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revenues depended upon the event. An act of parliament bad lately passed, whereby her majesty was empowered to exchange the ancient episcopal manors and lordships for tithes and impropriations; a measure extremely regretted by these first bishops, who scrupled whether they should comply in a point so injurious to the revenue of their respective sees, which must suffer considerably by these exchanges; and which too would cut off all hope of restoring the tithes, so long unjustly detained from the respective churches, for the maintenance of the incumbents. In this important point our new-nominated bishop consulted Peter Martyr in a letter dated August of this year; nor did he accept of the bishopric till he had received an opinion in favour of it from that divine, who said that the queen might provide for her bishops and clergy in such manner as she thought proper, that being none of Grindal's concern. He also communicated to that divine his scruples concerning the habits and some customs then used in the church, on both which Martyr gave him the advice of a sensible and moderate man who regarded more weighty matters. Before this answer could be received, Grindal was consecrated Dec. 1, but the exchange of lands with the queen not being fully settled, he could not compound for his first fruits, and consequently he was hindered from exercising his episcopal function, and was obliged to have the queen's express authority for that purpose. We may here remark that Cox bishop of Ely, Barlow of Chichester, and Scory of Hereford, were consecrated at the same time by archbishop Parker, with whom they all joined in a petition to her majesty to stop these exchanges, and they offered her as an equivalent, 1000 marks a year during their lives. In 1560, he was made one of the ecclesiastical commissioners, in pursuance of an act of parliament to inspect into the manners of the clergy, and regulate all matters of the church; and the same year he joined with Cox and Parker, in a private letter to the queen, persuading her to marry. In 1561, he held his primary visitation. In 1563 he assisted the archbishop of Canterbury, together with some civilians, in preparing a book of statutes for Christ church, Oxford, which as yet had none fixed. This year he was also very serviceable, in procuring the English merchants, who were ill used at Antwerp and other parts of the Spanish Netherlands, and who had been very kind to she English exiles in the late reign, a new settlement at
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Embden, in East-Friesland; and the same year, at the request of sir William Cecil, secretary of.state, he wrote animadversions upon a treatise entitled “ Cbristiani Ho-minis Norma,” &c. 66 The Rule of a Christian Man," the author of wbich, one Justus Velsius, a Dutch enthusiast, had impudently, in some letters to the queen, used menaces to her majesty ; but being at last cited before the ecclesiastical commission, was charged to depart the kingdom.
On April 15, 1564, he took the degree of D. D. at Cambridge, and the same year executed the queen's express command, for exacting uniformity in the clergy; but proceeded so tenderly and slowly, that the archbishop thought fit to excite and quicken bim; whence the puritans supposed him inclined to their party. However, he brought several nonconformists to comply; to which end be pub. Jished a letter of Henry Bullinger, minister of Zurich, in Switzerland, to prove the lawfulness of compliance, which had a very good effect. The same year, October 3, on -the celebration of the emperor Ferdinand's funeral, he preached a sermon at St. Paul's, afterwards printed, from which Strype has given extracts. In 1567 be executed the queen's orders in proceeding against the prohibited and unlicensed preachers; but was so treated by some with reproaches and rude language, that it abated mach of his favourable inclinations towards them, which was felt and isesented on their part. Even although some years afterwards he both procured the liberty of some separatists who had been imprisoned according to law, and injulged their - ministers with a licence to preach on their promising not ito act against the laws, yet they immediately abused that liberty, and when he proceeded against them for it, they had the boldness to lodge a complaint in the privy, council representing his dealings with them. The archbishop, touched with their ingratitude, joined with the council in opinion that such men ought to be severely punished as a warning to others. Grindal was also threatened with a premunire by some of his clergy for raising a contribution upon them the preceding year for the persecuted Protestants abroad, without the queen's licence. But this did not discourage him, and having procured a commission from her majesty to visit the Şayoy, the hospital appointed for the relief and entertainment of poor travellers, be deprived the master, who had almost ruined the charity by bis abuses and mismanagement.
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This was the last piece of service he performed for his diocese, being on May 1', 1570, translated to the see of York. He owed this promotion to secretary Cecil and archbishop Parker, who liked his removal from London, as not being resolute enough for the government there. The same year he wrote a letter to his patron Cecil, that Cartwright the famous nonconformist might be silenced'; and in 1571, at his metropolitical visitation, be shewed' a. hearty zoal, by bis injunctions, for the discipline and good government of the church. In 1572 he petitionied the queen to renew the ecclesiastical commission. In 1574 he held one for the purpose of proceeding against papists, whose number daily diminished in his diocese, which he was particularly careful to provide with learned preachers, as being in his opinion the best method of attaining that end. He rejected therefore such as came for institution to livings if they were found deficient in learning, and in this policy he was encouraged by the queen, to whom it was highly agreeable. In other respects he had frequently to contend with the avarice of the courtiers, some of whom would have greatly impoverished the church, if he and other prelates had not opposed them. .
