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and absurd, that thus rashly presumes to judge of my actions? By Peter and Paul, if the goodness of my own heart did not restrain me, I should so chastise him, as to make him an example and a spectacle to all the world. Is not the king of England my vassal, my slave, and for a word speaking, would throw him into prison, and load him with infamy and disgrace?" And, when' the cardinals interposed, they had much ado to mollify him, by telling him, “ It was little for his interest to think of animadverting on the bishop ; since, as they must all own, what be said was true, and they could not condemn or blame him, &o.” giving the bishop, at the same time, a most noble testimony, in respect of his piety, learning, and general character, as acknowledged by all the world: in all which, they confessed frankly, they were none of them to be compared to him. The pope, however, excommunicated the bishop, and even nained a successor to his see; but the bishop, on his part, contented himself with appealing from the senience to the tribunal of Christ, after which he troubled himself no more about it, and remained quietly in possession of his dignity. .
Towards the end of this summer (1253) he fell sick at his palace at Buckden, and sent for friar John de St. Giles, who was a physician and a divine, in both which capacities he wanted his assistance, as he foresaw, to the great uneasiness of his mind, the troubles that would shortly befall the church. He then gave orders to the clergy of his diocese to renew the sentence of excommunication upon all who should infringe the magna charta concerning the li. berties of the kingdom, which made the incumbents very obnoxious to many of the courtiers. In all his conversations on this subject in his last illness, he appears to have retained the strength of his understanding, and conscious of the uprightness of his conduct towards the pope, he still fully approved it in his heart; nor was his courage in the least broken, or his spirits dejected, by any fulminations that had been launched against him from that quarter. His conversations on this occasion, given by his biographer, display his real sentiments on the depraved and corrupt state of the papacy in his time, the particulars or articles on which he grounded his charge, and that abhor. rence of its proceedings which does him so much honour.
He died at Buckden, Oct. 9, 1253, and the corpse was earried to Lincoln, where it was met by archbishop Boni.
his death, Principal authorint of his tomhin the
Ess of Beatusze could were sopegee the
face, who attended the funeral. He was interred in the upper south transept. For an account of his tomb, &c. we must refer to our principal authority. The pope, who „rejoiced at his death, ordered a letter to be written to king Henry, enjoining him to take up the bishop's bones, cast them out of the church, and burn them, but this letter was not sent. As Grosseteste was a person of acknowledged piety and strictness of manners, he easily arrived at the beatitude, or title of Beatus, and even at sanctity, in the general estimation ; but he could never obtain these honours from the church, though they were solicited for him in the strongest terms. Indeed, as Dr. Pegge ob, serves, it would have been improper and absurd for the popes to repute and proclaim a person to be now an holy beatified saint in heaven, who in their opinion had so openly traduced, insulted, and vilified both the see and court of Rome, which were still pursuing the very same measures he condemned, and continued to be invariably the same depraved, venal, and corrupt body. It is, however, for the honour of bishop Grosseteste, that for bis piety and integrity, his learning and abilities, he still lives valued and revered in the breasts of all sober and reasonable men. It is plain that he did not suffer the least in the eșteem of the world, any more than he did in his own opinion, by the anathema wbich pope Innocent had de: nounced against him. Indeed the papal censures, of which our prelates stood so much in dread at Lyons, in 1245, had been of late so infamously prostituted, that they seem to have lost their efficacy. Grosseteste, in particular, paid 10 regard to that which was denounced against him, for Þe still continued to exercise his function; his clergy also made no scruple of obeying him when under the sentence; and his exequies were solemnized not only by the secular, but even by the regular clergy of his diocese.. . · Few authors, ancient or modern, ever mention bishop Grosseteste without an eulogium, and from the many evidences brought by his biographer, he appears to have ex. celled all bis contemporaries in learning, piety, judgment, and conscientious integrity in the discharge of his episcopal duries, and to have powerfully aided in producing what we may term the preliminaries of that reformation which was afterwards to take place in a church so corrupt, and sa weak, that even at this time it was not able to support itself against the arguments of one English prelate. In
ufficient, il distinguisha however, they
"point of religion, the papists are very desirous of having bishop Grosseteste for their own; and it must be acknowledged that he was much with them doctrinally, and at first entertained a bigh, opinion of the power of the keys, and the personal authority of the pope; but at last, in a case manifestly unscriptural and injurious to the welfare of religion, he openly contemned it, and did not even regard dying in a state of excommunication. He had also at one time conceived a most elevated idea of the hierarchy in general, thinking it superior to the regal diguity. To this. he was led, exceeding in this respect even Becket himself, by the authority of the “ Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs," and this is the best excuse that can be made for him; the blindness of the times being such, that men of the best learning, and the greatest acuteness, had not critical skill sufficient, though this be the first and proper object of criticism, to distinguish a spurious composition from the true word of God. But, however, he afterwards changed his mind in regard to the hierarchy. Had he * lived in more enlightened times, when points formerly taken for granted as principles not to be controverted, were more maturely canvassed and considered, his ideas on many religious topics would have been greatly enlarged, and he would not have been at all averse to a separation from a church so venal and corrupt as that of Rome, nor to a reforination both of her doctrines, and discipline.
