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the United States to the rights of belliger- these laws, a pirate who is licensed to plunents under the law of nations.

der and murder by Jefferson Davis' letters Nò ingenuity can blind us to these facts : of marque, now endorsed by the sovereigns Before the proclamation, to support our Gov- of England and France, it will be regarded ernment was an honorable office for the sub- as an outrage by the civilized world ; and jects of Great Britain, and the rebels were this gentle intimation comes to us from a insurgents with no rights save under the nation who are hardly recovered from the American Constitution. After the procla- effects of a rebellion, to end which, without mation, for an Englishman to serve the United staying to ask the opinion of the world, they States is a crime, and the rebels are elevated blew their rebels from the guns. into a belligerent power; and this interven- It was intimated that the British Cabinet tion of England, depriving us of a support were puzzled how to act in regard to the which her practice permitted, and giving the United States on the one hand, and her rebel rebels a status and right they did not pos- conspirators on the other, and that after a sess, we are coolly told is neutrality. Dr. careful search for precedents, one was found Johnson, in his famous letter, gave us a in the royal proclamation touching the war sketch of a Chesterfieldean patron seeing a between Greece and Turkey, and that on man struggling for life in the water, and that was based the proclamation which has when be reached ground incumbering him so displeased and wounded the American with help. Lord John has taught us the people. meaning of British neutrality toward a nation supposed to be in like condition. Let AMERICAN NEUTRALITY IN CANADA. us trust that the English people will not en- It could not have escaped the Cabinet in dorse the definition.

their search for precedents, for we know with What would England have said to such a what thoroughness such searches are made, proclamation of neutrality from us in her do that a very similar state of things existed mestic troubles in Canada, in Ireland, or in but a few years since between Great Britain India ? What would the English people and the United States, when the integrity have thought of a state paper from Wash- and honor of the British empire were assailed ington, declaring it the sovereign will of the by her Canadian colonists, and she had ocpeople of the United States to remain per- casion to learn what in the opinion of the fectly neutral in the contest being waged in United States constitutes the duties of neuHindostan between the British Government trality toward a friendly nation. Unsuccesson the one side and the Mogul dynasty on ful rebellions are soon forgotten, and perthe other, and forbidding American citizens haps many Englishmen may be surprised on to enter the service of either of the said bel- being told that the Canadian rebellion was ligerents ? What would they have thought so deeply seated and so widely spread, as of the American President intimating with seriously to threaten the crown with the loss cold etiquette that it was a matter of pro- of the Canadas. Mr. Leader declared in found indifference to this Government which Parliament that all the English Government of the belligerents should be victorious, the could do, would be to subjugate and hold the King of Oude and Nana Sahib, or Lord Can- principal cities, leaving the country occuning and the immortal Havelock? Or is it pied by rebels. The number of British troops that the British have become so enamored under Sir John Colbourne was only twenty of rebellion, ay, and of treachery, too, among thousand, while the rebels are said to have their Sepoys, that they thus court our Great had fourteen thousand at Montreal, four Mogul and his fellow-traitors of Montgom- thousand at Napiersville, and thousands

more in arms in different parts of the CanaThe queen's proclamation strikes not sim- das, fierce with indignation at the murder of ply at the moral position of our Government, a party of patriots by Indians in the employ but according to the English press, it strikes of the British Government. also at our right to execute our own laws In November '37, two battles were fought against piracy; and we are told by the Lon- between the British and the rebels, the one don Times that if we venture to hang, und er at St. Dennis, and the other at St. Charles,


ery ?

which was taken from a force of three thou- | Van Buren issued a second proclamation, sand Canadians, of whom two hundred were calling upon the misguided and deluded perkilled, and thirty wounded.

sons to abandon projects dangerous to their In December, Mackenzie, the head rebel, own country, fatal to those whom they prowho seems to have been the prototype of fess a desire to relieve, impracticable of exDavis, organized a provisional Government, ecution without foreign aid, which they canand assuming the right to dispose of “ten not rationally expect to obtain, and giving millions of acres of land, fair and fertile,” rise to imputations, however unfounded, took possession of Montgomery House, near against the honor and good faith of their Toronto, with a band of insurgents, and sent own Government. a demand to Sir Francis B. Head to dissolve The proclamation further called upon the Provincial Parliament, and to leave To- "every officer, civil and military, and upon ronto within fifteen days.

