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just mentioned, was his executor, to whom he left a considerable legacy, as he did a small one to William Lilly, the grammarian, who was his godson. His will is printed in the appendix to Knight's “ Life of Erasmus.” He had indeed but little to leave, having never enjoyed preferment equal to his worth *; yet he was a man of great generosity, which at one time obliged him to pawn his plate to Dr. Young, who generously returned it by his will without taking principal or interest. A Latin epistle of Gro. cyn's to Aldus Manutius is prefixed to Linacre's translation of “ Proclus de Sphæra," printed at Venice in 1449, fol. Erasmus says, that “there is nothing extant of his but this epistle: indeed a very elaborate and acute one, and written in good Latin." His publishing nothing more seems to have been owing to too much delicacy; for, Erasmus adds, “ he was of so nice a taste, that he had rather write nothing than write ill.” Some other things, however, of his writing are mentioned by Bale, Leland, and Tanner, as “ Tractatus contra hostiolum Joannis Wiclevi ;'' “ Epistolæ ad Erasmum et alios ; “Grammatica;" “Vulgaria puerorum;" " Epigrammata ;" Nota in Terentium,” and “ Isagogicum quoddam."

GROENVELT (JOHN), a physician, and member of the royal college of London, in the seventeenth century, was born at Deventer, in the province of Overyssel; he studied and graduated at Utrecht, where he began the practice of his profession. He likewise studied under a celebrated lithotomist of Amsterdam, from whom he learnt that art, and whose esteem he acquired by the dexterity with which he performed the operation, insomuch that by his will this master bequeathed all his instruments to Groenvelt, with a request that he should employ them for the good of mankind. After this time he practised this art almost exclusively. He left three treatises ; the first entitled “Dissertatio lithologica variis observationibus et figuris illustrata, " Lond. 1684. 2. “ Practica qua humani morbi describuntur,” Francfort, 1688. 3. “ Tractatus de tuto Canthari.

* In the new edition of Wood's Athe. in 1517 the vicarage of St. Lawrence næ we find that be became prebendary Jewry. He is also said to have sucof South Searle in the church of Lin. ceeded Cuthbert Tonstall in the church cole ; in 1493 he appears to have re. of East Peckham, in the diocese of signed the rectory of Depden ; in 1513 Shereham. that of Shepperton in Middlesex; and

i Leland.-Bale.---Tanner.-Ath. Ox. vol. 1.-new edit. by Bliss.-Jortin's and Knight's Lives of Erasmus, aad Knight's Life of Culet, Wood's Annals.

of his wor's name was chime of his de

dum in Medicina usu interno," Lond. 1693, &c. These works were translated into English in 1691, 1706, 1710, and another of his works entitled “The grounds of physic." In all these the author's name was changed to GREENFIELD. None of our authorities specify the time of his death."

GROLLIER (JOHN), an eminent patron of literature, was born at Lyons in 1479 ; and very early displayed a propensity towards those elegant and solid pursuits, which afterwards secured him the admiration and esteem of his contemporaries. His address was easy, his manners were frank, yet polished ; his demeanour was engaging, and his liberality knew no bounds. As he advanced in years, he advanced in reputation ; enjoying a princely fortune, the result, in some measure, of a faithful and honourable discharge of the important diplomatic situations which he filled. He was grand treasurer to Francis I. and ambassador from that monarch to pope Clement VII. During his abode at Rome he employed the Alduses to print for him an edition of Terence in 1521, 8vo, and another of Budæus's work “ De Asse," 1522, 4to. Of his liberality while in this city, Egnatio gives the following instance: “I dined along with Aldus, his son Manutius, and other learned men at Grollier's table. After dinner, and just as the dessert had been placed on the table, our host presented each of his guests with a pair of glove's filled with ducats.” De Thou speaks very highly of his character. During his travels he had secured from Basil, Venice, and Rome, the most precious copies of books that could be purchased, which he bound in a peculiar style, described in our authority. Every library and every scholar has boasted of a book from Grollier's library since it was dispersed, and during his life-time it was his pride to accommodate his friends with the use of them. He died at Paris in 1565.* · GRONOVIUS (JOHN FREDERIC), an eminent civilian, historian, and critic, was born at Hamburgh in 1613. He had a strong inclination to learning, which induced him to apply to books with indefatigable diligence from his infancy; and, having made great progress in his studies in his own country, he travelled into Germany, Italy, and France, where he searched all the treasures of literature that could be found in those countries, and was returning

