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all views of interest and all hope of reward. What followed with respect to the archbishop may be seen in another place (art. FENELON); but madame Guyon was imprisoned before the expiration of 1695, in the castle of Vincennes, whence she was removed to a convent, and afterwards sent to the Bastille, where she underwent many rigorous examinations, and continued in prison as a criminal till the meeting of the general assembly of the clergy of France in 1700, when nothing being proved against her, she was released. After this she went first to the castle belonging to her children, whence she was permitted to retire to Blois, the next town to that castle.
From this time till her death, which was twelve years, she remained in perfect oblivion, and her uniform and retired life is an evident proof, that the noise she had made in the world, proceeded not from any ambition she had of making a figure in it: her whole time being employed in the contemplation of God. The numerous verses which proceeded from the abundance of her heart, were formed into a collection, which was printed after her death, in five volumes, under the title of " Cantiques Spirituels, ou d'Emblemes sur l'Amour Divin.". Her other writings consist of twenty volumes of the Old and New Testament, with "Reflections et Explications concernant la Vie interieure ;" § Discours Chretiennes," in two volumes; “ Letters to several Persons," in four; “ Her Life," written by herself, in three; a volume of “ Visitations," drawn from the most venerable authors, which she made use of before her examiners, and two of “Opuscles.” .. She died June 2, 1717, having survived the archbishop of Cambray almost two years and a half, who had a singuJar veneration for her to the day of his death. Her poems were translated and somewhat modernized by Cowper, a little before his death, but have not been added to any edition of his works, except that in quarto.'
. GUYON (MARIE-CLAUDE), a French historian, was born in 1701 at Lous-le-Saunier in Franche-comté, and entered the congregation of the oratory, which he afterwards quitted, and came to Paris, and passed his days in literary labours. He died here in 1771. His principal works are, 1. A continuation of “ Echard's Roman History," from Constantine to the taking of Constantinople by Mahomet II. ! Mureri.—Dict. Hist.Mosheim's Eccl. Uist. -Mad, Maintenon's Letters,
10 vols. 12mo, which Voltaire has thought proper to under: value; but others say that in point of style and accuracy, it may rank among the best productions of the kind from the French press. 2. “ Histoire des empires et des republiques," 1733, &c. 12 vols. 12mo, of which it is said, that, if compared with Rollin's, it is less agreeable and elegant: but it proves that Guyon drew his materials from the ori: ginal sources of the ancients; whilst, on the contrary, Rol. lin has often copied the moderos. 3. “ Histoire des Ama. zones anciennes et modernes,” Paris, 1740, 2 vols. 12mo, a curious, and in many respects an original work. 4. “ Histoire des Indes,” 3 vols. 12mo, inferior in every respect. 5. “ Oracle des nouveaux philosophes," not so remarkable for style, as for an able confutation of the new philosophy of his time, and the uneasiness it gave Voltaire. 6. “ Bib. liotheque ecclesiastique,” 1772, 8 vols. 12mo, &c.
GUYS (PETER AUGUSTINE), an agreeable French writer, was born at Marseilles in 1720, and became a merchant of distinguished probity. Having often had occasion to visit Constantinople, Smyrna, &c. in the course of business, he conceived the idea of comparing the ancient and modern Greeks, and endeavouring to trace among the latter what was yet to be found of the grandeur, spirit, and institutions of their ancestors. For this purpose he made frequent excursions frorn Constantinople, where he lived under the immediate protection of the king of France, into Greece, with Homer in his hand; and how extensive and minute þis observations were, appeared in bis “ Voyage Litteraire. de la Grèce," on which his fame chiefly rests, and which was first published in 1771, 2 vols. 12mo; in 1783, 4 vols, 8vo. He was taking another voyage in order to correct and enlarge a new edition of this work, when he died at Zante in 1799. This work procured him a very consider, able name in the literary world ; but in whatever reputation it was held in Europe, he aiforded such satisfaction to the subjects of his inquiry, that the modern Greeks, to testify to him their gratitude for his having so well defended them from their detractors, unanimously offered him the diploma of citizen of Athens; reviving, in his favour, an ancient ceremony fallen into desuetude for a great many centuries. Some years before, he had received a similar compliment from a northern power. This true philosopher,
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without ceasing to serve bis country, knew how to extend his beneficent views beyond the limits of his country. The “ Voyage Litteraire de la Grèce," however, is the chief work of C. Guys. His other pieces are, a “ Relation Abregée de ses Voyages en Italie et dans le Nord ;" and a translation in verse of the elegies of Tibullus, an essay upon the antiquities of Marseilles his native place, and the eloge of Duguay-Trouin. A translation of his Journey was published iu English in 1772, 3 vols. 12mo, with the improper title of a “ Sentimental Journey.”!
