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youths who did honour to their teacher and to their country; but in 1681 a suspicion was entertained that he inclined towards popery; and it was said that the comment which he made on the Church Catechism savoured strongly of popish tenets. Some particular passages having been selected from it, and laid before the grand jury of London, they on March 4 of the above year, presented a complaint to the Merchant Taylors' company, respecting the catechism taught in their school. After he had been heard in his own defence, it was decided that he was “ popishly and erroneously affected,” and immediately was discharged from his office; but such was their sense of his past services, that they voted him a gratuity of 701. It soon appeared that the court of the company had not been deceived in their opinion of his principles. After being dismissed, he taught a school in Piccadilly, and in 1686, the reign of James II. openly professed himself a Roman catholic; which, Wood says, he had long been covertly. He died Oct. 28, 1689, and was buried in the church of Great St. Helen's, Bishopsgate-street, his memory being honoured by various elegies. He published, besides some single sermons, 1. “ Genealogicon Latinum,” a small dictionary for the use of Merchant Taylors' school, 8vo, 1676, second edit. 2. “ Declamation, whether Monarchy be the best form of government?” printed at the end of Richards's “ English Orator,” 1680, Svo. 3." Astro-Meteorologica, or aphorisms and discourses of the Bodies Celestial, their natures and influences, &c.” 1686, fol. This gained him great reputation. The subject of it is a kind of astrology, founded, for the most part, on reason and experiment, as will appear by comparing it with Boyle's “ History of the Air," and Dr. Mead's book'“ De Imperio Solis et Lunæ." 4. “ Autodidactica, or a practical vocabulary, &c." 1690, 8vo. After his death was published “ Astro-meteorologia sana, &c.” 1690, 4to.?
GOAR (JAMES), a learned French Dominican, was born at Paris, of a reputable family, in 1601, and after a classical education, took the habit of his order in 1619. He then employed six years in the study of philosophy and theology, after which he was sent to Toul to instruct the young men of his order in these sciences. In the mean
| Ath. Ox. vol. II.--Dodd's Church History.--Granger.Wilson's Hist, of Merchant Taylors' School.
time his extreme partiality to the Greek, and his extensive reading in Greek literature, inspired him with a great desire to visit the country of the modern Greeks, and inquire into their sentiments and customs; and having obtained leave of his superiors, he set out in 1631, as an apostolic missionary, and was for the sake of local convenience, made prior of the convent of St. Sebastian, in the island of Chios. Here he resided eight years, conversing with the ablest of the natives, and inquiring into their history, religion, and manners. Before returning to France he went to Rome in 1640, where he was appointed prior of the convent of St. Sixtus, and being arrived at Paris, was made master of the novices, and began to employ his time in preparing his works for the press. This was an object so much at heart, that when elected in 1652 vicar-general of his order, he accepted it with great reluctance, as likely to interrupt his labours. It is supposed, indeed, that his intense application, and the various duties of this office, impaired his health, and brought on a slow fever, which proved fatal Sept. 23, 1653. His principal work was his collection of Greek liturgies, published under the title of " Euchologion, sive rituale Græcorum,” Paris, 1647, fol. a very curious and rare work. There is, however, a second edition printed at Venice in 1730. Goar also translated some of the Byzantine historians for the collection printed at the Louvre.'
GOBIEN (CHARLES LE), a learned Jesuit, and secretary to the Chinese missionaries, was born at St. Malo in 1653, and having been educated in the academies belonging to his order, was made professor of philosophy and classics, which he taught for eight years with reputation. He then came to Paris, where he was appointed secretary and procurator to the Chinese missionaries. He died May 1708. He wrote many tracts on the progress of religion in China, and entered warmly into the disputes between the missionaries on the worship of Confucius. The best known of his works are, his “ Lettres sur les Progrès de la Religion à la Chine,” 1697, 8vo; his “ Hist. de l'Edit de l'empereur de la Chine en faveur de la religion Chretienne," 1698, * 12mo, which makes the third volume of le Comte's Memoirs of China; his “ Hist. des Isles Mariannes,” 1700, 12mo;
· Niceron, vol. XIX.-Moreri.--Usher's Life and Letters, p. 606.-Saxii Onomast.
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and eight parts or volumes of the “ Lettres edifiantes et curieuses," written by the Chinese missionaries. Of these letters there was afterwards a collection made, extending to 34 vols. 12mo; and in 1780, the abbe de Querbeuf published a new edition in 26 vols. They are still consulted as affording information respecting the natural history, geography, and politics of the countries which the Jesuits had explored, although they are not unfrequently mixed with improbable tales.?
GOCLENIUS (CONRAD), a learned philologist, was born in 1485, in Westphalia. He acquired a high reputation for learning, and taught for a considerable time at the college of Bois-le-Duc in Louvain, where he died Jan. 25, 1539. Erasmus, who was his intimate friend, highly valued his character, and respected his erudition. He wrote notes on Cicero's Offices, edited a new edition of Lucan, and published a Latin translation of Lucian's “ Hermotinus,” a dialogue on the sects of philosophers.
