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consist chiefly of tragedies : a collection of which was published at Venice 1583, in Svo, by his son Celso Giraldi; who, in his dedication to the duke of Ferrara, takes occasion to observe, that he was the youngest of five sons, and the only one who survived his father. There are also sonie prose works of Giraldi: one particularly upon comedy, tragedy, and other kinds of poetry, which was printed at Venice by himself in 1554, 4to. Some make no scruple to rank him among the best tragic writers that Italy has produced ; but perhaps the work by which he now is best known is his “ Hecatommiti," an hundred novels in the manner of Boccaccio, which have been frequently printed. There is a scarce volume of his poems printed at Ferrara in 1537, at the close of which is a treatise of Cælio Calcagnini, « De Imitatione,” addressed to Giraldi.?

GIRALDUS CAMBRENSIS. See BARRY.

GIRARD (GABRIEL), an ingenious French writer, was born at Clermont in Auvergne in 1678, and educated for the church. In his youth he had a canonry in the collegiate church of Notre Dame de Monferrand, but resigned it to one of his brothers, that he might be at liberty to go to Paris and devote his time to literary pursuits. There by the interest of some friends he was made almoner to the duchess of Berri, daughter of the regent, and also obtained the place of king's interpreter for the Sclavonian' and Russian languages. In 1744 he was admitted a mem. ber of the French academy. He died Feb. 4, 1748. The work by which he is best known, and to which indeed he chiefly owed his reputation in France, is his “ Synonymes Français," 12mo, of which a new edition, with some posthumous pieces by Girard, was published by M. Beauzée in 1769, 2 vols. 12mo. No grammatical work was ever more popular in France, nor more useful in defining the precise meaning of words apparently synonymous; and the ele- ' gance and moral' tendency of the examples he produces have been much'admired. The abbé Roubaud has since published “ Les Nouveaux Synonymes Français," 1786, 4 vols. 8vo, which may be considered as a supplement to Girard. Our author published also a grammar under the title of “ Les vrais principes de la langue Français," a vols. 12mo, far inferior in ingenuity to his former, and

Moreri.--Niceron, vol. XXIX.-Ginguend Hist. Litt. d'Italie, vol. VI. p. 66.. Saxii Onomast. in Gyraldus.

full of metaphysical whims on the theory of language, not unmixed with those infidel principles which were in his time beginning to be propagated. *

ĢIRTIN (THOMAS), an ingenious young landscapepainter, was born Feb. 18, 1773, and received his first instructions from Mr. Fisher, a drawing-master in Aldersgatestreet, and was, for a short time, the pupil of Mr. Dayes. He early made nature his model; but the first master that struck his attention forcibly was Canaletti, and, in the latter part of his life, he sedulously studied the colouring of Rubens. He was the first who introduced the custom of drawing upon cartridge-paper; by which means be avoided that spotty, glittering glare so common in drawings made on white paper; and some of his later productions have as forcible and spirited an effect as an oil-picture, and are more clear. In his first manner he made the outline with a pen, but afterwards did away that hard outline, which gives so edgy an effect to drawings that are not, in other respects, destitute of merit; and, having first given his general forms with Indian ink, finished his work by putting on his different tints. This, if judiciously managed, is certainly a great improvement in the art. It has been said, that he made great use of the rule, and produced some of his most forcible effects by trick, but this was not the case. His eye was peculiarly accurate ; and by that he formed his judgment of proportions. Whoever inspected his pallet would find it covered with a greater variety of tints than almost any of his contemporaries employed. Mr. Moore was his first patron, and with him he went a tour into Scotland. The prospects he saw in that country gare that wildness of imagery to the scenery of his drawings by which they are so pre-eminently distinguished. He also went with Mr. Moore to Peterborough, Lichfield, and Lincoln; and, indeed, to many other places remarkable for their rich scenery, either in nature or architecture. . That gentleman had a drawing that Girtin made of Exeter cathedral, which was principally coloured on the spot where it was drawn; for he was so uncommonly indefatigable, that, when he had made a sketch of any place, he never wished to quit it until he had given it all the proper tints. He was early noticed by lord Harewood, Mr. Lascelles, and Dr. Monro; in whose collections are some of

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| Dict. Hist.

those fine specimens of the arts by the study of which he formed his taste. The doctor has in his possession some of his earliest, and many of his finest, drawings. He painted two pictures in oil; the first was a view in Wales, which was exhibited, and much noticed, in 1801; and the second, the panorama view of London, wbich was exhibited in Spring-gardens. About twelve months before his death he went to France, where he staid till May. His last, and indeed his best, drawings were the views of Paris, which were purchased by lord Essex, and from which aqua-tinta prints by other artists have since been made. This pro-. mising young artist died Nov. 9, 1802, of an asthmatic disorder, which Mr. Edwards seems to attribute to irregu. larity.'

GIRY (LEWIS), advocate to the parliament of Paris, and to the council, and member of the French academy, was born at Paris in 1596. His abilities and probity recommended him to some very honourable employments, and he particularly enjoyed the coufidence of cardinal Mazarin. He was author of the following translations : “ Dialogues des Orateurs,”. 4to.; “ l'Apologie de Socrate;" “ l'Hist, Sacrée de Sulpice Severe;" “ l'Apologetique de Tertullien,” for which he was received into the academy; “ la Cité de Dieu, de St. Augustin,” | vol, 4to.; “ Epitres

Choisies de St. Augustin,” 5 vols. 12mo. He died in 1665, - at Paris. His son, Francis, who was provincial of the

Minim order, gained great reputation by soine devotional works; but deserves little credit for his principal publication, “ Les Vies des Saints,” fol. which although esteemed for its piety, is full of fables, and far from accurate as to facts. P. Raffron, of the same order, has written his life, 12mo.

