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under the contempt of hypercriticism, and a friendly and affectionate disposition. He had also some failings, among which are enumerated a want of personal courage, a reservedness and caprice of temper, and a foppish attention to dress. This was somewhat singular in one who to bis other qualities, added a great portion of humour, and had a quick sense of the ridiculous. His sensibility was even morbid, and very often fastidious and troublesome to his friends. He seemed frequently overwhelmed by the ordinary intercourse and ordinary affairs of life. Coarse manners, and vulgar or unrefined sentiments, overset him. Mason's excuse for all this will not perhaps be thought the excuse of a friend; he attributes it rather to “an affectation in delicacy and effeminacy, than the things themselves,” and says that Gray “chose to put on this appearance before persons whom he did not wish to please.”
Gray appears to have written in a desultory manner; his efforts were such as he could accomplish probably at one time, and he had not in many instances affection enough for his subject to return to it. Hence no poet of modern times has left so many specimens or samples, so much planned, and so little executed. Activity and labour it appears he could never endure, unless i storing his mind with various knowledge for his own curiosity and satisfaction. Hence, although he read much and read critically, and amassed a vast fund of general learning, his reputation in this respect has hitherto stood upon the evidence of those who know him most intimately. He was above fifty years of age before he became sensible of the necessity of concentrating his knowledge in one pursuit, and as he had never accustomed himself so to regulate his acquisitions as to render them useful to others, he apparently sunk under the task which his professorship imposed; and it is much to the credit of his independent spirit, that when he found it impossible to execute the duties, he determined to resign the emoluments of bis place.
As a poet, it may be sufficient here to refer to our authorities, which are in the hands of every reader, with perhaps the exception of an excellent edition of his works, just published, by tbe rev. John Mitford, which we can recommend with perfect confidence. Dr. Johnson's cha.. racter of his poetry has excited a controversy, from which it ipay be truly said that Gray has emerged with additional lustre, yet if inere popularity were to determine the ques.,
tion, that critic has in some instances spoken the sentiments of tlie majority, as well as his own. It were, however, to be wished for his own sake, that in his general colouring of Gray's life and works, he had attended more to what he calls “the common sense of readers, uncurrupted with literary prejudices." Had this been the case, while some of his strictures might have been allowed, he would have been a powerful ally of those whose superior minds know how to feel and how to appreciate the merit of Gray, and who have assigned him one of the highest places among the English poets of the eighteenth century.'
GRAZIANI. See GRATIANIS.
GRAZZINI (ANTONY FRANCIS), an Italian scholar and poet of considerable eminence, was born at Florence March 22, 1503, of a noble family, which can be traced as far as the thirteenth century, but was now decayed, as we find that Grazzini in liis youth was brought up as an apothecary. He had, however, studied philosophy and the belles lettres, and from the time that he acquired some reputation in the literary world, gave up his medical business. In 1540 he became one of the founders of the academy of Florence, which was first called the academy of the Humides, and each member distinguishing huself by some appellation relative to the water, Grazzini adopting that of Lasca, which signifies a roach. From the first establishment of this academy, he was appointed chancellor, and when, some months after, the grand duke changed its name to that of the academy of Florence, he was chosen overseer, or superintendant, an office which he afterwards filled three times. As the number of inembers, however, increased, the juniors began to make new regulations without consulting the founders, and a schism broke out, attended with so many unpleasant circumstances, that Grazzini withdrew, and became the founder of a new academy, kuown still by the name of La Crusca. The object of this society was to polish the Italian language, to fix a standard for it, to point out such authors as might be always models
I Mason's Life and Works of Gray.---Mitford's, whose arrangement of the life we have most generally followed.-Lord Orford's Works, vol. 11, p. 322, IV. p. 445, V. p. 137, 147,- Beattie's Life, by Sir W. Forbes.-Johnson's Poets. Boswell's Life of Johuson.-Cole's MS Athene and Correspondence in Brit. Mos.-Bowles's edition of Pope ; see Iudex. -Censura Literaria. Mr. Mathias. has announced selections from Mr. Gray's manuscripts, which will probably throw 'much light on those learned researches that employed so much of his time. See also Mr. Tyson's Letters in Nichols's Bowyer, vol. VIII.
for those who chose to improve their style, to oppose the progress of false taste; and to sift the four froni the bran of literature, crusca siguifying bran. Grazzini was well qualified to assist an academy instituted for these purposes. He had enriched the language with several choice phrases and new modes of expression, and the academicians have very justly ranked him among those authors to whom they have been obliged for examples, in correcting their great vocabulary. In the mean time his growing fame induced his friend Leonard Salviati to endeavour his re-introduction into the academy of Florence, which was successfully accomplished in 1566, twenty years after he had left it; in return for which he procured admission for Salviati among the Cruscanti. Grazzini died at Florence in February 1583. He was a man of unquestionable genius, spirit, and humour, and wrote with great elegance, and although there are some indelicate passages in his poems, which was the vice of the times, he was a man of strict morals, and even, says his biographer, very religious. Many of his works are lost, and among these soie prose tales, and many pieces of poetry. There remain, however, twentyone tales, six comedies, a great number of capitoli, or satirical chapters, and various poems, of which the best edition is that of Florence, 1741, 2 vols. 8vo. His Tales or Novels were printed at Paris, 1756, 8vo, from which some copies have been printed in 4to, under the title of London. An excellent French translation of them appeared in 1775, 2 vols. 8vo, in which nine histories wanting in the third evening are said to be inserted from an old French translation in MS. He wrote also “ La guerra di Mostri, Poema giocoso,” Florence, 1584, 410. Grazzini published the 2d book of Berni, Florence, 1555, 8vo; and “ Tutti i trionfi, carri, mascherate. o canti carnascialeschi dal tempo di Lorenzo de Medici a questo anno 1559," Svo; 100 pages are frequently wanting in this work, page 297 being påsted upon page 398. These pages contained 51 canzoni, by John Baptist dell Ottomaio, which had been inserted without his consent, and which his brother, by authority from the magistrates, had cancelled. They were printed separately by the author, in a similar size, the year following, and must be added to the mutilated copies; but though they consist of 55 songs instead of 51, those found in the original collection are preferred, as the others have been altered. This collection was reprinted in
1750, 2 vols. 8vo; Cosmopoli; but this impression is not valued.'