every citizen, by the veneration due by all Then came Lord Gosford's proclamation freemen to the laws which they have asat Quebec, declaring martial law, and de- sisted to enact for their own Government, nouncing the conspiracy and rebellion, and by his regard for the honor and good faith on the 8th of January, 1838, came the first of his country, by his love of honor, and reproclamation from President Van Buren. spect for that sacred code of laws by which After reciting the efforts made by him and national intercourse is regulated, to use erby the governors of New York and Vermont ery power to arrest for trial and punishment to prevent any unlawful interference on the every offender against the laws providing for part of our citizens in the contest unfortu- the performance of our obligations to the nately commenced in the British provinces, other powers of the world." and notwithstanding the presence of the civil On the 4th of December, 1838, the Presiofficers of the United States who, by his di- dent, in his message to Congress, declared, rection, had visited the scenes of commotion, " If an insurrection existed in Canada, the arms and ammunition have been procured amicable disposition of the United States, as by the insurgents, in the United States, the well as their duty to themselves, would lead proclamation proceeded :

them to maintain a strict neutrality, and to

restrain its citizens from all violation of the “Now, therefore, to the end that the au- laws which have been passed for its enforcethority of the laws may be maintained and the faith of treaties observed, I, Martin Van ment. But the Government recognizes a still Buren, do most earnestly exhort all citizens higher obligation to repress all attempts on of the United States who have violated their the part of its citizens to disturb the peace duties to return peaceably to their respective of a country where order prevails or has been homes, and I hereby warn them that any re-established.” persons who shall compromise the neutrality Such was the neutrality on the part of the of this Gorernment by interfering in an un- United States towards Great Britain. It laveful manner with the affairs of the neigh- recognized the rebels of Canada not as belboring British provinces, will render themselves liable to arrest and punishment under ligerents, but as insurgents, and it enforced the laws of the United States,” etc., etc.

its neutrality not by forbidding its citizens

to assist Great Britain to maintain its auAt the request of Lord Durham, Mr. Van thority against the insurgents, but by forBuren had directed our commanding officer bidding them to interfere in an unlawful on Lake Ontario to co-operate in any meas- manner with the affairs of the Provinces. ures wbich might be suggested by Lord Dur- It needs no intimate knowledge of interham for rooting out the band of pirates who national law, no study of Grotius, or Puffhad their quarters among “the thousand endorf, or Vattel, or Wheaten, no definitions isles," without the slightest regard to the of- of the rights of belligerents and privateers ficial proclamation of their chief, Mr. Wil- from the Consolato del Mare, from Lampredi, liam Johnson, holding a commission from Galiani, Moser, or Huebner, to enable us to the patriot Government, that the patriots appreciate the wide difference between the would carefully respect neutral waters and neutrality we practised toward England and the rights of all citizens of the United States. her rebels, and that which England has in

On the 21st November, 1838, President / augurated against us; and no refinement of reasoning, nor subtle glosses indulged in by France has adopted ; and those two great the English press, have at all blinded the powers who recently declared in the ConAmerican people to the unfriendly character gress at Paris that privateering is and shall of this royal proclamation.

remain abolished, by royal and imperial The recognition of the independence of the proclamation have countersigned letters of Southern Confederacy is a matter in the dis- marque for the destruction of American cretion of England, and of all foreign nations. ships, and which threaten with spoliation When this independence is established as a the commerce of the world. The aim and matter of fact, we expect it to be recognized; effect of the British proclamation seems to but England does not so recognize it. She us so clearly unfriendly and injurious, that recognizes the Confederacy as simply strug- it is hardly worth while to note the discourgling for independence as were the insur- tesy of adopting such a policy, and giving it gents in Canada, and pending the struggle a definite and irreversible shape in advance she volunteers under professions of neutrality of the arrival of Mr. Adams, without allowto ignore our constitutional right to subdue ing us the opportunity to offer a word of them, and to recognize their rebellion as explanation or remonstrance. Mr. Adams lawful war. Bound to us by treaty stipula- reached Liverpool the 13th of May—the next tions, she elevates them to an equality of day the proclamation was printed in London. position as regards belligerent rights under The United States, by their neutrality, the law of nations. She places their usurped broke the back of the Canadian rebellion, government, based on treachery and slavery, dashed the hopes cherished by the rebels of on a par with that founded by Washington effective American sympathiy, in good faith and his associates on the broad consent of assisted the British Government in mainthe American people. She introduces Jef- taining its authority and restoring order, and ferson Davis and his confederates to a lim- thus materially diminished the cost of treasited extent into the family of nations, en- ure and of life at which alone their subjecdorses the licenses given by them to pirates tion could have been accomplished. whose brutal cupidity is stimulated by bribes The British Government by their neutral. of blood-money — twenty dollars for every ity, have made our task far more difficult, murdered American! and transforms them apart from the injury we may anticipate into letters of marque, which the ships of all from the fleet of privateers whose letters are nations are bound to recognize, respect, and so respectably countersigned. But we learn obey.

