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From The Spectator, 8 June. and another explain his thoughts, is better THE EMPEROR OF THE FRENCH. fitted to Japan than an executive in Europe. NINE years and a half have clapsed since The emperor has indeed been strong to dethe day of the coup d'Etat, and during that stroy, to repress thought and limit originalperiod Louis Napoleon has been absolute ity, to drive independence from the capital, sovereign of France. Not one party has and self-reliance from the departments. But entered the lists against him with even tem- he has founded nothing. porary success, not one émeute has called Least of all has he founded his own dyfor a force more than adequate to crush a nasty. The nation, though acquiescent in riot. Abroad he has been able to dictate him, looks with no favor upon his. Nobody the policy of Europe ; to carry three wars believes that, were he to die to-morrow, his to a successful termination, to revive a na- son could succeed without a struggle. tionality weighed down for ages, and to add France, without an enmity against the to France two provinces which Louis XVI. Prince Imperial, wants him no more than it could not retain. At home he had power wants anybody else. The family, as such, to make and modify constitutions, to un- has taken no root. Not one of its members chain all pens, and regulate all tongues, to possesses a strength not derived from his exile all foes, and imprison all “ suspects," own favor. Even Prince Jerome, strangely to silence alike the tribune and the bar, to able man as impartial observers must admit fetter a capital which in sixteen years has him to be, has acquired no hold upon the overthrown two strong dynasties, and to people of France. The Republicans bear make the departments as obedient as the with him as an ally, but will never take him prefects who direct them. Paris has been for a chief. The empress is not a Bonatranquil, Lyons submissive, and Marseilles parte, and if personally loved, is not politicontent. Even French wit seems to have cally an object of hope or speculation. The turned courtier, and the master of thirty le- child of France, as his father proudly named gions escapes the satire their bayonets could him, may be a true Bonaparte — display, not avert from Louis Philippe. Yet it is that is, the union of Jacobin audacity and strange, to himself perhaps melancholy, to administrative power ; and if he is, his canote how little, amidst all his triumphs, Na- reer may yet be over thrones. But, at poleon has been able to found. Abroad, present, France considers him only the son France has not an ally, except in the nation- of his father, a child to be honored with eralities, who, as they rise, shake off the hand ery respect save that which springs of loythat lifts them to their feet. At home, not alty. The charm of the name Napoleon one great institution owes its origin to Na- has not indeed passed, and may again, at poleon. With the exception of an approach intervals, make and remake the fortunes of to free trade, only sullenly endured, he has the House, but this charm the emperor innot been able to give currency to a single herited and did not found. great idea. The law of inheritance, which Indeed, he has not founded yet a personal the emperor dislikes, remains to pauperize throne. We have called him absolute sorFrance; the centralization he denounces has ereign of France, but it is by a complimenbeen intensified tiil mayors of the Basses tary abuse of words. He is only its absoPyrénées spit by permission of the Ministry lute dictator. In these nine years of success of the Interior. Of the poor law, so often his authority has attained no consolidation, promised, there is not a vestige, nor one of none of that capacity for rest which is the the system often threatened, to encourage first evidence of matured strength. An emsmall agriculturists oppressed by debts. peror of Austria, or a king of Holland, rules, The Church has been dandled into obesity even when not interfering. Louis Napoleon but not fostered into strength ; the new ar- only reigns while his power is actively enistocracy petted, but not made an “institu- gaged, while busily pressing the balance tion."

Even the Bonapartists have not down to the side which he approves. The been raised from a faction into an opinion. empire, whatever it be, is not repose. The The unhesitating devotion of treasure has, emperor is always checking this party, or it is true, improved the army and developed restraining that; making a concession to the fleet; but the soldiers of Magenta are one opinion, or warning another that it may not better than the men of Austerlitz. The become “ an outrage on the laws.” He has nary has been doubled, while the commer- still, as it were, to contend, to watch his cial marine has declined. France has no steps, to observe parties, not as a spectator better military system, improved finance, observes them, but as a minister watches developed agriculture, or simplified admin- them, to be chief detective as well as ruler, istration. Napoleon has not even recon- soldier of politics rather than sovereign oi structed the central bureaus, for the absurd men. To reverse M. Thiers' famous apopnscheme which makes one minister think, thegm, the king governs but does not reign;

