printed in 1720; and has since gone through many editions, with considerable improvements. He published also “A small treatise on the Elements of Algebra, for the use of young students." After he was promoted to the chair of philosophy in 1734, he published " A Course of Logic and Metaphysics." He had a design too of presenting the public with “ A System of Morality,” but his death, which happened in 1742, prevented his putting it in execution. Besides his own works, he published several correct editions of the valuable works of others. His whole mathematical and philosophical works, except the first article above, were collected and published at Amsterdam, 1774, in 2 vols. 4to, to which is prefixed a critical account of his life and writings, by professor Allamand.

i Gent. Mag. vol, LXXIV.--Senilities, passim.--Dodsley's and Pearch's Poems.--Nichola's Bowyer, where is an account of his father.

He was amiable in his private and respectable in his public character; for, few men of letters have done more eminent services to their country. The ministers of the republic consulted 'him on all occasions in which his talents were requisite to assist them, which his skill in calculation often enabled him to do in money affairs. He was of great service also in detecting the secret correspondence of their enemies, as a decipherer. And, as a professor, none ever applied the powers of nature with more success, or to more useful purposes."

GRAVINA (JOHN VINCENT), an eminent scholar, and illustrious lawyer of Italy, was born of genteel parents at Roggiano, February 18, 1664; and educated under Gregory Caloprese, a famous philosopher of that time, and his cousin-german. He went to Naples at sixteen, and there applied himself to the Latin and Greek languages, and to civil law; which application, , however, did not make him neglect to cultivate, with the utmost exactness, his own native tongue. He was so fond of study, that he pursued it ten or twelve hours a day, to the very last years of his life; and, when his friends remonstrated agaist this unnecessary labour, he used to tell them that he knew of nothing which could afford him more pleasure. He went to Rome in 1689, and some years after was made professor

! Prosper Marchand, vol. II.—Dict. Hist.-Hutton's Dictionary.'

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