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such mortifications for the future.” The servants, carriages, prices, etc., have been young Horace, who met her at Florence in entered into between persons in a state of 1740, could see in her suffering only a sub- mutual displeasure ? Not to mention that ject for jest and caricature, and an evidence his preserving, docketing, and indorsing
with his own hand even these slight notes of his own foregone conclusions :
as well as all her subsequent letters, shows “Her face swelled violently on one side, that he received nothing which came from • partly covered with a plaster, and partly her with indifference.” with white paint, which for cheapness she has bought so coarse that you would not
We learn from Mr. Thomas that down to use it to wash a chimney."
a very late period there are expressions in What if this were true ? It was but fol- the letters of Mr. Wortley wholly inconsistlowing a foolish fashion. Many beautiful ent with the idea of separation. There is, women — his own especial beauty, Lady indeed, evidence leading to the belief that Coventry, among them were believed to
he.,originally intended to accompany her; have seriously injured their health, if not
but probably the “one million three hunshortened their lives, by the use of white dred thousand,” which we are told he died paint. But the suffering Lady Mary, as
possessed of, suggested to Mr. Wortley that Walpole's satire would lead us to believe,
he had better remain and look after it. Lady was but too indifferent to personal appear
Mary, therefore, was under the necessity of ances; and a little better knowledge, and a
starting alone. After a run through Italy,
She left little more humanity, might have suggested she settled down at Avignon. to him that what he took for white paint Thomas has shown, for the north of Italy,
Avignon for very obvious reasons, as Mr. was probably that white powder which then, as now, physicians recommend in such cases
where she was taken dangerously ill. Of as an absorbent. This disease was so terri- course, Horace Walpole and his friends ble that when at Venice she was glad to avail and allies saw in this a profound mystery ; herself of a fashion of the place, and to and in August, 1751, he thus wrote inquirreceive company in a mask.
ingly and suggestively to Sir Horace Mann, It was in this state of suffering that the the English Minister at Florence :poor lady thought, as hundreds had done
Pray tell me if you know any thing of before, and thousands since, that a residence Lady Mary Wortley : we have an obscure for a time in a warmer and more genial cli- history here of her being in durance in the mate, might restore her health ; and when Brescian or the Bergamesco; that a young she had no home duties to detain her, when fellow, whom she set out with keeping, has
taken it into his head to keep her close her son was wandering abroad, and her
prisoner, not permitting her to write or redaughter happily married, what more natu- ceive any letters but what he sees.” ral than that she should be anxious to try the influence of “the sweet South”? Her
This of a woman suffering from an ingranddaughter, Lady Louisa Stuart, in her curable disease, and sixty-one years old ! delightful "Anecdotes," says :
Lord Wharncliffe endeavored to explain this
“obscure history ;” but Mr. Thomas makes “There is proof that Lady Mary's de- the fact as plain and simple as every honest parture from England was not by any means man and woman must have felt that they hasty or sudden; for in a letter to Lady Pomfret, dated the 2nd of May, 1739, she might be made :announces her design of going abroad that
“It appears, by a letter from General summer; and she did not begin her journey Graham, that the Italian count was the till the end of July, three months afterwards. Count Palazzo, and the reader will find in Other letters are extant affording equal proof the letters from Lady Mary to her husband, that Mr. Wortley and she parted upon the dated Brescia, Aug. 23, N.S., and Nov. most friendly terms, and indeed as no couple 24, N.S. (1746], a full account, from Lady could have done who had had any recent Mary herself
, of the origin of her acquaintquarrel or cause of quarrel. She wrote to ance with the count and his mother. The him from Dartford, her first stage ; again a count was of an ancient family who had their few lines from Dover, and again the moment seat, as I find from Italian books of genealshe arrived at Calais. Could this have
ogy, near Brescia. He visited Lady Mary: passed, or would the petty details about at Avignon, with a letter of introduction
from her friend the Countess of Wacker- graph in a letter to her sister of a much barth. Lady Mary had then been long earlier date (1725) which hints at some such wanting an opportunity to leave Avignon possible future:for Northern Italy, which having become, after the unsuccessful rebellion of 1745, “I have such a complication of things more than ever a place of refuge for English both in my head and heart that I do not very Jacobites, was for her, whom they suspected well know what I do, and if I can't settle my to be a spy, an inconvenient residence. The brains, your next news of me will be, that I war then carried on between the Spaniards am locked up by my relations: in the mean and the Germans in Italy, made the journey time I lock myself up; and keep my disextremely dangerous, and the count, as she traction as private as possible.” informs Mr. Wortley, offers her the escort of himself and his attendants to Brescia. At Having thus disposed of the foreign resiBrescia, she was received by the count's dence and its “obscure histories,” what are mother, who invited her to her house till she the facts that remain ? We must refer to could find a lodging to her liking. Here Mr. Thomas for the result of his inquiries :Lady Mary fell ill of a dangerous