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or, to employ a simile all Englishmen will scandals are selected for prosecution. The understand, the emperor is still horsebreaker, strictest watch is kept over Orleanists, a not coachman; has still to teach restive watch supposed to extend even to the post, steeds, rather than to drive ; still to keep while the habitual espionage on the Reds behis reins savagely taut, and still

, unfortu- comes active persecution. The well-known nately, to display the whip in a style the precursors of severity, stories of extreme thoroughbred teamsters have disused. distress in Paris, of agitation in low regions,

This restlessness of authority, this eternal of jewels sent to England for security against shaking of the reins and bracing of the nerves troubles, begin again to circulate. Statefor strife, has been painfully evident of late. ments are made of discontents in the south, To English eyes it would seem that the of priests watched by gardes champêtres, of power of the emperor, while still in health secret societies scarcely mentioned for nearly and life, is far beyond any necessity for as- a decade. The emperor, in fact, is again at sertion. There are parties, it is true, in the wheel, and obviously with unbroken France as there are parties in England, but strength, but then that is not the place however envenomed, they seem in this coun- where a captain who can depend upon his try to lack the physical force which can alone crew ought to be. make parties dangerous to a state. The We are not writing of these phenomena parti prêtre is noisy, but there are railways as an intellectual amusement. The imperial in La Vendée, and the cry of the clericals is restlessness is real, and is matter of no slight the last to which fighting France responds. moment for Europe. The notion that an We hear much of Legitimates, but what emperor ruling by a great army must find force could the Faubourg St. Germain mus- that army occupation is not, perhaps, absoter even for the streets. The Orleanists ex- lutely sound. An army of conscripts ruled cite terror, but the Orleanists are as yet the by officers already great in the state is not Peelites of French politics, a party of lead- so zealous for hardship as some military men ers without a following, officers without : 1 believe. But it is undoubtedly true that in army, representatives without a party, chiefs France victory abroad calms down all agitawho, if obeyed at all, are so by men invis- tion at home.' With France in the field, even ible to strangers. The Reds are always republicans will not descend into the streets. strong, but it is difficult to Englishmen even Red leaders guaranteed Paris to the enemy of to imagine that the Reds can move against Austria. The throne which has not founded the mighty armies which lie coiled up in and itself on institutions may found itself more around the centres of their power, and which, easily on conquest. There is every temptaas against them, appear absolutely reliable. tion to a Napoleon to try the second alternaYet this is evidently not the view the em- tive, to see whether the object of the treaties peror, always the best authority on France, of 1815 may not be nullified as well as their takes of his own position. Noone in England provisions. It is not for England that we sees the signs of restiveness but his feet are fear. England has no provinces to add to once more pressed upon the spiashboard, France, and the great fleet now building may the reins once more tightened with a deter- / be required to avert her interference, rather mined hand. There is the careful give and than to facilitate an attack. But there are take of the driver who does not want the territories temptingly near, for which the struggle for which he is yet prepared. The emperor has already commenced to inpriests are sternly bidden to preach Christ trigue. With Paris restless and the South instead of a crusade. A foreign priest found discontent, trade declining in the large cities, agitating is driven out. Others are sum- and a bad harvest to work through, with all moned to explain talk about Pilate. All the powers of Government strained to the are warned that the penal code recognizes utmost, and the old parties re-appearing, if agitation from the pulpit as a crime. And not in reality then in imperial imagination, then as the “ fama" against the orders be- the powers which tempt France do well to come strong, the laity are ordered modera- vote budgets intended for military reform. tion, printers who print remarks on clerical


The Ocean of Brest states that, through the MESSRS. BLACKWOOD & Son will this day intervention of Count de Chasseloup-Laubat, a publish "The Royal Atlas of Modern Geograspecial commission has just been formed in Paris phy,” by Alexander Keith Johnson, another of to examine the question of forming ports of ref- the “Physical Atlas,” in a series of entirely uge along the whole extent of the shores of the original authentic maps, with a special index to Atlantic and the Mediterranean.