GUYSE (John), an eminent dissenting divine, of the independent persuasion, was a native of Hertford, where he was born in 1680, and having shewn a pious disposition from his youth, was admitted a member of the dissenting congregation of that place. He afterwards pursued his studies, with a view to the ministry, under Mr. Payne of Saffron Walden, and being admitted to preach at the age of twenty, became assistant to the rev. Mr. Haworth of Hertford, whom he afterwards succeeded in that congregation. Here he continued some years, and was very successful in opposing the Arian doctrines which had crept in among his flock; and to strengthen his efforts he published in 1719, a small volume on the divinity of Christ, and in 1721, another on the divinity of the Holy Ghost. In 1727 he was invited to London, and became minister to a congregation in New Broad-street. In 1732 he received the degree of D. D. from one of the universities of Scotland. Besides his regular duty at New Broad-street, he was for many years a preacher of the Tuesday's lecture at Pinners' Hall, and of that at St. Helen's on a Friday. In his avowal of bis religious principles (those called Calvinistic) he was open, steady, and consistent, and his character and conduct were, in every point of view, uniform, and aniable. The goodness of bis natural disposition, heightened by a spirit of real religion, exerted him to an activity which rendered his life very important. He was a kind and useful friend to the young, and extremely liberal to the poor, always devoting a tenth part of his annual income to charitable uses. After enjoying a considerable share of health for many years, he became lame and blind, but was enabled to continue his public services almost to the time of his death, which took place Nov. 22, 1761. He published a
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great variety of occasional sermons, and of pious tracts, and had a short controversy with Dr. Chandler, in which the latter is said to have appeared to very little advantage. But his great work was his “ Paraphrase on the New Testament," 1739–1752, 3 vols. 4to, and reprinted in 6 vols. 8vo, which is said to display a sound judgment, intimate acquaintance with the original, and considerable critical powers.'
GWILYM (David AP), the Ovid of Wales, and one of the most famous Welsh bards, was born in 1340 at Brogypin, in the county of Cardigan. He was brought up in the family of Llewelyn ap Guilym Fychan, styled lord of Cardigan, at Emlyn, until he was fifteen years of age; at which period he removed, after a short stay with his parents, and settled as steward and private tutor in the family of Ivor Hael. Like other itinerant bards of that age, he often visited different parts of the principality, and was so universally admired, that he has been claimed by the men of Anglesea as their countryman; and was generally known by the name of David of Glamorgan, and the nightingale of Teivi vale, in Cardigansbire. He died about 1400. Excepting music and a few Latin words, which he might pick up at mass, it cannot be ascertained from his works, that he had any acquaintance with the sciences or learned languages; for his poems consist chiefly of lively descriptions of nature,' written in pure unadulterated Welsh. His “ Poems” were published in 1792, 8vo, by Mr. Owen Jones and Mr. William Owen, who think that in invention, harmony, perspicuity, and elegance of language, Gwilym has not been excelled by any of his successors. A translation, however, is yet wanting to enable the English reader to appreciate his merits. 2.
GWINNE (MATTHEW), an English physician of considerable eminence in his day, was the son of Edward Gwinne, descended from an ancient family in Wales, who at this time resided in London. His son was educated at Merchant Taylors' school, whence in 1574 he was elected a scholar of St. John's college, Oxford, took the degree of B. A. May 14, 1578, and was afterwards perpetual fellow of the college. It was the custom at that time in Oxford for the convocation to appoint a certain number of regent * Puneral Sermou by Conder. ---Protestant Dissenters Magazine, vol. III.
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masters, to read each of them upon some one of the liberal arts two years, for which they received a small stipend, levied upon the younger scholars. This provision was made, before the public professorships were settled and supported by fixed salaries. Agreeably to this practice, Mr. Gwinne was made regent-master in July 1582, and appointed to read upon music, and there is extant a manuscript oration of his upon that subject, spoken Oct. 15, of that year, in which he calls himself prelector musicæ publie cus. When he had taken bis degrees in arts, he studied physic, and practised in and about Oxford for several years. In 1588 he was chosen junior proctor of the university, and in 1592 distinguished himself in a disputation at Oxford before queen Elizabeth. On July 17, 1593, he was created doctor of physic. He obtained leave of the college in 1595, to attend sir Henry Unton, ambassador from queen Elizbeth to the French court, and continued with him during his absence abroad.
Upon the settlement of Gresham college, he was chosen the first professor of physic about the beginning of March 1596, being one of the two nominated by the university of Oxford. On the 25th June, 1604, he was admitted a can. didate of the College of Physicians of London ; at the beginning of 1605 was made physician of the Tower; and on Dec. 22 in the same year, was chosen a fellow of the college. In the month of August of that year, king James and his queen, with prince Henry and their courts, went to Oxford, where they were entertained with academical exercises of all kinds, in which Dr. Gwinne again distinguished himself, particularly in a question respecting the salutary or hurtful nature of tobacco, proposed in compliment to his majesty, who was a professed enemy to that weed. In the evening of the same day, a Latin comedy was acted at St. John's college, written by Dr. Gwinne, and entitled “ Vertumnus, sive Annus recurrens.”
Dr. Gwinne kept his professorship at Gresham college til Sept. 1607, and then quitted it very probably upon his marriage. After he left Gresham college, he continued to practise in London, and was much esteemed both in the city and court. . In 1620, he, and seven others, were appointed commissioners by his majesty, for garbling tobacco; and a power was granted to any five or more of them (one of whom was to be a physician, another a merchant, a third a grocer, and a fourth an apothecary), to draw up