fever, which confined her to her bed two months, "Throughout the correspondence, mainand left her in a state of great weakness. tained to the end of Mr. Wortley's long life • The Countess Palazzo, she writes, on the with a regularity that is remarkable, expres24th of November, ‘has taken as much care sions of respect and affection are frequent on of me as if I had been her sister, and omitted both sides. . . . Whatever may have been no expense or trouble to serve me. I am the cause of their separation, there is abunstill with her, and, indeed, in no condition dant evidence in the correspondence that it of moving at present. On the 18th of Jan- was one which she might have openly avowed uary she writes again, in an unpublished without shame. Besides repeated censures letter, that she is still very weak.' The upon the ill-conduct of others, which it would • detention' referred to must have been of be impossible to imagine could be written to short duration, for in another letter, dated a husband by a woman whose own wrong17th March, N.S., 1746–7, she informs her doing had condemned her, as has been inhusband that her health is much mended, sinuated, to a life-long banishment, there and that she is at present in a little house' are frequently direct references to her own she has taken some miles from Brescia for propriety of conduct and faithful discharge the sake of the air.' What had been the of her duties as a mother and a wife. In grounds of difference between her and the one letter to Mr. Wortley she writes, with count and his mother in the mean time, does reference to Lady Bute, I may say with not appear. It is possible that they may truth that, as even from her infancy I have have considered that her illness—her terri- made her a companion and witness of my ble fit of sickness,' as Lady Mary, in one of actions, she owes me not only the regard due her letters, calls it-made it necessary to im- to a parent, but the esteem that ought to be pose upon her some temporary restraint.” paid to a blameless conduct.' That their
separation was never regarded by Lady Lady Mary's first feeling was to resent Mary as necessarily final, is equally evident. this restraint. She actually had a case On one occasion, among the later letters, drawn up as if she at one time contemplated she writes to her husband : . Having had no legal proceeding, and this paper described opportunity of writing by a private hand, I her as having been detained against her will have delayed some time answering your last in a country house inhabited by the count either able or willing to express. I hope
letter, which touched me more than I am and his mother. She had no objection, your apprehensions of blindness are not contherefore, to the facts being known; and firmed by any fresh symptoms of that territhis statement was preserved to her death, ble misfortune. If I could be of any service and was amongst the papers which descended to you, on that or any other occasion, I shall to her daughter. It is probable that she think my last remains of life well employed.' thought better of the conduct of the count Again, to her daughter, about the same and his mother, as she herself became bet- time: 'My life is so near a conclusion, that ter in health. We have a suspicion that the most become indifferent to me. I have out
where or how I pass it, if innocently, is aldetention may have been necessary at that lived the greatest part of my acquaintance, time—that in this “terrible fit of sickness,” and, to say the truth, a return to crowd and as she calls it, her mind may have been af- bustle after my long retirement would be fected. There is a very enigmatical para- disagreeabl. .o me. Yet, if I could be of use, either to your father or your family, I not have been made at the period when the would venture shortening the insignificant letter purports to have been written, Sepdays of your affectionate mother.' tember 1, 1717, as Pope did not remove Lady Mary was in Venice in 1761, when the thither till at least twelve months later. news reached her of her husband's death, Nor can this anachronism be explained by and she writes upon the subject in terms of supposing an error in copying the figures ; sorrow too deep to have been feigned. She because the allusions to public events, in the was now upwards of seventy years of age, same letter, clearly relate to a period about and was in ill health ; but her daughter the date affixed.” pressed her, for reasons connected with the disposition of Mr. Wortley's estate, to re
Other proofs might easily be adduced, turn. 'I think it my duty,' she writes, 'to but, with us, this Twickenham blunder has risk my life if I can contribute to the due ever been conclusive. How, then, as to execution of your honored father's last will the authenticity of the whole of the “ Turkand testament.'”
ish Letters”? for in Dallaway's edition, In compliance with the wish of her daugh- published with the sanction of the family, ter, she started for England in the severe we were informed, that no letter, essay, or winter of 1761-2, arrived in January, 1762, poem would be found, "the original manuand died here in the following August, as script of which is not at this time extant, she had foretold.
in the possession of her grandson.” Yet The reader will best understand the merit therein appears a letter from Pope himself, of Mr. Thomas' Memoir from the defence dated “Twick'nam, Aug. 18, 1716;" and which it has suggested of that much calum- this very exact date re-appears in both Lord niated woman who is the subject of it. The Wharncliffe's editions. What was of force volume, however, has other merits. It has against the one volume appeared to us been carefully edited, with more labor, we equally so as against the whole collection. suspect, than will be appreciated or appar- Dallaway we might have suspected; he was ent, except to the critical.