Coldly oft, the winds blow WEARY is the life I lead,

On the way of life, Beating air with vain endeavor;

Spreading in the wilderness, Love is left to weep, to bleed;

Care, and pain, and strife; Those dear eyes are closed forever ;

Yet the heart may shelter have, Closed forever and forever!

Cold though be the day, Not again shall I behold thee,

Choosing like the little ones, Not again these arms enfold thee !

The sunny side the way. Thou art gone forever!

-Cottage Carols, and other Poems, by John Swain.
Nothing now is left for mirth;
All my dreams were false and hollow,

Thou, alas ! hast left the earth;
May it soon be mine to follow!

The Pope can never go astray
Mine to pass the vcil and follow !

In morals or in faith, they say ;, Eves of olden hours shall meet me,

His word as Gospel men may take; Lips of olden love shall greet me,

'Tis always right, and no mistake. In the day I follow. -Blackwood's Magazine. By grace divine from error, sure

As eggs are eggs, is he secure ; LOOK UPON THE BRIGHT SIDE.

His Bulls, from blunders wholly free,

Bespeak Infallibility.
But not to times, to seasons, or to places
Will we be bound; or unto nature's order

Far clearer than the lynx, he sees
In this the singing of our Cottage Carols.

Right through the cloudiest mysteries; Indeed why should we? Is not January

And all conceptions of his pate
Sometimes as warm as Spring; and is not Spring

Are, in so far, immaculate.
Not seldom cold as Christmas ? So no binding,
As one is bound who hath his speech prepared

But though he is so wondrous wise
Prepared by some one else--and must speak

In all that Reason can't comprise, that,

His Holiness is grossly dense
Or else sit down, look foolish, and be dumb:

And purblind as to Common Sense.
No-we will on, turn back, go up or down
Through time as well as space; and therefore

Grant that he could pronounce a Saint now, Departing from the summer morning hills,

Originally frec from taint, We to the carly days of Spring return

And can as certainly decide
Wherc-List! a song,

This soul or that beatified :
The Sunny Side the Way.

However, he could not predict
Coldly comes the March wind-

That Lamoricière 'd be licked,
Coldly from the north-

And faithful blood be shed in vain
Yet the cottage little ones

His earthly kingdom to maintain.
Gayly venture forth :
Free from cloud the firmament,

The wearer of the Triple Hat,
Free from sorrow they,

In dogma safe, should stick to that ;
The playful children choosing

In State affairs too near a fool,
The sunny side the way.

Should abdicate his mundane rule.
Sadly sighs the North wind
Naked boughs among,

By all means let him, if he please,
Like a tale of mournfulness

Retain the Apostolic Keys,
Told in mournful song!

Only the Royal power forego
But the merry little ones,

To lock up sinners here below.
Happy things are they,
Singing like the lark, on

Oh! would he but contented be
The sunny side the way.

With spiritual sovereignty,
There the silvery snowdrop-

In peace he would possess his own,
Daffodils like gold-

Nor want Zouaves to guard his throne.
Primroses and crocuses
Cheerfully unfold:

Come, Pius, do the proper thing,
Poor ? those cottage little ones ?

Stand forth all Bishop; sink the King.
Poor ! no-rich are they,

Send your French janizaries home :
With their shining treasures on

And yield to Cæsar Cæsar's Rome.
The sunny sido the way.


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No. 894.-20 July, 1861.

CONTENTS. 1. Memoirs of a Tory Gentlewoman,

Blackwood's Magazine, 2. Death of Count Cavour,

Spectator, Economist, 3. A Forgotten Poet, John Clare,

Once a Week, 4. The Songs of Scotland before Burns,

Macmillan's Magazine, 5. Correspondence of James VI.,

Examiner, 6. The Jewel-Case,

Once a Week, 7. Proverbs of the German Jews,

Saturday Review, 8. The Universities' Mission to Africa,

Macmillan's Magazine, 9. England and America,

Examiner, 10. Causes of American Bitterness,

Spectator, 11. America, .

Saturday Review,

PAGE. 131 144 148 152 163 167 179 182 187 188 190

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POETRY.—Year after Year, 130. Night Showeth Knowledge, 130. The Despot's Heir, 130.

SHORT ARTICLES. Treatment of Poisoning, 143. Plague Cross, 147. Man of Feeling, 151. Archbishop Talbot, 151. Gen. Marion's Last Words, 151. Political Audacity, 155.