most he boulibrarets li

1 Rees's Cyclopædia.—Manget and Haller, Moreri. - Dibdin's Bibliomania,

home by the way of the United Provinces, when he was "stopt at Deventer in the province of Over-Issel, and there made professor of polite learning. After acquiring great reputation in this chair, he was promoted to that of Leyden in 1658, vacant by the death of Daniel Heinsius. He died at Leyden in 1672, much regretted. By bis wife, whom he married at Deventer, he had two sons that survived him and were both eminent in the republic of letters: James, who is the subject of the ensuing article ; and Theodore Laurent, who died young, having published “ Emendationes Pandectarum, &c. Leyden, 1605," 8vo, and “ A Vindication of the Marble Base of the Colossus erected in honour of Tiberius Cæsar, ibid. 1697,” folio.

Frederic Gronovius was the author of many critical works. Besides his edition of Casaubon's Epistles, Hague, 1638, in 4to, he published the following: 1. “Diatribe in Statii Poetæ Sylvas,” Hague, 1637, 8vo. This being attacked by Emeric Crucæus, who under the name of Mercurius Frondator published an “ Anti-Diatribe” at Paris, 1639, 24mo, Gronovius published, 2. “ Elenchus AntiDiatribes Mercurii Frondatoris ad Statii Sylvas," Paris, 1640, 8vo. This occasioned Crucæus to publish “ Muscarium ad Statii Sylvas," Paris, 1640, 8vo. 3. “ De Sesa tertiis, sive subsecivorum Pecuniæ veteris Græcæ & Romanæ Libri IV. Accesserunt Lucius Volusius, Mæcianus, J. C. & Balbus Mensor de Asse,” &c. Deventer, 1643, 8vo, Amsterdam, 1656, 8vo, and Leyden, 1691, 4to, in which last edition, published by his son James Gronovius, are added “ Paschasii Grosippi, (i. e. Casparis Schioppii) Tabulæ Numerariæ; Johannis Freder. Gronovii Mantissa pecuniæ veteris, & tres 'Avretnyágeis de Fænere Unciario & centesimis Usuris; item de Hyperpyro; Salmasii Epistola & ad eam Responsio; & Aoyapın) Tiaraia nai Néa, Græcè & Latinè.” 4. 66 Notæ in Senecam Philosophum & Rheto. rem;" first printed separately.at Leyden, 1649, 12mo, and afterwards reprinted in the Elzevir edition of " Seneca cum Notis Variorum,” 1673, 3 vols. 8vo. 5.“ Monobiblos Ecclesiasticarum Observationum," 1651, 12mo. 6.“ Observationum Lib. IV.” Deventer, 1652, 12mo. 7. “ Statius ex recensione J. F. Gronovii, cum ejusdem Notis," Am. şterdam, 1653. Our author's notes were reprinted in the edition of Statius published by John Veenhusius at Leyden, 1671, in 8vo. And Statius as revised by him was published by Christian Daumius with the Commentaries of