an accomplished man of letters, but indifWe long since expressed doubts as to the ferent about that minute accuracy which authenticity of the “ Turkish Letters." We is essential to a good editor. But Lord had proof that in some instances the ad- Wharncliffe had, apparently, found him out; dresses, the names, the dates, the references protested against his omissions, combinawere not to be reconciled with known facts. tions, and adaptations, and gave us the The history of the publication has ever been further assurance that, in his edition, “ these a mystery, and given rise to much discus- defects are remedied." Yet it now appears sion. Three volumes appeared in 1763, and that the only date to the above letter is a fourth rolume in 1767. Respecting this " Aug. 18,” the year and place being a conlast volume, though he has very properly jecture of Dallaway, published by both inserted the letters in his collection, Mr. Dallaway and Lord Wharncliffe without a Thomas acknowledges that he, too, has note of warning. After a like fashion, other doubts :
dates were inserted conjecturally, names
were reduced to initials, and for initials “It is not improbable that the great success of the three volumes of Lady Mary's
names were inserted. Thus, some of the letters induced him [Cleland] to fabricate - Turkish Letters” were addressed by Daladditional letters. No manuscript authority laway to Miss Skerritt, first the mistress, for the letters in his fourth volume has ever and then the second wife of Sir Robert Walbeen produced; and with the exception of a pole; whereas it may be shown by a letter letter and poem, which had found their way of Lady Mar that, so late as 1721, Miss into print many years before, and an essay Skerritt was not even known to Lady Mary. which had also probably been somewhere al- Can any one wonder that, with such misready printed, there is the strongest reason to suspect that the whole volume was a leading lights, the more careful and critical forgery. The disrespectful manner in which the reader, the more he was sure to be perLady Mary is made to allude to Addison in plexed with doubts ? one of the pretended letters, is altogether We could go on with our illustrations inconsistent with the reverence with which through a dozen more columns; but may she always regarded him; and the allusion reserve what further we have to say till the to Pope's residence at Twickenham could second volume is published.
LETTER FROM W. H. RUSSELL, CORRE- of the Northern States, whom they regard SPONDENT OF THE TIMES.
as tainted beyond. cure by the venom of THE STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA.
“Puritanism.” Whatever may be the cause, CIIARLESTON, April 30.-Nothing I could this is the fact and the effect. " The state say can be worth one fact which has forced of South Carolina was,” I am told, “ founded itself upon my mind in reference to the sen- by gentlemen.” It was not established by timents which prevail among the gentlemen witch-burning Puritans, by cruel, persecutof this state. I have been among them for ing fanatics who implanted in the North the several days. I have visited their planta- standard of Torquemada, and breathed into tions, I have conversed with them freely and the nostrils of their newly born colonies all fully, and I have enjoyed that frank, cour- the ferocity, bloodthirstiness, and rabid inteous, and graceful intercourse which con- tolerance of the Inquisition. It is absostitutes an irresistible charm of their society. lutely astounding to a stranger who aims at From all quarters has come to my ears the the preservation of a decent neutrality to echoes of the same voice; it may be feigned, mark the violence of these opinions. “If that but there is no discord in the note, and it confounded ship had sunk with those sounds in wonderful strength and monotony Pilgrim Fathers on board,” says one, all over the country. Shades of George III., never should have been driven to these exof North, of Johnson, of all who contended tremities!” “ We could have got on with the against the great rebellion which tore these fanatics if they had been either Christians or colonies from England, can you hear the gentlemen,” says another ; " for in the first chorus which rings through the state of case they would have acted with common Marion, Sumter, and Pinckney, and not clap charity, and in the second they would have your ghostly hands in triumph ? That voice fought when they insulted us; but there are says, “ If we could only get one of the royal neither Christians nor gentlemen among race of England to rule over us we should them!” “ Any thing on the earth!” exbe content." Let there be no misconcep- claims a third, “ any form of government, tion on this point. That sentiment, varied any tyranny or despotism you will : but”in a hundred ways, has been repeated to me and here is an appeal more terrible than the over and over again. There is a general adjuration of all the gods—“nothing on earth admission that the means to such an end are shall ever induce us to submit to any union wanting, and that the desire cannot be grati- with the brutal, bigoted blackguards of the fied. But the admiration for monarchical New England States, who neither compreinstitutions on the English model, for privi- hend nor regard the feelings of gentlemen! leged classes, and for a landed aristocracy and Man, woman, and child, we'll die first.” gentry, is undisguised and apparently gen- Imagine these and an infinite variety of uine. With the pride of having achieved their similar sentiments uttered by courtly, wellindependence is mingled in the South Caro- educated men, who set great store on a nice linians' hearts a strange regret at the result observance of the usages of society, and and consequences, and many are they who who are only moved to extreme bitterness “ would go back to-morrow if we could.” and anger when they speak of the North, and An intense affection for the British connec- you will fail to conceive the intensity of the tion, a love of British habits and customs, a dislike of the South Carolinians for the Free respect for British sentiment, law, authority, States. There are national antipathies on order, civilization, and literature, pre-emi- our side of the Atlantic, which are tolerably nently distinguish the inhabitants of this strong and have been unfortunately pertinastate, who, glorying in their descent from cious and long-lived. The hatred of the ancient families on the three islands, whose Italian for the Tedesco, of the Greek for the fortunes they still follow, and with whose Turk, of the Turk for the Russ, is warm members they maintain not unfrequently and fierce enough to satisfy the Prince of familiar relations, regard with an aversion Darkness, not to speak of a few little pet of which it is impossible to give an idea to aversions among allied powers and the one who has not seen its manifestations, the atoms of composite empires; but they are people of New England and the populations all mere indifference and neutrality of feeling compared to the animosity evinced by corrupt, howling demagogy, and in the the “gentry” of South Carolina for the marts of a dishonest commerce. It is the “ rabble of the North."