GODDARD (JONATHAN), an English physician and chemist, and promoter of the royal society, was the son of a rich ship-builder .at Deptford, and born at Greenwich about 1617. Being industrious and of good parts, he made a quick progress in grammar-learning, and was entered a commoner at Magdalen-hall, Oxford, in 1632. He staid at the university about four years, applying himself to physic; and then left it, without taking a degree, to travel abroad, as was at that time the custom, for farther improvement in his faculty. At his return, not being qualified, according to the statutes, to proceed in physic at Oxford, he went to Cambridge, and took the degree of bachelor in the faculty, as a member of Christ college, in 1638 ; after which, intending to settle in London, without waiting for another degree, he engaged in a formal promise to obey the laws and statutes of the college of physicians there, Nov. 1640. . Having by this means obtained a proper permission, he entered into practice; but being still sensible of the advantage of election into the college, he took the first opportunity of applying for his doctor's degree at Cambridge, which he obtained, as a member of Catherine-hall, in 1643 ; and was chosen fellow of the college of physicians in 1646. In the mean time, he had the preceding year engaged in another society, for im
1 Moreri.Dict. Hist. ? Foppen Bibl. Bel.--Saxii Onomast.
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proving and cultivating experimental philosophy. This society usually met at or near his lodgings in Wood-street, for the convenience of making experiments ; in which he was very assiduous, as the reformation and improvement of physic was one principal branch of this design. In 1647, he was appointed lecturer in anatomy at the college; and it was from these lectures that his reputation took its rise. As he, with the rest of the assembly which met at his lodgings, had all along sided with the parliament, he was made head-physician in the army, and was taken, in that station, by Cromwell, first to Ireland in 1649, and then to Scotland the following year; and returned thence with his master; who, after the battle of Worcester, rode into London in triumph, Sept. 12, 1651. He was appointed warden of Merton-college, Oxon, Dec. 9th following, and was incorporated M. D. of the university, Jan. 14th the same year. ' Cromwell was the chancellor; and returning to Scotland, in order to incorporate that kingdom into one commonwealth with England, he appointed our warden, together with Dr. Wilkins, warden of Wadham, Dr. Goodwin, president of Magdalen, Dr. Owen, dean of Christ Church, and Cromwell's brother-in-law, Peter French, a canon of Christ Church, to act as his delegates in all matters relating to grants or dispensations that required his assent. This instrument bore date Oct. 16, 1652. His powerful patron dissolving the long parliament, called a new one, named the Little Parliament, in 1653, in which the warden of Merton sat sole representative of the university, and was appointed one of the council of state the same year.
A series of honours and favours bestowed by the usurper, whose interest he constantly promoted, naturally incurred the displeasure of Charles II. who removed him from his wardenship, by a letter dated July 3, 1660; and claiming the right of nomination, during the vacancy of the see of Canterbury, appointed another warden in a manner the most mortifying to our author. The new warden was Dr. Edw. Reynolds, then king's chaplain, and soon after bishop of Norwich, who was appointed successor to sir Nathaniel Brent, without the least notice being taken of Dr. Goddard*. He then removed to Gresham college, where he had been chosen professor of physic on Nov. 7, 1655, and continued to frequent those meetings which gave birth to the royal society; and, upon their establishment by charter in 1663, was nominated one of the first council. This honour they were induced to confer upon him, both in regard to bis merit in general as a scholar, and to his particular zeal and abilities in promoting the design of their institution, of which there is full proof in the " Memoirs": of that society by Dr. Birch, where there is scarcely a meeting mentioned, in which his name does not occur for some experiment or observation made by him. At the same time he carried on his business as a physician, being continued a fellow of the college by their new charter in 1663. Upon the conflagration in 1666, which consumed the old Exchange, our professor, with the rest of his brethren, removed from Gresham, to make room for the merchants to carry on the public affairs of the city ; which, however, did not hinder him from going on with pursuits in natural philosophy and physic. In this last he was not only an able but a conscientious practitioner; for which reason he continued still to prepare his own medicines. He was so fully persuaded that this, no less than prescribing them, was the physician's duty, that in 1668, whatever offence it might give the apothecaries, he was not afraid to publish a treatise, recommending it to general use. This treatise was received with applause ; but as he found the proposal in it attended with such difficulties and discouragements as were likely to defeat it, he pursued that subject the follow. ing year, in "A Discourse, setting forth the unhappy condition of the practice of Physic in London," 1669, 4to. But this availed nothing, and when an attempt was made by the college of physicians, with the same view, thirty years afterwards, it met with vo better success. In 1671 he returned to his lodgings at Gresham college, where he continued prosecuting improvements in philosophy till his death, which was very sudden. He used to meet a select number of friends at the Crown-tavern in Bloomsbury, where they discoursed on philosophical subjects, and in his return thence in the evening of March 24, 1674, he was
* Our author, it is true, was strongly attached to Cromwell; which, no doubt, brought this mark of the king's
resentment upon him; otherwise, it was not deserved by his behaviour in the college. For this we have the tes. timony of Wood, who was bred at Mer. ton, and always mentions Dr. God. dard, as warden, in terms of kindness and respect. He was, indeed, the first patron to that antiquary; who, as such, dedicated his brother's sermons to him,