His patron, Cecil, then lord treasurer, recommended him to the first chair in the church, which became vacant by the death of archbishop Parker. Accordingly he was translated to the see of Canterbury, in which he was confirmed, February 15, 1575. On May 6, 1576, he began his metropolitical visitation, and took measures for the better régulation of his courts; but the same year fell under her majesty's displeasure, upon account of the favour hė shewed to what was called the exercise of prophesying.
These prophesyings had been used for some time, the rules of which were, that the ministers of a particular division at a set time met together at some church, and there each in their order explained, according to their abilities, some portion of scripture allotted to them before; this done, a moderator made his observations on what had been said, and determined the true sense of the place, a certain time being fixed for dispatching the whole. The advantage was the improvement of the clergy, who hereby considerably profited in the knowledge of the scripture; but this mischief ensued, that at length confusions and disturbances took place at those meetings, by an ostentation of superior parts in some, by advancing heterodox opinions, and by the intrusion of some of the silenced sex paratists, who took this opportunity of declaiming against the liturgy and hierarchy, and even speaking against states and particular persons. The people also, of whom there. was always a great conflux as hearers, fell to arguing and disputing much about religion, and sometimes a layman would take upon himself to speak. In short, the exercises degenerated into factions.
Grindal laboured to redress these irregularities by setting down rules and orders for the management of these exercises ; however, the queen still disapproved of them, as seeing probably how very apt they were to be abused. She did not like that the laity should neglect their secular affairs by repairing to those meetings, which she thought might fill their heads with notions, and so occasion dissentions and disputes, and perhaps seditions in the state. And the archbishop being at court, she particularly declared herself offended at the number of preachers as well as the exer cises, and ordered him to redress both; urging, that it was good for the church to have few preachers, that three or four might suffice for a county, and that the reading of the Homilies to the people was sufficient. She therefore required him to abridge the number of preachers, and put down the religious exercises. This did not a little afflict. him. He thought, and very properly, the queen infringed upon his office, to whom, next to herself, the highest trust of the church of England was committed ; especially as this command was peremptory, and made without at all advising with him, and that in a matter so directly con cerning religion : he wrote a letter to her majesty, declaring, that his conscience would not suffer him to con: ply with her commands.
This refusal was dated December 20, 1576. The queen therefore having given him sufficient time to consider well his resolution, and he continuing infexible, she sent letters next year to the bishops, to forbid all exercises and prophesyings, and to silence all preachers and teachers not Jawfully called, of which there were no small number; and in June the archbishop was sequestered from his office, and confined to his house by an order of the court of starchamber. 1o November the lord-treasurer wrote to him about making his submission, with which he not thinking fit to .comply, his sequestration was contivued; and in January there were thoughts of depriving him, which, bow,
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ever, were laid aside. June 1579, his confinement was either taken off, or else he had leave to retire to his house at Croydon'; for we find him there consecrating the bishop of Exeter in that year, and the bishops of Winchester, and Lichfield and Coventry, the year following. This part of his function was exercised by a particular commission from the queen, who in council appointed two civilians to manage the other affairs of his see, the two of his nomination being set aside. Yet sometimes he had special com. mands from the queen and council to act in person, and issued out orders in his own name; and in general was as active as he could be, and vigilant in the care of his diocese as occasion offered. In 1580, for instance, when there happened a violent earthquake, our archbishop having issued an order for prayer and humiliation, composed a prayer for families throughout his diocese, which was allowed by the council, who in a letter to him commended his great zeal, and required him to enjoin the observation of his new order of prayer in all other dioceses. The council also referred to him the decision of a dispute that happened the same year at Merton college, Oxford, of which he was visitor, as archbishop; and soon after he was employed by the lord treasurer in a controversy between the university and town of Cambridge.
This year (1580), a convocation met at St. Paul's, at which, though he could not appear, yet he had a principal share in the transactions of it. He drew up an expedient for preserving the authority of the spiritual courts in the point of excommunications; he laid before them also a new form of penance to be observed for the future, better calculated than the former to produce a proper effect on offenders. It was moved in this convocation, that no bu. siness should be entered upon, nor any subsidy granted, till he was restored, and although the motion was negatived, yet they unanimously presented a petition in his favour to her majesty, which they thought was a more respectful proceeding. This, however, proved ineffectual, nor was he restored until after he made his submission, in which, among other things, to clear himself of the charge of a refractory disobedience in the matter of the exercises, he proved that in his own bishopric, and other peculiar jurisdictions, he never suffered the practice after the time of her majesty's command.
The precise time of his restitution does not clearly ap.
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