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in 1742. About the same time he projected a life of Mary queen of Scots, to whose cause he was inflexibly devoted; but this design appears to have been relinquished for his publication, entitled " An Examination of the Letters said to be written by Mary to James earl of Bothwell," 1754, 2 vols. 8vo, in which he endeavoured to prove these letters: to be forgeries. In this work it is said that he had done more, had he had less prejudice, and greater coolness. He certainly had diligence of research, sagacity of investigation, and keenness of remark; but his zeal sometimes carried him out of his course, his prejudice often blunted his acuteness, and his desire of recrimination never failed to

enfeeble the strength of his criticism. In 1754 he pub·lished an edition, with emendatory notes, of sir John Scot's “ Staggering state of Scots Statesmen,” and wrote a preface and life to sir James Balfour's “Practicks.” He conia tributed also to Keith's “ New Catalogue of Scotch Bishops," and published an edition of Fordun's “Scotichronicon," which was not executed with judgment. His introduction to it was afterwards translated into English, and published at London in 1769. He died July 28, 1766, in very poor circumstances, owing to a habit of intemperance."

GOODMAN (CHRISTOPHER), a noted puritan, who has been sometimes classed among the reformers of religion in Scotland, was born at Chester about 1520, and in 1536 entered a student of Brazennose college, Oxford, where he took both degrees in arts. In 1547 he was constituted one of the senior students of Christ church, of the foundation of Henry VIII. About the end of the reign of king Edward VI. he was admitted to the reading of the sentences, and chosen divinity lecturer of the university. On the accession' of queen Mary he was obliged to quit the kingdom, with many other protestants, and retire to Francfort. Here he became involved in the disputes which arose among the English exiles respecting forms of divine worship, some adhering to the model of the church of England, as far as appeared in the Book of Common Prayer, and others, among whom was Goodman, contending for a more simple form. After these disputes had occasioned a separation among men whose common sufferings might have made them overlook lesser matters, Goodman went

Life of Ruddiman, by Mr. George Chalmers, pp. 127, 167,
Vol. XVI.

to Geneva, where he and the celebrated John Knox were chosen pastors of the English church, and remained there until the death of queen Mary. While there he assisted Knox in compiling " The Book of Common Order," which was used as a directory of worship in their congregations, and he is said to have taken a part in the Geneva translation of the Bible. On the accession of queen Elizabeth, he went into Scotland, where, in 1560, he was appointed minister at St. Andrew's, and in other respects by his public services assisted in establishing the reformation in that nation. About 1565 he removed to England, and accompanied sir Henry Sidney in his expedition against the rebels in Ireland, in the character of chaplain. In 1571 he was cited before archbishop Parker, for having published, during his exile, a book answering the question "How far superior powers ought to be obeyed of their subjects, and wherein they may be lawfully, by God's word, obeyed and resisted ?" This had been written against the tyrannical proceedings of queen Mary; but, as his positions were of a kind too general not to be applicable to sovereigns of another description, and become an apology for rebellion, he consented to a recantation, and an avowal of his loyalty to queen Elizabeth. He lived many years after this, and was preacher at Chester, where he died in 1601, or 1602. Besides the above mentioned, he wrote “A Commentary on Amos,” but not, as Wood says, “ The first blast of the Trumpet against the monstrous regiment of Women," which was written by Knox.' : GOODMAN (Godfrey), an English prelate, and the only one who forsook the church of England for that of Rome since the reformation, was born at Ruthvyn in Denbighshire, 1583. He was educated at Westminster school, whence, in 1600, he went to Trinity college, Cambridge. After taking orders, he got the living of Stapleford Abbots in Essex in 1607. Becoming acknowledged at court as a celebrated preacher, he obtained in 1617, a canonry of Windsor; in 1620, the deanery of Rochester, and in 1625 was consecrated bishop of Gloucester. In 1639, he refused to sign the seventeen canons of doctrine and discipline drawn up in a synod, and enjoined by archbishop Laud, who, after admonishing him three times, procured

* Ath. Ox. vol. 1.-Strype's Life of Parker, p. 43, 491.-Scott's Lives of the Scotch Reformers.-- Peck's Desiderata, vol. I.

dated to a recante lived mand died in

him to be suspended, and it appeared soon after that he was in all principles a Roman catholic. After this, and during the rebellion, he lived privately in Westminster, employing much of his time in researches in the Cottonian library. He died, in the open profession of popery, Jan. 19,1655. He wrote, 1. “ The Fall of Man, and Corraption of Nature, proved by reason," 1616, 1624, 4to. 2. “ Ar. guments and Animadversions on Dr. George Hackwil's Apology for Divine Providence.” 3. “ The two mysteries of Christian Religion, viz. the Trinity and Incarnation, explicated," 1653, 4to. 4. “ An Account of his Sufferings," 1650. 5. “The Court of King James by Sir An. thony Weldon reviewed," a MS. in the Bodleian.' :

GOODRICH (THOMAS), an eminent English prelate, was the second son of Edward Goodrich of East Kirby in Lincolnshire. He was admitted pensioner of Bene't col. lege, Cambridge, soon after 1500, became fellow of Jesus college in 1510, commenced M. A. in 1514, and the fol. lowing year was proctor of the university. Being of a studious turn, he niade great proficiency in several branches of learning, particularly in the civil and canon laws. In 1529, he was appointed one of the syndics to return an answer from the university of Cambridge, concerning the lawfulness of king Henry VIII.'s marriage with queen Catherine : and from his readiness to oblige the king in that business, was recommended to his royal favour. He was presented to the rectory of St. Peter's Cheap in London, by cardinal Wolsey, at that time commendatory of the monastery of St. Alban's; and soon after was made canon of St. Stephen's, Westminster, and chaplain to the king. On the death of Dr. West, bishop of Ely, his nephew and godson Dr. Nicholas Hawkins, archdeacon of Ely, at that time the king's ambassador in foreign parts, was designed to succeed him; but he dying before his consecration could be effected, the king granted his licence to the prior and convent, dated March 6, 1534, to choose themselves a bishop; who immediately elected in their chapter-house the 17th of the same month, Thomas Goodrich, S.T.P. which was confirmed by the archbishop April 13th following, in the parish church of Croydon.

