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GREGORY XIII. the principal event in whose life is the reformation he introduced in the Roman calendar, was born at Bologna in 1502. His name before his promotion was Hugh Buoncompagno. He was brought up to the study of the civil and canon law, which he taught in his native city with uncommon reputation. He was afterwards appointed judge of the court of commerce at Bologna. From this city he removed to Rome, where, after various preferments, he was on the death of Pius V. in 1572, unanimously elected his successor, and at his consecration he took the name of Gregory XIII. His reformation of the calendar, was according to a method suggested by Lewis Lilio, a Calabrian astronomer, which after his death was presented to the pope by his brother. This method, which was immediately adopted in all catholic countries, but was rejected by the protestants and by the Greeks, was intended to reform the old or Julian year, established by Julius Cæsar, which consisted of 365 days 6 hours, or 365 days and a quarter, that is three years of 365 days each, and the fourth year of 366 days. But as the mean tropical year consists only of 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 57 ses conds, the former lost Il minutes 3 seconds every year; which in the time of pope Gregory had amounted to 10 days, and who, by adding these 10 days, brought the account of time to its proper day again, and at the same time appointed that every century after, a day more should be added, thereby making the years of the complete centuries, viz. 1600, 1700, 1800, &c. to be common years of 365 days each, instead of leap-years of 366 days, which makes the mean Gregorian year equal to 365 days 5 hours 45 minutes 36 seconds. This computation was not introduced into the account of time in England, till 1752, when the Julian account had lost 11 days, and therefore the 3d of September, was in that year by act of parliament accounted the 14th, thereby restoring the 11 days which had thus been omitted. · In 1584 Gregory incurred the suspicion, although some think without foundation, of having encouraged the assassination of Elizabeth queen of England, by Parr, an English catholic, who was detected in a conspiracy against the queen's life. This pope contributed greatly to correct and amend Gratian's decretals, which he enriched with learned notes. He died of a quinsey, in the eighty-fourth year of his age, and the 14th of his pontificate, in 1586. Several of his “ Letters,” “ Harangues,” &c. are said to be in existence.
GREGORY (NAZIANZEN), was born A. D. 324, at Azianzum, an obscure village belonging to Nazianzum, a town of the second Cappadocia, situated in a poor, barren, and unhealthy country. His parents were persons of rank, and no less eminent for their virtues: his father, whose name was also Gregory, had been educated in a religion called Hypsistarianism *, to which, being the religion of his ancestors, he was a bigot in his younger years; and the deserting it not only lost him the kindness of his friends, but estranged him from his mother, and deprived him of his estate. This, however, he bore with great chearfulness for the sake of Christianity, to which he was converted by his wife, though not without the help of an emphatical dream; he was afterwards made bishop of Nazianzum, being the second who sat in that chair, where he behaved with great prudence and diligence. Nor was our author's mother less eminent; descended of a pious family, she was herself, for piety, so much the wonder of her age, that this son was said to have been the pure effect of her prayers, and of a vow to devote him to God, after the example of Hannah : and upon his birth she was careful to perform her vow.
Thus advantageously born, he proved a child of pregnant parts; by which, and the advantage of a domestic institution under his parents, he soon outstript his contemporaries in learning. Nature had formed him of a grave and serious temper, so that his studies were not obstructed by the little sports and pleasures of youth. After some time, he travelled abroad for his farther improvement; in which rout, the first step he took was to Cæsarea, and having rifled the learning of that university, he travelled to Cæsarea Philippi in Palestine, where some of the most celebrated masters of that age resided, and where Eusebius then sat bishop. Here he studied under the famous orator Thespasias, and bad among other fellow-pupils, Euzoïus, afterwards
. This was a kind of Samaritan abstinence from some kind of meats, mixture, made of Judaism and Pagan- but disowned circumcision. They ism, or rather some select rites of each, pretended to worship no other deity With the Centiles, they did honour to but the almighty, supreme, and most fire and burning lights, but rejected high God; whence they assumed idols and sacrifices; with the Jews, their characteristic above-mentioned. they observed the sabbath, and a strict infislos, signifying The Most High..
the Arian bishop of that place. He applied himself pare ticularly to rhetoric, minding the elegance, not the vanity and affectation, which then too much disgraced that pro. fession). Hence he removed to Alexandria, whose schools were famous next to those of Athens, which he designed for his last stage; and therefore went aboard a ship belonging to Ægina, an Island not far fron) Athens, the mariners of which were his familiar acquaintance; but it being about the middle of November, a season for rough weather, they were taken with a storm in the road near Cyprus; and the case was become desperate, when suddenly the tempest, it was affirmed, ceased by the prayers of Gregory: *Thus miraculously preserved, he arrived safe at Athens, where he was joyfully entertained, his great abilities rendering him the admiration both of the scholars and profes. sors. Here he commenced a friendship with St. Basil, the great companion of his life; bere too he became acquainted with Julian, afterwards emperor and apostate, an event which he remarkably foretold, although at that time Jun lian had given no ground for suspicior.
