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No. 892.—6 July, 1861.


PAGE. 1. Du Chaillu's Equatorial AfricaGorillas, etc., • Spectator,

3 2. The New Traveller's Tales,


7 3. Letter to the Times, .

J. Lothrop Motley,

9 4. Pestalozzi: The Combes : Rowland Hill


Miss Martineau in Once a Week, 22 5. Mother and Poet,

Mrs. Browning in Independent, 30 6. Letters and Works of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, .


32 7. State of South Carolina, etc.,

Mr. Russell's Letter to The Times, 44 8. Queen Elizabeth, Leicester, and Amy Robsart, Mr.Froude in Fraser's Magazine, 50 9. Duty of England and the American Crisis, Spectator, 10. How to keep out of it,





POETRY.-Quince, 2. Mother and Poet, 30. Only a Curl, 31. Ode to the North and South, 64. Destruction of Tissue, 64. The Salmon's Remonstrance, 64.

SHORT ARTICLES. — Campana Museum, 8. Geology of the Arctic Regions, 8. Temperance Societies in the Sixteenth Century, 8. Swedish Arctic Expedition, 29. " Maid of the Mist,” 29. Night Telegraph, 29. From Death to Life, 49. Lottery in Munich, 49. Miss Cuner, 49. The Near and the Heavenly Horizons, 59. Dr. Grattan on the Human Mind, 59. Australian Sketches, 59. Exploration of Iceland, 63. Climate of Egypt, 63. Mr. Everett on the Secession Conspiracy, 63.



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Whene'er they heard his ring or knock, NEAR a small village in the West,

Quicker than thought the village slatterns Where many very worthy people

Flung down the novel, smoothed the frock,

And took up Mrs. Glasse, and patterns ; Eat, drink, play whist, and do their best To guard from evil church and steeple,

Adine was studying bakers' bills, There stood-alas! it stands no more !

Louisa looked the queen of knitters; A tenement of brick and plaster,

Jane happened to be hemming frills; Of which, for forty years and four,

And Bell, by chance, was making fritters. My good friend Quince was lord and master! But all was vain ; and while decay

Came like a tranquil moonlight o'er him, Welcome was he in hut and hall,

And found him gouty still, and gay, To maids and matrons, peers and peasants, With no fair nurse to bless or bore him ; He won the sympathies of all,

His rugged smile, and easy-chair, By making puns and making presents ;

His dread of matrimonial lectures, Though all the parish was at strife,

His wig, his stick, his powdered hair, He kept his counsel and his carriage,

Were themes for very strange conjectures. And laughed and loved a quiet life, And shrank from Chancery's suits and mar

Some sages thought the stars above

Had crazed him with excess of knowledge ; riage.

Some heard he had been crossed in love,

Before he came away from college ;
Sound was his claret and his head;
Warm were his double ale and feelings;

Some darkly hinted that his Grace
His partners at the whist-club said,

Did nothing, great or small, without him! That he was faultless in his dealings.

Some whispered with a solemn face, He went to church but once a week ;

That there was something odd about him ! Yet Dr. Poundtext always found him

I found him at threescore and ten, An upright man, who studied Greek,

A single man, but bent quite double, And liked to see his friends around him. Sickness was coming on him then

To take him from a world of trouble. Asylums, hospitals, and schools,

He prosed of sliding down the hill, He used to swear were made to cozen ;

Discovered he grew older daily ; All who subscribed to them were fools.

One frosty day he made his will And he subscribed to half a dozen.

The next he sent for Dr. Bailey ! It was his doctrine that the poor

And so he lived-and so he died : Were always able, never willing;

When last I sat beside his pillow, And so the beggar at the door

He shook my hand, " Ah me!” he cried, Had first abuse, and then a shilling.

Penelope must wear the willow.

