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the principal assistants of Sergius Risius, archbishop of Damascus, in preparing his edition of the Arabic Bible, which was published in 1671 by the direction of the college “ De Propaganda.” After it was completed, Golius was appointed visitor of the inissions of the East Indies, and died at Surat about 1673. He was author of translations into Arabic of Thomas à Kempis' Imitation of Jesus Christ; of sermons on the Evangelists; an " Historic Discourse of St. Gregory of Decapolis ;" several small devotional pieces, and a translation from Arabic into Latin, of a “ Collection of Parables and Proverbs.” I
GOLTZIUS (HENRY), a celebrated engraver and painter, was born in 1658, at Mulbrec, in the duchy of Julièrs ; and learned his art at Haerlem, where he married. An asthmatic disorder afterwards inclining him to travel in Italy, his friends remonstrated against this, but he answered, that " he had rather die learning something, than live in such a languishing state." Accordingly, he passed through most of the chief cities of Germany, where he visited the painters, and the curious; and went to Rome and Naples, where he studied the works of the best masters, and designed a great number of pieces after them. To prevent his being known, he passed for his man's servant, pretending that he was maintained and kept by him for his skill in painting; and by this stratagem he came to hear what was said of his works, without being known, which afforded him no small amusement as well as instruction. His disguise, his diversion, the exercise of travelling, and the different air of the countries through which he travelled, had such an effect upon his constitution, that he recovered his former health and vigour. He relapsed, however, some time after, and died at Haerlem in 1617. Mr. Evelyn has given the following testimony of his merit as a graver: “ Henry Goltzius," says he, “ was a Hollander, and wanted only a good and judicious choice, to have rendered him comparable to the profoundest masters that ever handled the burin; for never did any exceed this rare workman ; witness those things of his after Gasporo "Celio, &c.; and in particular his incomparable imitations after Lucas Van Leyden, in The Passion, the Christus Mortuus, or Pieta; and those other six pieces, in each of which he so accurately pursues Durer, Lucas, and some others of
and the dinise, his dive amusementout being
1 Moreri.Foppen Bibl. Belg.
the old masters, as makes it almost impossible to discern the ingenious fraud." As a painter he drew his resources from the study of the antique, of Raphael, Polidoro, and Michael Angelo; the last of whom appears to have been his favourite, but whose faults he exaggerated in an outrageous manner, seldom attaining any of his beauties. Hence his style of design is inflated and caricature ; and his expressions participate of the same taste; but his sense of hue in colour is rich, 'vigorous, and transparent. It is as an engraver, however, that he deserves the highest commendation, having never been surpassed, and seldom equalled in the command of the graver, and in freedom of execution.'
GOLTZIUS (HUBERT), a German antiquary, was born at Venloo, in the duchy of Gueldres, in 1526. His father was a painter, and he was himself bred up in this art, learning the principles of it from Lambert Lombard ; but he seems to have quitted the pencil early in life, having a particular turn to antiquity, and especially to the study of medals, to which he entirely devoted himself. He considered medals as the very foundation of true history; and travelled through France, Germany, and Italy, in order to make collections, and to draw from them what lights he could. His reputation was so high in this respect, that the cabinets of the curious were every where open to him; and on the same account he was honoured with the freedom of the city of Rome in 1567. He was the author of several excellent works, in all which he applies medals to the illustration of ancient history, and for the greater accuracy, had them printed in his own house, and core rected them himself. He also engraved the plates for the medals with his own hands. Accordingly, his books were admired all over Europe, and thought an ornament to any library; and succeeding antiquaries have bestowed the highest praises upon them. Lipsius, speaking of the “ Fasti Consulares,” says, that “ he knows not which to admire most, his diligence in seeking so many coins, his happiness in finding, or his skill in engraving them.” Some, however, have said that although his works abound with erudition, they must be read with some caution. The fact seems to be, that all his works have many coins not yet
found in cabinets, because his own collection was unfortunately lost, yet the medals which he describes, and which were once looked upon as fictitious, are yearly found really existent, and of undoubted antiquity. A French writer compares him to Pliny the natural historian, who was thought to deal much in falsehood, till time drew the truth out of the well; so that as knowledge advances, most of his wonders acquire gradual confirmation. Yet it is certain that he was often imposed upon, and the caution above given is not unnecessary. His coins of the Roman tyrants, for instance, are clearly false; for they bear PREN. and cog. on the exergue, which marks never occur on the real coins. It has been also said that many errors of this nature must be committed by a man, whose love and veneration for Roman antiquities was such, that he gave to all his children Roman names, such as Julius, Marcellus, &c. so that he might easily receive for antiques what were not so, out of pure fondness for any thing of that kind. Upon this principle, it is probable, that he took, for his second wife, the widow of the antiquary Martinius Smetius; whom he married more for the sake of Smetius's medals and inscriptions than for any thing belonging to herself. She was his second wife, and a shrew, who made his latter days unhappy. He died at Bruges March 14, 1583.
