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1605. Vols. fol.

The following are the most considerable among his various works: A collection of different tracts on civil and ecclesiastical jurisdiction, entitled “ Monarchia Sancti Romani Imperii," &c. 1611, 1613, and 1614, 3 vols. fol.; Alamaniæ Scriptores,” 1730, 5 vols. fol.; “ Scriptores aliquot rerum Suevicarum," 1605, 4to; “ Commentarius de Bohemiæ regno,” 4to; “ Informatio de statu Bohemiæ quoad jus,” 4to ; “ Sybilla Francica,” 4to ; which is a collection of pieces relating to the Maid of Orleans : “ Paræneticorum veterum pars prima," 1604, 4to. A curious collection of letters was published in 1688, under the title « Virorum clarissimorum ad Melchior Goldastum Epistolæ,” 4to, Francfort. ? · GOLDING (ARTHUR), a man of some poetical turn, but principally known as a translator, in the sixteenth century, was a native of London. In 1563 we find him living with secretary Cecil at his house in the Strand, and in 1577 in the parish of Allhallows, London Wall. Amongst bis patrons, as we may collect from his dedications, were, sir Walter Mildmay, William lord Cobham, Henry earl of Huntingdon, lord Leicester, sir Christopher Hatton, lord Oxford, and Robert earl of Essex. He was connected with sir Philip Sydney, for he finished an English translation of Philip Mornay's treatise in French, on the 66 Truth of Christianity,” which had been begun by Sydney, and was published in 1587. His religious turn appears also from his translating many of the works of the early reformers and protestant writers, particularly Calvin, Chytræus, Beza, Marlorat, Hemingius, &c. He also enlarged our treasures of antiquity, by publishing translations of Justin in 1564; and of Cæsar in 1565. Of this last, a translation as far as the middle of the fifth book by John Brend, had been put into his hands, and he therefore began at that place, but afterwards, for uniformity; re-translated the whole himself. He also published translations of Seneca's Benefits, in 1577; of the Geography of Pomponius Mela; the Polyhistory of Solinus, 1587, and of many modern Latin writers, which were then useful, and suited to the wants of the times. Warton thinks his only original work is a “ Discourse of the Earthquake that happened in England and other places in 1580,” 12mo; and of his original poetry, nothing more appears than an encomiastic copy of

1 Gen. Dict.Moreri.-Niceron, vol. XXIX.--Clement Dibl. Curieuse. Saxii Onomast.

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verses prefixed to Baret's “ Alvearie” in 1580. His chief poetical translation is of " Ovid's Metamorphoses,” the first four books of which he published in 1565, and the whole in 1567. Pope, who read much in old English translations, used to say " it was a pretty good one considering the time when it was written.” The style is certainly poetical and spirited, and his versification clear; his manner ornamental and diffuse; yet with a sufficient observance of the original. He has obtained a niche in the 6 Biographia Dramatica” for having translated a drama of Beza's, called “ Abraham's Sacrifice," 1577, 18mo.'

GOLDMAN (NICHOLAS), a mathematician, was born at Breslaw, in Silesia, in 1623, and died at Leyden in 1665. The works by which he is generally known are “ Elementa Architecturæ Militaris," 1643, 8vo; “ De Usu Proportionarii Circuli ;” “ De Stylometricis," 1662; and another treatise “ On Architecture," published in 1696, by Christopher Sturm, with numerous engravings, and the life of the author. He had also improved the description of Solomon's Temple by Villapandus, but this was never published. 2

GOLDONI (CHARLES), an 'eminent modern Italian dramatist, was born at Venice in 1707. In his infancy the drama was his darling amusement, and all his time was devoted to the perusing comic writers, among whom was Cicognini, a Florentine, little known in the dramatic commonwealth. After having well'studied these, he ventured to sketch out the plan of a comedy, even before he went to school. When he had finished his grammatical studies at Venice, and his rhetorical studies at the Jesuits' college in Perugia, he was sent to a boarding school at Rimini, to 'study philosophy, but he paid far more attention to the theatres, entered into a familiar acquaintance with the actors, and when they were to remove to Chiozzá, made his escape in their company. This was the first fault he committed, which, according to his own confession, drew a great many others after it. His father had intended him to be a physician, like himself: the young man, however, was wholly averse to the study. He proposed afterwards to make him an advocate, and sent him to be a practitioner in Modena; but a horrid ceremony of ecclesiastical juris

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1 Warton's Hist. of Poetry. Phillips's Theatrum, edit. by sir E. Spence's Anéedotes, MS.