merchants of New York who fit out ships The contests of Cavalier and Roundhead, for the slave trade, and carry it on in Yanof Vendean and Republican, even of Orange- kee ships. It is the capital of the North men and Croppy, have been elegant joust- which supports, and it is Northern men who ings, regulated by the finest rules of chiv- concoct and execute, the filibustering exalry, compared with those which North and peditions which have brought discredit on South will carry on if their deeds support the slaveholding states. In the large cities their words. “Immortal hate, the study of people are corrupted by itinerant and ignorevenge” will actuate every blow, and never rant lecturers—in the towns and in the counin the history of the world, perhaps, will go try by an unprincipled press. The populaforth such a dreadful væ victis as that which tions, indeed, know how to read and write, may be heard before the fight has begun. but they don't know how to think, and they There is nothing in all the dark caves of are the easy victims of the wretched im. human passion so cruel and deadly as the postors on all the 'ologies and isms who hatred the South Carolinians profess for the swarm over the region, and subsist by lecYankees. That hatred has been swelling turing on subjects which the innate vices of for years till it is the very life-blood of the mankind induce them to accept with eagerstate. It has set South Carolina to work ness, while they assume the garb of philsteadily to organize her resources for the osophical abstractions to cover their nastistruggle which she intended to provoke if it ness in deference to a contemptible and did not come in the course of time. “In- universal hypocrisy. compatibility of temper” would have been “Who fills the butchers' shops with large blue sufficient ground for the divorce, and I am flies?” satisfied that there has been a deep-rooted | Assuredly, the New England demon who design, conceived in some men's minds has been persecuting the South till its inthirty years ago, and extended gradually tolerable cruelty and insolence forced her, year after year to others', to break away in a spasm of agony, to rend her chains from the Union at the very first opportunity. asunder. The New Englander must have The North is to South Carolina a corrupt something to persecute, and as he has hunted and evil thing, to which for long years she down all his Indians, burnt all his witches, has been bound by burning chains, while and persecuted all his opponents to the monopolists and manufacturers fed on her death, he invented abolitionism as the sole tender limbs. She has been bound in a resource left to him for the gratification of Maxentian union to the object she loathes. his favorite passion. Next to this motive New England is to her the incarnation of principle is his desire to make money dismoral and political wickedness and social honestly, trickily, meanly, and shabbily. corruption. It is the source of every thing He has acted on it in all his relations with which South Carolina hates, and of the tor- the South, and has cheated and plundered rents of free thought and taxed manufactures her in all his dealings by villanous tariffs. of abolitionism and of filibustering, which If one objects that the South must have been have flooded the land. Believe a Southern a party to this, because her boast is that her man as he believes himself, and you must statesmen have ruled the government of the regard New England and the kindred states country, you are told that the South yielded as the birthplace of impurity of mind among out of pure good-nature. Now, however, men and of unchastity in women—the home she will have free trade, and will open the of Free Love, of Fourierism, of infidelity, coasting trade to foreign nations, and shut of abolitionism, of false teachings in polit- out from it the hated Yankees, who so long ical economy and in social life; a land sat. monopolized and made their fortunes by urated with the drippings of rotten philoso- it. Under all the varied burdens and misphy, with the poisonous infections of a еries to which she was subjected, the South fanatic press ; without honor or modesty; held fast to her sheet anchor. South Carowhose wisdom is paltry cunning, whose valor lina was the mooring ground in which it and manhood have been swallowed up in a found the surest hold. The doctrine of