GLABER (RODOLPH), a Benedictine monk, first of St. Germaine d'Auxerre, and afterwards of Cluni, and a man of superstitious credulity, flourished in the eleventh century, and wrote a “ Chronicle or History of France," in the Latin language. It consists of five books, of which the first relates to the events of the monarchy previously to Hugh Capet, and the four subsequent ones to those following it, as far down as 1046. This work is defective as a composition, and, at the same time, full of fabulous

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I Gent. Mag. LXXII, and LXXIII.- Pilkington.--Edwards's Sapplement to Walpole.

9 Moreri, Dict, Hist.

stories, yet it contains much valuable information relative to those remote ages. It was printed in the collections of Pithou and Duchesne. He was author of a life of William, abbot of St. Benignus at Dijon.'

. GLANDORP (John), a learned philologist of the sixteenth century, was born at Munster. He studied under Melancthon at Wittemberg, and became very distinguished for his critical knowledge of Greek and Latin. In 1533 he disputed publicly against the anabaptists at Munster. After visiting the principal German academies, he was elected rector of the college at Hanover, but, upon some dispute, he quitted in 1555, and retiring to Goslar, was followed by most of his scholars; but here again he had the misfortune to render himself unpopular, and was obliged to leave the place in 1560, on which he went to Marpurg, and was made professor of history. He died in 1564. His works are, 1.6 Sylva Carminum Elegiacorum;"* 2. 66. Descriptio Gentis Antoniæ;" 3. 6 Familiæ Juliæ Gentis ;" 4.“ Disticha Sacra et Moralia ;" 5.“ Annotat. in Jul. Cæsaris Comment.;" 6. 6 Annotat. in Ciceronis Epist. Famil.;" 17. “ Onomasticon Historiæ Romanæ."

GLANDORP (MATTHIAS), a German physician, was born in 1595, at Cologne, where his father was a surgeon. His first application to letters was at Bremen ; whence he returned to Cologne, and devoted himself to philosophy, physic, and chirurgery. He studied four years under Peter Holtzem, who was the elector's physician, and professor in this city; and he learned the practical part of surgery from his father. To perfect himself in these sciences, he went afterwards into Italy, and made some stay at Padua; where he greatly benefited himself by attending the lectures of Jerome Fabricius ab Aquapendente, Adrian Spigelius, and Sanctorius. He was here made M. D. After having visited the principal towns of Italy, he returned to his country in 1618, and settled at Bremen; where he practised physic and surgery with so much success, that the archbishop of this place made him his physician in 1628. He was also made physician of the republic of Bremen. The time of his death is not precisely known; some say 1640, but the dedication of his last work is dated Oct. 8, 1652. He published at Bremen, “ Spė.

Colognescery

be electod the bimself

| Moreri.--Niceron, vol. XXVIII.- Saxü Oaomasticon. * Morari-Saxij Onomasticon. ..

culum Chirurgorum,” in 1619, 8vo; reprinted in 1628, 4to; « Methodus Medendæ Paronychiæ,” iu 1133 ; “ Tractatus de Polypo Narium affectu gravissimo,” in 1628; and “ Gazophylacium Polypusium Fonticulorum & Setonum Reseratum," in 1633. These four pieces were collected and published, with emendations, under the title of his Works, at London, in 1729, 4to, with his life prefixed, and some curious tracts on Roman antiquities. It must needs suggest an high opinion of this young physician, that though he died a young man, yet his works should be thought worthy of a republication 100 years after; when such prodigious improvements have been made in philosophy, physic, and sciences of all kinds, of which he · bad not the benefit.'

. GLANVIL (BARTHOLOMEW), a writer of the fourteenth century, was an English Minorite, or Franciscan, of the family of the earls of Suffolk. He is said to have studied at Oxford, Paris, and Rome, and to have been very familiar with the writings of Aristotle, Plato, and Pliny; from which, with his own observations, he compiled his celebrated work “ De Proprietatibus rerum," a kind of general history of nature ; divided into nineteen books, treating of God, angels, and devils, the soul, the body, animals, &c. In some copies there is an additional book, not of his writing, on numbers, weights, measures, sounds, &c. Some •“ Sermons” of bis were printed at Strasburgh in 1495.

But his work “ De Proprietatibus” appears to have been the chief favourite, and was one of the first books on which the art of printing was exercised, there being no fewer than twelve editions, or translations, printed from 1479 to 1494. · The English translation printed by Wynkyn de Worde is the most magnificent publication that ever'issued from the press of that celebrated printer, but the date has not been ascertained. A very copious and exact analysis of this curious work is given by Mr. Dibdin in the second volume of his “ Typographical Antiquities."

GLANVIL (SIR JOHN), younger son of John Glanvil of Tavistock in Devonshire, one of the justices of the common pleas, (who died in 1600), was educated at Oxford, and after serving for some time in an attorney's office, studied law in Lincoln's-inn, where he preserved the re

I Moreri.-Niceron, vol. XXXVIII. 2 Tanner's Bibliotheca. Dupina Douce's Illustrations of Shakspeare, vol. II. p. 278. Dibdin ubi supra.

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