GREATRAKES (VALENTINE); an empiric, whose wonderful cures have been attested by some of the most emi. nent men of the serenteenth century, was the son of Wil. Jiam Greatrakes, esq. and born at Affane, co. Waterford,
in Ireland, Feb. 14, 1628. He was educated a protestant · in the free-school of Lismore, until the age of thirteen, when his friends intended to have removed him to Trinity college, Dublin, but the rebellion breaking out, his mother took refuge with him in England, where he was kindly received by his great uncle Edmund Harris, brother to sir Edward Harris, kot. his grandfather by the mother's side. After bis uncle's death he spent some years in the study of the classics and divinity under a clergy man in Devonshire, and then returned to Ireland, which was at that time in so deplorable a state that lie retired to the castle of Caperquin, where he spent a year in contemplation, and seems to have contracted a species of enthusiasm which never altogether left him. In 1649 he entered into the service of the parliament, and continued in the army until 1656; when; a great part of the English being disbanded, he retired to his native country of Affane, and by the interest of the governor there, was made clerk of the peace for the county of Cork, register for transplantation, and justice of the peace. At the Restoration all these places were taken from him, and his mind being disturbed partly with this disappointment, and partly for want of any regular and useful occupation, he felt an impulse, as he calls it, that the gift of curing the king's evil was bestowed upon him ; and accordingly he began his operations, which were confined to praying, and stroking the part affected; and such wonderful cures were effected, that he deterinined not to stop here. Three years after, he had another impulse that he could cure all kinds of diseases, and by the same simple remedy, which must be administered by himself. When however he pretended to some supernatural aid, and mentioned the Holy Ghost with irre. verent presumption, as his assistant, he was cited to the bishop's court, and forbid to take such liberties. This probably was the cause of his coming to England in January 1665, where he performed many cures, was invited
I Ginguené Hist. Lit. d'Italie. Tiraboschi. ---Dict. Hist..Moreri. VOL. XVI,
whom Greatrak of Mr. Boyle, her, sir Na
by the king to Whitehall, and his reputation spread, most. extensively. Even Dr. Henry Stubbe, an eminent physician, published a pamphlet in praise of his skill. Having failed in one instance, that of a Mr. Cresset in Charterhouse square, there appeared a pamphlet entitled “ Wonders no miracles : or Mr. Valentine Greatrakes Gift of Healing examined,” &c. Lond. 1666, 460. This was written by Mr. David Lloyd, reader to the Charter-house, who treated Greatrakes as a cheat. In answer to this, he published " A brief account of Mr. Valentine Greatrakes, and divers of his strange cures," &c. ibid. 1666, 4to. This was drawn up in the form of a letter to the right hon. Robert Boyle, who was a patron of our physician, as was also Dr. Henry More, and several other members of the royal society, before whom Greatrakes was examined. To his cures we find the attestations of Mr. Boyle, sir William Smith, Dr. Denton, Dr. Fairclough, Dr. Faber, sir Na. thaniel Hobart, sir John Godolphin, Dr. Wilkins, Dr. Whichcot (a patient), Dr. Cudworth, and many other persons of character and reputation. The truth seems to be, that he performed cures in certain cases of rheumatism, stiff joints, &c. by friction of the hand, and long perseverance in that remedy; in all which there would have been nothing extraordinary, as the same is practised till this day, had he not excited the astonishment and enthusiasm of his patients by pretensions to an extraordinary gift bestowed upon him, as he insinuates in one place, to cure the people of atheisme When he left England or died is not known. Mr. Harris says he was living in Dublin in 1681.
GREAVES (JOHN), an eminent mathematician and antiquary, was eldest son of Johu Greaves, rector of Col. more, near Alresford, in Hampshire, where his son was born in 1602, and probably iostructed in grammar learning by his father, who was the most celebrated school-master in that country. At fifteen years of age he was sent to Baliol college, in Oxford, where he proceeded B. A. July 6, 1621. Three years after, his superiority in classical learning procured him the first place of five in an election to a fellowship of Merton-college. On June 25, 1628; he commenced M. A. and, having completed his fellowship, was more at liberty to pursue the bent of his inclination,
Baliol coller aree years the first plac
I Biog. Brit. jo art. Stubbe.-- Account of him, 1666, 410.Harris's edition of Ware's History of Ireland.