Titular Wisdom, 178. Dr. Motley, 181. American Compromises, 181. Screaming Fishes, 186. A Curious Collection, i92. Hieroglyphical Picture of Charles the Martyr, 192. Improvements in Paris, 192.


For Six Dollars a year, in advance, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGE will be punctually forwarded free of postage.

Complete sets of the First Serics, in thirty-six volumes, and of the Second Series, in twenty volumes, handsomely bound, packed in neat boxes, and delivered in all the principal cities, free of expense of freight, are for sale at two dollars a volume.

ANY VOLUME may be had separately, at two dollars, bound, or a dollar and a halfin numbers.

ANY NUMBER may be had for 13 cents; and it is well worth while for subscribers or purchasers to complete any broken volumes they may have, and thus greatly enbance their value.


We were.


But if we steadfast look

We shall discern

In it, as in some holy book,

JOHN HALIFAX, GENTLE- How man may heavenly knowledge learn.

It tells the conqueror,
YEAR after year the cowslips fill the meadow,

That far-stretched power,
Year after year the skylarks thrill the air, Which his proud dangers traffic for,
Year after year, in sunshine or in shadow, Is but the triumph of an hour :
Rolls the world round, love, and finds us as

That, from the farthest north,

Some nation may Year after year, as sure as birds' returning,

Yet undiscovered issue forth, Or field-lowers' blossoming above the wintry

And o'er it new-goi conquest sway. mould,

Some nation, yet shut in Year after year, in work, or mirth, or mourning,

With hills of ice, Love we with love's own youth, that never

May be let out to scourge his sin, can grow old.

Till they shall equal him in vice. Sweetheart and ladye-love, queen of boyish pas- And then they likewise shall sion,

Their ruin have; Strong hope of manhood, content of age be- For as yourselves your empires fall, gun;

And every kingdom bath a grave. Loved in a hundred ways, each in a different

Thus those celestial fires, fashion, Yet loved supremely, solely, as we cannot

Though seeming mute,

The fallacy of our desires, love save one.

And all the pride of life confute. Dearest and bonniest ! though blanched those For they have watched since first curling tresses,

The world had birth; Though loose clings the wedding-ring to that And found sin in itself accurst, thin hand of thine,

And nothing permanent on earth.
Brightest of all eyes the eye that love expresses !
Sweetest of all lips the lips long since kissed


Through years of solitude and chill disdain, So let the world go round with all its sighs and Gnawed by suppressed ambition's hungry woe, sinning,

He taught his crafty eye and fathomless brain Its mad shout o'er fancied bliss, its howls o'er All springs that move this human puppet-show: pleasures past:

Watched from below each turn in Fortune's That which it calls love's end to us was love's

whcel, beginning

And learned, unknown, with kings and
I clasp arms about thy neck and love thee to

hosts to deal.
the last.
- Macmillan's Magazine.

Then tiger-like he felt his stealthy way,
Till tiger-like he leapt upon a throne:

Hollow and cold and selfish there he lay,
NIGHT SHOWETH KNOWLEDGE. Tuning to pæans Freedom's dying moan,

Couched in the shadow of a mightier name.

Masqued with the mantle of a vaster fame.
When I survey the bright
Celestial sphere,

Silent with steady hand and calm, quick eye
So rich with jewels hung, that night

He wrought his robe of greatness day by day;. Doth like an Ethiop bride appear,

Men's hope and fear and love and enmity

He wove like threads with passionless potent
My soul her wings doth spread,

sway :
And heavenward fies,

And sacred names of " righteous,” “ generThe Almighty mysteries to read

ous," "grand," In the large volumes of the skies.

He shed like pigments from the painter's

For the bright firmament
Shoots forth no flame

Unreverencing, unfeeling, unbelieving-
So silent, but is eloquent

And all the world around, his vast inachine, In speaking the Creator's name;

Felt strange new forces mid its varied heaving,

And hidden tempests burst the false serene,
No unregarded star

And nations bled and royal houses fell-
Contracts its light

And still the despot's weaving prospered
Into so small a character,

well. Removed far from our human sight,

- Macmillan's Magazine.

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