Bishop Grosseteste was a severe student to the very end of life. He was a master of languages, of some that were not then generally known, and also of every branch of learning, both human and divine, as they were then usually studied and professed ; and he improved many of them by the productions of his own pen. His erudition was truly multifarious, so that he may justly be said, both in respect of himself and his own acquirements, and of that general patronage and encouragement which he afforded the literati of his time, to stand at the head in this country at least, "of all the learning of the age. His forte seems to have been logic, philosophy, and theology, and his knowledge of the scriptures was very intimate. 11. For a list of his works, both published, which are but few, and unpublished, we must necessarily refer to Dr. Pegge's elaborate life of our prelate, where it occupies twenty-five closely printed pages in quarto. It is thought Grosseteste was the most voluminous writer of any Englishman, at least wrote more tracts, and on a greater variety of subjects, than any one. Archbishop Williams had once an intention of collecting them for publication; but as Dr. Pegge has very justly remarked, it is not much to be regretted that the design was not executed, when we consider the superior light and knowledge of our times, and how much better every thing is understood. His style is copious and verbose, and bordering frequently upon turgidity, abounding with uncouth words, which, though formed analogically, are yet new, and not very pleasing to a reader of the classics ; but he expresses himself in general very intelligibly, particularly in his books “. De Sphæra” and “ De Cessatione Legalium.” He proceeds also in his compositions very methodically and perspicu. ously.'
GROSVENOR, or GRAVENOR (BENJAMIN), a pious dissenting divine, was born in London Jan. 1, 1675, where bis father was an upholder. In 1693 he was placed under the tuition of the rev. Mr. Jollie, of Attercliffe, in York, shire, with whom he went through a course of studies preparatory to ordination among the dissenters; and afterwards studied Hebrew under Capell, formerly professor of ori. ental languages at Saumur, but at this time a refugee in London. In 1699 Mr. Grosvenor was admitted into the ministry, and officiated first as assistant to Mr. Oldfield, in Southwark, and afterwards was joint preacher of a lecture in the Old Jewry meeting. His biographers seem all une willing to tell us that he was at first of the baptist persua, sion, and having been baptised in 1689 by Mr. Benjamin Keach, became a member of his meeting for about seven or eight years; but in the course of his studies he changed bis opinions, and was “ dismissed in a general manner from his membership with” the baptists. In 1703 or 1704 he was chosen to succeed Mr. Slater in the meeting in Crosby-square, to which he was formally ordained in July 1704. In 1716 he was chosen one of the lecturers at Salter's-ball, which added much to his reputation, but which he resigned in 1740. In 1730 the university of
r. Jollie,693 he was'; 1675, whers
I Life of Robert Grosseteste, by Samuel Pegge, LL. D. 1793, 4to, which supersedes the necessity of any other references, except, perhaps, to Milner's Church History, who has ably analyzed the bishop's character as a divine, and the Archæologia, vol. XUl. where he is introduced as an Anglo-Norman poet. Dr. Pegge's work, one of his last and best, throws great light apon the history of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
Edinburgh conferred the degree of D. D. upon him. After this he continued to preach until 1749, when the increasing infirmities of age obliged him to desist from all public services. He continued, however, bis private studies, -and kept up an amicable intercourse with his friends until his death, Aug. 27, 1758. Dr. Grosvenor possessed great mildness of temper, lively and brilliant wit, a candid disposition towards those who differed from him, and an habitual cheerfulness which rendered his visits peculiarly acceptable. He published various single sermons preached on funeral and other occasions ; an « Essay on Health," 1748, 8vo; and a treatise on consolation, entitled “ The Mourner," which has been repeatedly printed, and still preserves his memory.
GROTESTE (CLAUDE, SIEUR DE LA MOTHE), a French protestant clergyman, born at Paris in 1647, was educated
in the reformed religion, and after applying with success · to classical studies, was advised by his father to follow the
law. In 1664, accordingly, he was admitted to the title and privilege of a doctor of the civil and canon law, and the year following was received as an advocate at Paris, and was distinguishing himself, when by the persuasion of some friends, he quitted his profession, and began to study divinity at Saumur. In 1675 he was appointed minister of the church of Lisy, and was ordained. In 1677 and 1678 he received pressing invitations from the churches of Gien and Amiens, both which he declined, as it was his intention to spend a few more years in close study. At length, however, in 1682, he accepted an invitation from the church at Rouen, but did not remain long connected with it, a decree of council having separated him from his flock, and forbid him to come nearer the place than seven leagues. He was confined by sickness at the time this decree arrived, and on his recovery went to England in 1685, and connected himself in the exercise of his ministerial functions with Messieurs Allix and Lombard. In 1694 he became minister of the Savoy, which office he held until his death, Sept. 30, 1713. His widow is said to have given his library to the Savoy church, on condition of its being open to the public certain days in every week. He published “ Traité de l'inspiration des livres sacrées,” Amst.
I Protestant Dissent. Mag. where his name is spett« Qrovesnor.?!--- Funeral Serinon by Barker, Crosby's Hist. of the Baptists.