His works are, 1. " Imperatorum fere omnium Vitæ, ac rivæ Imagines, a C. Julio Cæsare ad Carolum V. ex veteribus numismatibus,” Antwerp, 1557, fol. afterwards translated into French, Italian, and Spanish. 2. “ Fasti magistratuum et Triumphorum Romanorum, ab urbe condita usque ad Augusti obitum,” Bruges, 1566 and 1571, folio. 3.“ De origine et statu populi Romani,” &c. Bruges, 1566, fol. Antwerp, 1618. 4. “Thesaurus rei Antiquarii,” Ant. 1579 and 1618, 4to. 5. “ Vita et res gestæ C. Julii Cæsaris.” 6. “ Vita et res gestæ Augusti Cæsaris,” Bruges, 1580, fol. and Antwerp, 1617. 7. “ Historia Siciliæ et Magnæ Græciæ ex antiquis numismatibus,” Antwerp, 1644, fol. which Mr. Pinkerton recommends as an introduction to the study of the Greek coins. His whole works were republished at Antwerp in 1644 and 1645, in 5 vols. fol. by Balthasar Moretus, whose predecessors, the Plantins, had purchased Goltzius's printing-materials and plates.'
oins. Has as an Werp, 164
i Melchior Adam in vitis Philos.-Pinkerton's Essay on Medals, Pref. p. 16 and 18.-Moreri,Foppen Bibl, Belg.-Saxii Onomasticon.
GOMAR (FRANCIS), one of the great opponents of Arminius, and from whom the Calvinists were at one time called Gomarists, was born at Bruges, Jan. 30, 1563. His father and mother, who were protestants, retired into the palatinate in 1578, and sent him to Strasburgh to study under the celebrated John Sturmius. Three years after be went to prosecute his studies at Newstad, where the professors of Heidelberg found a refuge when Lewis, the elector palatine, had banished thein because they were not Lutherans. In 1582 he came to England, and heard at Oxford the divinity lectures of Dr. John Rainolds, and at Cambridge those of Dr. William Whitaker, and at this latter university he was admitted to the degree of bachelor of divinity, June, 1584. The elector Lewis dying in 1583, prince Casimir, his brother, restored the professors of Heidelberg, to which place Gomar returved from Cambridge, and spent two years. In 1587 he accepted an invitation from the Flemish church at Francfort to be their minister, and exercised the functions of that office until 1593, when his fock were dispersed by persecution. The following year he was appointed professor of divinity at Leyden, but before entering upon the office, he took his degree of doctor at Heidelberg. Here he remained quietly until 1603, when his colleague Arminius began to place himself at the head of a party, known by his name ever since, and Gomarus resisted him with a zeal which his enemies have construed into bigotry and intolerance. The trụth seems to have been that Arminius and his followers, while they disputed with equal warmth, chose to represent the subjects of their disputes as matters of indifference which need not interrupt church-fellowship, while Gomarus considered them as essentials. Vorstius having succeeded Arminius, Gomarus foresaw only a renewal of the controversy under such a colleague, and retired to Middleburgh in 1611, where he preached and read lectures until 1614. He was then invited by the university of Saumur to be professor of divinity, and four years after he exchanged this for the professorship of divinity and He. brew at Groningen, where he remained during the rest of bis life. The only times when he was absent were, once when he attended the synod of Dort, where the errors of Arminius were condemned ; and again when he went to Leyden in 1633 to revise the translation of the Old Testą. ment. He died Jan. 11, 1641. His various works, most
of which had been published separately, were printed together at Amsterdam in 1644, fol. He was a man of acknowledged abilities, especially in the Oriental languages.'
GOMBAULD (JOHN OGIER DE), a French poet, was born in 1567, at St. Just de Lussac, pear Brouage in Saintongue. He was a gentleman by birth, and his breeding was suitable to it. After a foundation of grammarlearning, he finished his studies at Bourdeaux; and having gone through most of the liberal sciences, under the best inasters of his time, he betook himself to Paris, in the view of making the most of his parts; for, being the cadet of a fourth marriage by his father, his patrimonial finances were a little short. At Paris, he soon introduced himself to the knowledge of the polite world, by sonnets, epigrams, and other small poetical pieces, which were generally applauded: but; reaping little other benefit, he was obliged to use the strictest economy, to support a tolerable figure at court, till the assassination of the king by Ravillac, in 1610, provoked every muse in France. The subject was to the last degree interesting, and our poet exerted his talent to the utmost in some verses which pleased the queen-regent, Mary de Medicis, so highly, that she rewarded him with a pension of 1200 crowns ; nor was there a man of his condition, that had more free access to her, or was more kindly received by her. He was also in the saine favour with the succeeding regent, Anne of Austria, during the minority of Lewis XIV.
In the mean time, he was constantly seen at those meet ings of all the persons of quality and merit; which were kept at the house of Mad. Rambouillet. This was like a sinall choice .court, less numerous indeed than that of the Louvre, but, had charms which entirely engaged the beart of Goinbauld; and he frequented it with great pleasure, as well as with more assiduity than any other, the Louvre not excepted. Thus he passed his time in a way the most agreeable to a poet, and at length devoted himself entirely to the belles lettres. He published several things, of which the most admired was his ,' Endymion," a romance in prose. It was printed in 1624. 2. “ Ama. rantha, a Pastoral.” 3. A volume of “ Poems." 4. A volume of " Letters," all published before 1652. He was now accounted one of those choice spirits, who make up
Gen, Dicto--Erxheri Theatrum. --Foppen Bibl. Belg.--Saxi Onomast.
puvre, but, hit; less numerondouillet.