from this proclamation one lesson that will Had she treated them as insurgents, they be perhaps worth all that it shall cost us: would have had no other rights on the sea we learn the treatment we may expect if we than had Bill Johnson, the pirate of the St. fail to maintain our national integrity and Lawrence. Having proclaimed them bel- the honor of our flag. ligerents, she has given them a commission If a mere supposition that the rebels at not simply to capture American property in Montgomery are likely to be successful, can American vessels, but to capture on the high in a moment dash from the memory of the seas American property on board of what- English Government all recollection of past ever vessel it may be found, and to carry the friendship, and induce her in our moment of neutral vessel and cargo into a belligerent trial to condescend to a course so different port for further examination. . She recog- from that we had pursued towards her : what nizes the right of the men who have robbed treatment may we not expect from her, and our treasury, betrayed our forts, and filched from every other European Cabinet, if we our navy-yards and arsenals to establish ourselves by our conduct admit that we are prize-courts to decide upon the lawfulness powerless at home? How will we be treated of captures made by their commissioned abroad if we yield to the threats of a fraccruisers, and brought into court for adjudi- tion of our own population ? What will be cation, and the title to be given by Davis' our standing among nations if, consenting courts is to be held valid by the law of nations. to separation, we lose nearly half of our ter

That is what the proclamation of neutral- ritory and two-thirds of our Atlantic seaity really means. This is the neutrality board, and descend to the position of a thirdwhich England has inaugurated and which 'rate power? Or what respect will be paid us if, to maintain our territory, we compro- ment of a slave empire, is not based on mise with rebellion--if we yield at the can- any evanescent burst of enthusiasm, but on non's mouth what the people have deliber- the most sober calculations of honor, duty, ately refused at the pollsif we teach the safety, and economy; and that it is the true in

; world by such an example that we may be terest of England, her pecuniary, her political, bullied with success, and that when we resist and her moral interest, that the war should be on principle unreasonable demands, it is only as brief as possible, that the rebels may no necessary to humble our flag and to threaten longer be deluded into the belief that any true Washington to induce us ignominiously to Englishman who understands the history and submit?

the object of their rebellion can regard it with Let us discard all reliance upon other help other feelings than those naturally aroused than that of God, a right cause and a strong by a policy of fraud, treachery, and oparm, and let us recognize the stubborn fact pression. that “the government or nation that fails That the restoration of the integrity of our to protect itself against foes, whether for- Union is to be accomplished without a vast eign or domestic, deserves to perish inglori- expenditure of treasure, and perhaps of blood, ously.”

no one anticipates. We all know something

of the cost of European wars, but we know THE RIGHT SYMPATHIES OF THE ENGLISH also our own resources and the immense stake PEOPLE.

for which we will be fighting. Our fathers Before leaving the question of England's fought for seven years for our national freeneutrality, I think we should distinguish be- dom, and the spirit abroad throughout our tween the hasty action of the British Cabi- land indicates that their sons, if necessary, net and the deliberate conviction of the will fight seven years more to save it from British people.

destructior and disgrace. Whether the debt That the heart of that great nation is sound, incurred for its preservation shall be hunand that as soon as they understand the mo- dreds or thousands of millions, it will be a tives and manner of this rebellion as you sacred legacy to future generations. A debt understand them, they will appreciate our of five hundred millions, as remarked by an position, approve our resolution, and wish us English journalist, would leave this nation God-speed in our great work of restoring the less severely taxed than any nation of EuFederal Union to its integrity and its great rope. original principles of freedom, I cannot, I will not doubt.