After the departure of his friend, Nazianzen was pre, Failed upon by the students to undertake the professor's place of rhetoric, and he sat in that chair with great ap: plause for a little while ; but being now thirty years of age, and much solicited by his parents to return bome, he complied, taking his journey by land to Constantinople. Here he met his brother Cæsarius, just then arrived from Alexandria, su accomplished in all the polite learning of that age, and especially in physic, which he had made bis par. ticular study, that he had not been there long before he had public honours decreed hiin, matches proposed from noble families, the dignity of a senator offered him, and a committee appointed to wait upon the emperor, to intreat him, that though the city at tbat time wanted no learned men in any faculty, yet this might be added to all its other glory, to have Cæsarius for its physician and inhabitant. But Nazianzen's influence prevailed against all these temptations; and the two brothers returned home together, to the great joy of their aged parents,
Nazianzen now thought it time to fulfil a vow which he had made during the storm above-mentioned, to consecrate himself to God by baptism. Afterwards he was ordained a presbyter by his father, who soon had occasion to avail himself of his assistance. Gregory, the father, among several of the eastern bishops, had received a creed composed by a convention at Constantinople, in the year 395, in which the word consubstantial being laid aside, that article was expressed thus : “ that the Son was in all things like the Father, according to the Scriptures." In consequence, the monks of Cappadocia, in denying him communion, were followed by a great part of the people. Nazianzen, therefore, zealously endeavoured to make up this breach. He first convinced his father of the error, which he found him as ready to recant, and give public satisfaction to the people ; then he dealt with the other party, whom he soon prevailed with to be reconciled; and, to bind all with a lasting cement, he made on this occasion his first oration, “ Concerning Peace.” · Julian had now ascended the throne; and in order to suppress Christianity, published a law, prohibiting Christians not only to teach, but to be taught the books and learning of the Gentiles. The defeat of this design, next to the two Apollinarii in Syria, was chiefly owing to Nazianzen, who upon this occasion composed a considerable part of his poems, comprehending all sorts of divine, grave, and serious subjects, in all kinds of poetry; by which means the Christian youth of those times were completely furnished, and found no want of those heathen authors that were taken from them. Julian afterwards coming to Cæsarea, in the road to his Persian expedition, one part of the army was quartered at Nazianzum, where the commander peremptorily required the church (which the elder Gregory had not long since built) to be delivered to him. But the old man stoutly opposed him, daily assembling the people to public prayers, who were so affected with the common cause, that the officer was forced to retire for his owp safety. Julian being slain not long after, Nazianzen published.iwo invective orations against him, which are at once remarkable proofs of his wit and eloquence, but which qualities were mixed with too much virulence and acri. mony. · Having by Julian's death obtained some respite from public concerns, he made a visit to his friend Basil, who was then in monastic solitude upon a mountain in Pontuş, whither he had often solicited Nazianzen's company. The latter was naturally inclined to such a course of life, and always looked upon his entering into orders as a kind of force and tyranny put upon him, which he could hardly digest; yet he knew not how to desert his parents. But his brother Cæsarius being now returned from court, where he had been for some years, with a purpose to fix in his possession at home, gave him an opportunity to indulge his inclination. He accordingly retired to his old companion, with whom in his solitary recess he remained several years, passing the time in watching, fasting, and all the several acts of mortification. He was thus employed when the necessity of affairs at home obliged him to quit his retirement. His father laboured under the infirmities of age, and being no longer able to attend his charge, prevailed with him to come home; he returned accordingly about Easter, and published a large apologetic in excuse of his flight, which had been much censured. He had not long entered upon his charge of assistant to his father, when the family had the misfortune to lose his brother Cæsarius, who departed this life October 11, 358. Sobie time after, died of a malignant fever, his sister Gorgonia, whose funeral-sermon he preached; as he did also that of his father, the aged bishop of Nazianzum, who died not long after, near one hundred years old, having been fortyfive years bishop of that place. In the conclusion of this latter oration he addressed himself to his mother Norma, to support her mind under so great a loss, consolations which were proper and seasonable: for she, being thus deprived of her affectionate partner, and being nearly of equal years to her husband, expired, as may probably be conjectured, soon after. .
By these breaches in the family, Nazianzen was sufficiently weaned from the place of his nativity; and, though he was not able to procure a successor to his father, he resolved to throw up his charge, and accordingly retired to Seleucia, famous for the temple of St. Thercla, the virginmartyr; where, in a monastery of devout virgins dedicated to that saint, he continued a long time, and did not return till the death of St. Basil, whom he deeply regretted he could not attend at his last hours, being himself confined by sickness. About this time he was summoned to à council at Antioch, holden anno 378,, to consider the emperor's late edict for tolerating the catholics, in order to suppress Arianism ; and, being ordered by the council to fix himself for that purpose at Constantinople, he presently repaired thịther. Here he found the catholic interest at the lowest ebb: the Arians, favoured by Valens, had pos
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