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diction, at which he was present, inspired him with a melancholy turn, and he determined to become a Capuchin. Of this, however, he was cured by a visit to Venice, where he indulged in all the fashionable dissipation of the place. He was afterwards prevailed upon by his mother, after the death of his father, to exercise the profession of a lawyer in Venice, but by a sudden reverse of fortune he was compelled to quit at once both the bar and Venice. He then went to Milan, where he was employed by the resident of Venice in the capacity of secretary, and becoming acquainted with the manager of the theatre, he wrote a farce entitled " Il Gondoliere Veneziano," the Venetian Gondolier; which was the first comic production of his that was performed and printed. Some time after, Goldoni quitted the Venetian resident, and removed to Verona, where he got introduced to the manager of the theatre, for which he composed several pieces. Having removed along with the players to Genoa, he was for the first time seized with an ardent passion for a lady, who soon afterwards became his wife. He then returned with the company to Venice, where he displayed, for the first time, the powers of his genius, and executed his plan of reforming the Italian stage. He wrote the “ Momolo," “ Courtisan," the “ Squanderer,” and other pieces, which obtained universal admiration. Feeling a strong inclination to reside some time in Tuscany, he repaired to Florence and Pisa, where he wrote “The Footman of two Masters,” and “The Son of Harlequin lost and found again.” He returned to Venice, and set about executing more and more his favourite scheme of reform. He was now attached to the theatre of S. Angelo, and employed himself in writing both for the company, and for his own purposes. The constant toils he underwent in these engagements impaired his health. He wrote, in the course of twelve months, sixteen new comedies, besides forty-two pieces for the theatre ; among these many are considered as the best of his productions. The first edition of his works was published in 1753, in 10 vols, 8vo. As he wrote afterwards a great number of new pieces for the theatre of S. Luca, a separate edition of these was published, under the title of “ The New Comic Theatre :” among these was the “ Terence," called by the author his favourite, and judged to be the master-piece of his works. He made another journey to Parına, on the invitation of duke Philip, and from thence he passed to

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Rome. He had composed 59 other pieces so late as 1761, five of which were designed for the particular use of Marque Albergati Capacelli, and consequently adapted to the theatre of a private company. Here ends the literary life of Goldoni in Italy, after which he accepted of an engagement of two years in Paris, where he found a select and numerous company of excellent performers in the Italian theatre. They were, however, chargeable with the same faults which he had corrected in Italy; and the French supported, and even applauded in the Italians, what they would have reprobated on their own stage. Goldoni wished to extend, even to that country, his plan of reformation, without considering the extreme difficulty of the undertaking. His first attempt was the piece called “The Father for Love;" and its bad success was a sufficient warning to him to desist from his undertaking. He continued, during the remainder of his engagement, to produce pieces agreeable to the general taste, and published twenty-four comedies; among which “ The Love of Zea linda and Lindor” is reputed the best. The term of two years being expired, Goldoni was preparing to return to Italy, when a lady, reader to the dauphiness, mother to the late king, introduced him at court, in the capacity of Italian master to the princesses, aunts to the king. He did not live in the court, but resorted there, at each summons, in a post-chaise, sent to him for the purpose. These journeys were the cause of a disorder in the eyes, which afflicted him the rest of his life; for being accustomed to read while in the chaise, he lost his sight on a sudden, and in spite of the most potent remedies, could never afterwards recover it entirely. For about six months lodgings were provided bim in the chateau of Versailles. The death, however, of the dauphin, changed the face of af. fairs. Goldoni lost his lodgings, and only, at the end of three years, received a bounty of 100 Louis in a gold bos, and the grant of a pension of four thousand livres a year. This settlement would not have been sufficient for him, if he had not gained, by other means, farther sums. He wrote now and then comedies for the theatres of Italy and Portugal; and, during these occupations, was desirous to shew to the French that he merited a high rank among their dramatic writers. For this purpose, he neglected nothing which could be of use to render himself master of

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the French language. He heard, spoke, and conversed so much in it, that, in his 62d year, he ventured to write a comedy in French, and to have it represented in the court theatre, on the occasion of the marriage of the king. This piece was the “ Bourru Bienfaisant;" and it met with so great success, that the author received a bounty of 150 Louis from the king, another gratification from the performers, and considerable sums from the booksellers who published it. He published soon after, another comedy in French, called “ L'Avare Fastueux." After the death of Lewis XV. Goldoni was appointed Italian teacher to the princess Clotilde, and after her marriage, he attended the late unfortunate princess Elizabeth in the same capacity. His last work was the “ Volponi," written after he had retired from court. It was his misfortune to live to see his pension taken away by the revolution, and, like thousands in a similar situation, he was obliged to pass his old age in poverty and distress. He died in the beginning of 1793. As a comic poet, Goldoni is reckoned among the best of the age in which he flourished. His works were printed at Leghorn in 1788–91, in 31 vols. 8vo. He has been reckoned the Moliere of Italy, and he is styled by Voltaire “ The Painter of Nature.” Dr. Burney says that he is, perhaps, the only author of comic operas in Italy who has given them a little common sense, by a natural plot, and natural characters; and his celebrated comic opera of the “ Buona Figliuola," set by Piccini, and first performed in London Dec. 9th, 1766, rendered both the poet and composer, whose names had scarcely penetrated into this country before, dear to every lover of the Italian language and music, in the nation.'

GOLDSMITH (OLIVER), an eminent poet and miscellaneous writer, was born on Nov. 29, 1728, at a place called Pallas, in the parish of Forney and county of Longford in Ireland. His father, the rev. Charles Goldsmith, a native of the county of Roscommon, was a clergyman of the established church, and had been educated at Dublin college. He afterwards held the living of Kilkenny West in the county of Westmeath. By his wife, Anne, the daughter of the rev. Oliver Jones, master of the diocesan school of Elphin, he had five sons, and two daughters.

* Sketch by Mr. Damiani. --Rees's Cyclopædia.--Life of Goldoni, transe lated by Mr. Black, published in 1814, 2 vols. 8vo.

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