manæ Libri subsecivorum pris, 1640, 8vo. publish “ Muss

Barthius in 2 vols. 4to, at Zwickaw in 1664. 8. “ Seneca Tragediæ, cum Notis Johannis Frederici Gronovii & variis aliorum,” Leyden, 1661, 8vo. His Notes were reprinted with improvements in the edition of Seneca's tragedies published by his son James Gronovius at Amsterdam, 1682, Svo. 9. “Observationum Libri tres,” Leyden, 1662, 8vo. 10. “ Plautus ex recensione Joh. Fred. Gronovii, cum Notis Variorum,” Leyden, 1664, and 1684, 8vo. 11. 66 Titus Livius ex recensione & cum Notis Joh. Frid, Gronovii, additis integris Caroli Sigonii & selectis Variorum Notis,” Amsterdam, 1665, and 1679, 3 vols. 8vo; which last edition of 1679 is preferable to the former, on account of the notes of Henry Valesius and James Gronovius, which were added to it. Our author had published an edition of Livy revised by him at Leyden in 1645 and 1654 in 3 vols. 12mo, and in 1661 and 1678, in one volume, 12mo. His Notes upon Livy were printed separately at Leyden in (1645, 12mo. But several things in this edition of 1645 are omitted in the larger editions of 1675 and 1679. 12. “Plinii Historia Naturalis," Leyden, 1669, 3 vols. 8vo. 13. 6 Tacitus,” Amsterdam, 1673, 2 vols. 8vo, reprinted at Amsterdam, 1685, 2 vols. 8vo. 14. “ Notæ in Hugonis Grotii Libros tres de Jure Belli & Pacis,” Amsterdam, 1680, 8vo. 15. “ Observationes ad Bened. Petrocorii de Vita B. Martini carminum libros sex," published in Daumius's edition of Petrocorius, Leipsic, 1682, 8vo. 16. 6 Auli Gellii Noctes Atticæ,” Leid. 1687, 8vo. His notes are reprinted in his son's edition, Leid. 1706. 17.“ Notæ in Phædri Fabulas," published by his son in the edition of Leyden, 1703, 8vo. 18. “ De Musæo Alexandrino Dis. sertatio," inserted in his son's “ Thesaurus.” 19.“ Oratio : de lege regia, &c.” Leyden, 1678. A translation of this in French was published by Barbeyrac with Noodt's treatise upon liberty of conscience, Amst. 1714, 8vo. A great many of Gronovius's Letters are published in Burman's “ Sylloge Epistolarum."??

GRONOVIUS (JAMES), son of the preceding, was born October 20, 1645, at Deventer, and learned the elements of the Latin tongue there; but, going with the family in 1658 to Leyden, he carried on his studies in that university with incredible industry under the eye of his father, who had the greatest desire to make him a complete scho

? Gen. Dict--Moreri.—- Foppen Bibl. Belg: -Saxsi Onomast.

lar. In this view he not only read to him the best classic authors, but instructed him in the civil law. About 1670, he made the tour of England, and visited both the universities, consulting their MSS.; and formed an acquaintance with several eminent scholars, particularly Dr. Edward Pocock, Dr. John Pearson, and Dr. Meric Casaubon, which last died in his arms. He was much pleased with the institution of the royal society, and addressed a letter to them in approbation of it. After some months' stay in England, he returned to Leyden, where he published an edition of Macrobius that year in 8vo, and another of Polybius the same year at Amsterdam, in 2 vols. 8vo. The same year he was also offered the professorship held by Hogersius ; but, not having finished the plan of his travels, he declined, though the professor, to engage his acceptance, proposed to hold the place till his return.

He had apparently other views at that time, for having experienced many advantages to his literary pursuits by his visit to England, he resolved to see France. In his tour thither, he passed through the cities of Brabant and Flanders; and arriving at Paris, was received with all the respect due to his father's reputation and his own merit, which presently brought him into the acquaintance of Chaplain, d'Herbelot, Thevenot, and several other persons of distinguished learning. This satisfaction was somewhat damped by the news of his father's death in 1672 ; soon after which he left Paris to attend Mr. Paats, ambassador extraordinary from the States-general to the court of Spain. They set out in the spring of 1672; and our author went thence into Italy, where, visiting Tuscany, he was entertained with extraordinary politeness by the great duke, who, among other marks of esteem, gave him a very considerable stipend, and the professor's place of Pisa, vacant by the death of Chimentel. This nomination was the more honourable, both as he had the famous Henry Norris, afterwards a cardinal, for his colleague; and as he obtained it by the recommendation of Magliabecchi, whom he frequently visited at Florence, where he had an opportunity of consulting the MSS. in the Medicean library.

Having spent two years in Tuscany, he quitted his professorship ; and visiting Venice and Padua, he passed through Germany to Leyden, whence he went to take possession of an estate left him by his mother's brother, at Deventer. Here he sat down closely to his studies, and

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