Already their Cabinet has partially atoned If any man supposes that this republic can for the first proclamation by an order that be advantageously sundered into two, let him will prevent the privateers of Davis from en- cast his eye upon the map, and endeavor to tering British ports, and both the Govern- find a natural line to separate the two conment and the people must soon recognize the federacies. The geographical formation of fact that we have the ability and the will to our country indicates that it is one: nature crush this rebellion and maintain our integ- has provided no boundary line between the rity, however long the struggle, however great North and the South : no river like the Misthe cost: and that we no more recognize sissippi, no mountain chain like the Alleghathe right of England nor of Europe to dictate nies or the Rocky Mountains, running from to us in this matter, than England would have the West to the Atlantic, and forming an Alrecognized our right to interfere between pine boundary to divide the sections. On her and Nana Sahib. The material inter- the contrary, the Father of Waters stretches ests based on cotton must yield to the national out his great arms to the East and to the and moral duties that to-day devolve upon West, bearing on his bosom to the Gulf the the American people, in determining, per- generous products of the valleys which they haps for untold ages, the destiny of the Amer- fertilize, and carrying back in their place the ican continent.

cotton, rice, and sugar of our Southern borThe English people will see that our re- ders, and imports from foreign climes. solve to crush the conspiracy for the establish- The Mississippi, source and channel of prosGuetano Filangieri.

perity to North and South, alike in every


mile of its progress ; on the West to Minne- dicted that in the first place France would sota, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, and Louis- retake Louisiana, according to ancient treaiana; on the East to Wisconsin, Illinois, ties, that Spain would reclaim Florida, that Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi, pro- England perhaps would seek to appropriate claims to the citizens of the immense region Oregon, and that Mexico, under foreign prowhich it waters through thousands of miles in tection, would retake New Mexico, Texas, extent, from North to South, and East to and California; or supposing that we should West, that our country is one and indivisible. consent to the establishment of the so-called

Our duty to the South forbids our acqui- Southern Confederacy, which we know to be escence in this rebellion, for it would reverse a mere military despotism, what possible the American policy for the last half century, guarantee can we have for peace in the and reconsign to foreign invasion, to anarchy future, when each state reserves the right to and ruin, the immense territories which we secede at pleasure and enter at will into forhave rescued from European sway, and eign alliances, inaugurating universal chaos united as parts of our great nation. and chronic dissolution ? Even now, while

Look back to the olden time, and see what the struggle is being waged, the leading men the Southern country would again become. of South Carolina, already sick of their inTrace the history of Florida from the days dependence before it is accomplished, repuof Charles V., from the adventures of De diate republican institutions and sigh for a Leon and De Soto, the persecution of Prot- British prince to lend the odor of royalty to estants from France, and the retaliation on the aristoeracy which they boast—an aristhe murderous Spaniards; the capture of St. tocracy based not upon historic deeds and Augustine by Sir Francis Drake, the buc- noble heroism, but simply upon the color of caneering inroads of the English, the transfer their skins and their despotic dominion over of Florida to the British crown; its partial helpless slaves-an aristocracy wbose wealth settlement from Italy and Greece, the pri- is invested in human flesh, and whose reres vateering exploits in our Revolution, the cap- nues are collected in the field by the lash, ture of Baton Rouge and Pensacola, until its and on the auction-block by the hammer! purchase by our Government in 1819.

Let our Union be divided with the view Remember that the Spaniards navigated of accomplishing present peace, and not only the Gulf of Mexico for two centuries without would the United States fall from her posidiscovering that it was the outlet of the great tion of a first-class power to that of a minor river of the North, a fact which perhaps in- republic, with a contracted sea-board and a duces the Southern confederates to imagine defenceless border ; but the act of separation that we also may be persuaded to forget its would inaugurate an exposure to hostilities, existence. Look at Louisiana from the days first from our new and unfriendly neighof Law and the Mississippi bubble to its ces- bor, and then from every foreign power with sion to Spain in 1762, and its retrocession to which one or all of the Southern States France in 1800, when we hastened to buy it might choose to form an alliance. Either from the First Consul, and you will find contingency would necessarily change our nothing in Florida, in Louisiana, nor indeed national policy, require the maintenance of in Texas, to indicate even the first beginning a standing army, and complicate endlessly of the prosperity which has been so rapidly our commercial relations. Now, we stand developed under the fostering protection of aloof from the quarrels of the rest of the the Federal Government.

world, and can devote our energies to the

development of our marvellous resources INSEPARABLE and the extension of civilization and free

dom over the American continent; then we Let the American Union be dismembered, should be compelled to an attitude of perand what is to prevent foreign powers from petual self-defence to save us from constant re-entering upon our national domain, from entanglement in the web of European poliwhich at such great cost and labor they have tics. Already have we had a foretaste of been ousted ?

the sort of treatment which Europe will An old officer of the French empire, writ- accord to the severed fragments of the ing to the Courrier des Etats-Unis, has pre-/ American Republic.



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