Tell her I hugged her rosy chain
Some public principles he had,
But was no flatterer, nor fretter ;

While life was flickering in the socket:

And say, that when I call again,
He rapped his box when things were bad,

I'll bring a license in my pocket.
And said: “I cannot make them better!
And much he loathed the patriot's snort,

“ I've left my house and grounds to FagAnd much he scorned the placeman's snuffle,

(I hope his master's shoes will suit him); And cut the fiercest quarrels short,

And I've bequeathed to you my nag, With, “ Patienco, gentlemen, and shuffle.” To feed him for my sake-or shoot him.

The vicar's wife will take old FoxFor full ten years his pointer, Speed,

She'll find him an uncommon mouser; Had couched beneath his master's table ;

And let her husband have my box, For twice ten years his old white steed

My Bible, and my Assmanshauser. Had fattened in his master's stable.

“ Whether I ought to die or not, Old Quince averred, upon his troth,

My doctors cannot quite determine; They were the ugliest beasts in Devon;

It's only clear that I shall rot, And none knew why he fed them both,

And be like Priam, food for vermin. With his own hands, six days in seven.

My debts are paid—but Nature's debt

Almost escaped my recollection ! * From the American edition of William Mack- Tom ! we shall meet again, and yet worth Praed's poems.

I cannot leave you my direction!

From The Spectator. the book he has given the narrative of his DU CHAILLU'S EQUATORIAL AFRICA. * actual progress, with the stirring episodes

This volume will not disappoint the un- with which it was enlivened, but on other usual expectations it has excited. The re- subjects, such as those of climate, of gorgion traversed by its author has not, indeed, ernment, and the slave system, of the native the peculiar fascination of that which still superstitions, of the customs of the more reencloses the mysterious sources of the Nile, markable tribes, and of some of the principal but, except in this respect, it is not surpassed animals he encountered, he has classified his in the striking character of its natural fea- observations in separate chapters, and has tures, by any portion of Africa with which thus been enabled to steer clear of much usethe researches of travellers have as yet made less repetition. us acquainted; while the strange and hith- Those who look on a map of Africa will erto unknown animals which dispute with observe on its western coast the mouths of scarcely less extraordinary human inhabi- several rivers which empty themselves into tants, its untamed solitudes, invest it with the sea within one or two degrees of the equaan interest to which no other portion of the stor. It was through the country watered globe at present affords a parallel. Unfortu- by these streams and their tributaries that nately the qualifications which make a good the journeys of Mr. Du Chaillu extended ; traveller do not necessarily enable him to his respective limits being about one hundescribe what he has seen, and we could dred miles north, and one hundred and fifty point to more than one dull and confused south of the line; while the distance to volume of African exploration which has which he penetrated into the interior seems done little more than furnish materials for to have been about three hundred and twenty further condensation by more practised miles, which is about one-sixth of the diamhands, and of which, owing to its bad exe- eter of the continent at that point. His excution, the popularity has been by no means plorations were accomplished in five or six commensurate with the advantage of its sub-distinct trips, after each of which he reject. Let us hasten to say that the literary turned to the coast to make a fresh start on merit of Mr. Du Chaillu's volume is all that the next occasion, a plan necessitated by the could possibly be wished, and that in this limited supplies of food to be obtained, and large volume of four hundred and seventy the impossibility of taking enough clothes pages we have not found one which we were to stand for any time the wear and tear of inclined to skip. The care with which he the almost impenetrable jungle. kept his journal from day to day, during his On his first journey, which is interesting progress, a task than which it is scarcely enough in his account, but less remarkable possible to conceive any thing more trying, than some of his subsequent ones, it is not has given his work a freshness and liveliness requisite to dwell, except to draw attention of detail which is of the very highest value. to the peculiarities of African commerce. We seem to get the impression of all he wit- This is conducted on a system which forms nessed with the same clearness with which it almost a complete bar to the development passed through his mind, and his judgment of the resources of the country, and until in the selection and arrangement of his ma- some more effectual way of getting at them terials cannot be too highly praised. The than at present exists is opened, neither usual fault of travellers who are inexperi- Christianity nor civilization will have much enced as writers, he has entirely avoided - chance of penetrating more than a few miles that of following too servilely the course of inland. The rivers are the highways of a diary, and presenting various minute par- trade, and their banks are possessed by sevticulars which ought to be brought together eral different tribes, through each of which in the same scattered way in which they were every article has to pass before it can reach at first picked up. In the main portion of the hands of the captain who wants to buy

it. The finder of a tusk two hundred miles * Explorations and Adventures in Equatorial Africa; with Accounts of the Manners and Customs from the coast is not allowed to take it himof the People, and of the Chase of the Gorilla, self to market; he must transmit it through other Animals By Paul B. Du Chaillu. With all the people who lie between, each of whom Map and lliustrations. John Murray.