Being a zealous promoter of the reformation, soon after

he death ofolas Hawkins, foreign parthis conse

I Faller's Church Hist. Book XI. p. 170.- Worthies. Gent. Mag. vol. LXXVIII.-Lloyd's Memoirs, folio, p. 601.-Usher's Life and Letters, p. 553 Dodd's Ch. Hist. vol. UI,

thSt. John's Sof the commenry Villa and had

his arrival he visited the prior and convent of Ely; and next year sent a mandate to all the clergy of his diocese, dated at Somersham June 27, 1535, with orders to erase the name of the pope out of all their books, and to publish in their churches that the pope had no further authority in this kingdom. This mandate is printed in Bentham's “ History of Ely Cathedral,” together with his injunctions, dated from Ely, Oct. 21, 1541, to the clergy," to see that all images, relics, table-monuments of miracles, shrines, &c. be so totally demolished and obliterated, with all speed and diligence, that no remains or memory might be found of them for the future.” These injunctions were so completely executed in his cathedral, and other churches in the diocese of Ely, that no traces remain of many famous shrines and altars, which formerly were the objects of frequent resort, nor any signs at all that they had ever existed. • In 1540 he was appointed by the convocation to be one of the revisers of the translation of the New Testament, and St. John's gospel was allotted to his share. He was also named one of the commissioners for reforming the ecclesiastical laws, both by Henry VIII. and Edward VI. as well as by the university of Cambridge; and had a hand in compiling the “ Common Prayer Book” of the church of England, 1548; and likewise “ The Institution of a Christian Man," which was called the Bishops' Book, as being composed by archbishop Cranmer, and the bishops Stokesly, Gardiner, Sampson, Repps, Goodrich, Latimer, Shaxton, Fox, Barlow, &c. Besides this, he was of the privy council to king Henry VIII. and Edward VI. and employed by them in several embassies, and other business of the state. In 1551, he, was made lord chancellor of England, in the room of lord Rich, wbich office he discharged with singular reputation of integrity, though in matters of religion he was suspected by some, of too much disposition to temporize in favour of popery, upon the accession of queen Mary; and Dodd, though somewhat faintly, claims him as a popish bishop. It is certain he - was suffered to retain his bishopric. to his death, although the seals were taken from him. He was esteemed a patron of learned men; and expended large sums in building and embellishing his palaces, particularly at Ely, where the long gallery carries tokens of his munificence. He died at Somersham May 10, 1554 ; and was buried in the middle of the presbytery of his cathedral church, under a marble, with his effigies in brass, mitred, in his pontifical habit, and the great seal, as lord chancellor, in one of his hands, and an inscription round it.'

GOODWIN (John), one of the most violent of the republican sectaries in the time of Charles I. but whom no sect seems to own, was born in 1593, and educated at Queen's college, Cambridge. In 1633 he was presented to the living of St. Stephen's, Coleman-street, from which he was turned out by what was called the “ committee for plundered ministers," because he refused to baptise the children of his parish promiscuously, and refused to ad. minister the sacrament to his whole parish. He was an independent, and carried on many warm disputes with the presbyterian party. What was more singular in these days, was his embracing the Arminian doctrines, which he defended with great vigour both by the pulpit and press; and such was the general turbulence of his temper, and conceit in his own opinions, that he is said to have been against every man, and every man against him. Being a decided republican, he peculiarly gratified the savage spirit of the times by promoting the condemnation of the king, which he afterwards endeavoured to justify in a pamphlet called “ The Obstructors of Justice," the wicked. ness, absurdity, and impiety of which Mr. Neal has very candidly exposed. At the restoration it was thought he would have been excepted from the act of indemnity, but, although he afterwards was permitted to live, a proclamation was issued in 1660 against the above pamphlet, and in that he is stated to have been “late of Coleman-street, clerk," and to have fled. His pamphlet was burnt by the hands of the hangman. Returning afterwards, he kept a private conventicle in Coleman-street, where he died in 1665. His works, now in very little repute, are chiefly theological, among which the following may be mentioned : “ Redemption Redeemed,” in folio. “ The divine Authority of the Scriptures,” 4to; “ An Exposition of the Ninth Chapter of the Epistle of St. Paul to the Romans," 4to. :

GOODWIN (THOMAS), a famous nonconformist of the independent class, was born in 1600 at Rolesby in Norfolk,

I Bentham's Hist. of Bly.--Master's Hist. of C. C. C. C.-Burnet's Reforma. tion, vol, 11. p. 275.-Strype's Cranmer, pp. 30, 51, 134, 185, 228, 230, 233, 237, 305, 304, 412.---Strype's Parker, p. 16, 30, 260.

• Calamy.Neal's Puritans...Barlow's Remains, p. 12%.

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