takes a percentage of the profit. The system is not only one of commission but of died of disease, buy the dead of other tribes, trust; neither the first, nor any succeeding and, like veritable ghouls, have been known middleman, having the slightest security for to steal freshly buried bodies from the cemthe goods from those to whom they are etery, and cook and eat them, or smoke and passed on; so that if the various percent- carry them away into the woods. Yet, notages take all the profit, as is frequently the withstanding this horrible custom, Mr. Du case, the unfortunate owner has to go with- Chaillu thought them the most promising of out altogether. He never sees the white all the tribes he met with ; they have courtrader who is ultimately to receive his mer- age and ingenuity, and treated him with chandise, and is easily made to believe the unvarying hospitality and kindness. most absurd tales of his cruelty and fraud. The Fans were the most remarkable of all Neither is honesty the best policy, for if a the tribes visited by Mr. Du Chaillu, but he man is shrewd enough to get more than is came in contact with a vast variety of others, considered his fair share of trade, by means whose characteristics he minutely describes. of fair, dealing, he is “blacked” as we For these we must in general refer the reader should say, and may, perhaps, pay the to the volume itself. The impression left on penalty with his life. The white men also us by what he says about them is that either throw much temptation in the way of the his tact, firmness, and management was much natives by entrusting them with large quan- greater than that of any traveller except tities of goods on barter, which they some- Livingstone, or that the natives of the Westtimes keep till the trader is tired out, or suf- ern coast are easier to deal with when they fering from the climate, and then put him are fully convinced that no interference with off with a very slight equivalent. The whole their trading monopoly is intended. In no system is utterly disorganized, and is likely case did the traveller meet with any gratuto remain so till the merchants themselves itous molestation, and among several tribes succeed in reaching the head-quarters whence who had never seen a white man he was the produce comes, which it is possible that considered as the “spirit” who made all the Mr. Du Chaillu's exploits may now show guns and beads which were brought to them how to accomplish.

Africa. He generally met with the greatest Our author's next journey was to a re- hospitality, was tenderly nursed in several markable range of mountains extending attacks of fever, and on more than one ocnorth and south about sixty miles from the casion left the whole of his property in the coast, called the Sierra del Crystal, beyond charge of natives with perfect safety. The which live the Fans, a tribe as to whose men whom he employed to assist him in cannibal propensities he wished to satisfy hunting and to carry the immense amount himself. His doubts were set at rest the of luggage, provisions, etc., which he always moment he entered one of their villages, for had to take with him, acted with entire he met a woman carrying a piece of a human fidelity and devotion to his interests. And thigh, and saw human bones lying about in nothing appears to have delayed his progall directions, a body having just been di- ress in either of the directions in which he vided. The diet seemed to agree with them, penetrated furthest, but the natural obstacles for they were the finest set of negroes he of the country—the thick forests, the conmet with in the interior, and in the way stant difficulty of obtaining food, the gradual their settlements were gradually extending exhaustion of means of barter, and his distowards the coast there was perceptibly a inclination to trust himself among unknown more enterprising spirit than is shown by tribes with insufficient supplies and diminany other tribe. They are also rery war- ished ammunition. Mr. Du Chaillu says, like, and excellent workers of the iron which, in his preface, that one of his objects was in the shape of ore, is found all over their to ascertain whether any location could be country, and which, by a tedious process, found suited for a missionary station. He they work up into a much better article than does not state the conclusion at which he that which comes to them from Europe. arrived on this point, but from his account Their cannibalism is the most repulsive of the Ashira, a tribe inhabiting a large and form of that practice we have ever heard of, fertile prairie about a hundred and twenty for they eat the bodies of people who have miles from the coast, disposed to regard the



white man with great veneration, not more the gorilla in most of his journeys, his first superstitious than most of the natives, and encounter with one being on his way to the possessing very great skill in textile manu- country of the Fans. It is not, perhaps, factures, we should imagine that among generally known that the name of the gorilla these, if anywhere, might be found the is by no means new, though we have never opening required.

heard much about it till lately. In the

voyThe most interesting part of Mr. Du age of Hanno, which took place, at any rate, Chaillu's discoveries relates, however, not some time before the destruction of Carthage, to the men, but to the beasts-apparently so the geographer mentions that he passed closely related to them. He met with three an island containing creatures “ with hairy new species of apes, two of which are very bodies, whom the interpreters called gorilremarkable indeed ; and has enlarged and las ;" that the males escaped by their great most materially corrected our knowledge of agility, climbing rocks and trees, but that another, probably the most extraordinary he“ took three women, who bit and tore” kind existing. One of the two former is so much that it was necessary to kill them. the “ koolookamba,” which in outward ap- Their skins were taken to Carthage, and, as pearance is more like the human species Pliny relates, were hung in the temple of than any of its genus yet known to natural. Juno, up to the capture of the city by the ists. Its skull has not the usual receding Romans. Later writers, one of whom is shape, but is domical in form, while the quoted in Purchas' Pilgrims, evidently not facial angle is to that of the chimpanzee as being able to make any thing of the name fifty-seven to fifty-four—the facial angle of gorilla, changed it to “gorgons," which at the negro being seventy-five, and of the once gave the story a mythical aspect. In Caucasian skull eighty-six. Its cranial ca- the dissertation by Dodwell, prefixed to Hudpacity is greater than that of any other ape; son's “ Geographi Minores”—which Mr. Du its face is bare, its muzzle less prominent, Chaillu, from his remarks on Hanno, does and fringed by something like whiskers. not seem to have een—the meaning of the The ears are very like those of man, but “ * gorgons ” is discussed at great length, and their position, which is high, diminishes the Dodwell comes to the conclusion that it is a resemblance. Mr. Du Chaillu was at once corruption of the word gorilla mentioned by struck with its likeness to an Esquimaux or Hanno, which was probably the native term a Chinese ; but the animal is extremely rare, for the creature caught by his sailors. There and he was able only to procure one speci- can, of course, be no doubt that Hanno men. Another kind, also first discovered picked up the word somewhere on the coast by him, is the “Nieshgo-mbouvè," an ape of Africa, but Mr. Du Chaillu argues that the which builds for itself a shelter in trees, animal itself could not be the same as that woven of leaves, in the exact shape of an now existing under the name. The gorilla umbrella, very neatly made, so as to turn never runs away, especially when in comthe rain, which, as it must be renewed, pany with its female ; nor would it, he probably, every other week, shows that the thinks, be possible to take even a female animal is of rather industrious habits. At gorilla alive. It also consumes so much night this ape climbs up his tree, seats him- vegetable food that no considerable number self on a branch, with his head in his canopy, could have found sustenance on such an island reposes securely by throwing one arm and Hanno mentions. round the trunk. He is docile when caught The few modern accounts of the gorilla young, and Mr. Du Chaillu succeeded in before Mr. Du Chaillu are equally unverataming one, which became much attached cious. It does not build houses of leaves, to him, and a general favorite, but died after and sit on the roof; it does not carry off a few months.

native women; it does not attack the eleThe great feature of the book, however, and phant and beat him to death with clubs; we may add, one of the principal lions of the nor, as we find stated and pictorially illusseason, is the gorilla, probably the most sav- trated in Mr. Gosse’s “ Romance of Nature" age, terrible, and untamable brute anywhere does it sit in a tree by the wayside and drag known, and yet presenting a portentous re- up unsuspicious passengers to choke them semblance to man. Mr. Du Chaillu met with I to death. But though all these stories are

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