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which every man needs only instruction in will tap an exhaustless mine. The Union, drill to be an efficient soldier. The levy will taking the calculation head by head-for if do infinite mischief to the country, will in- she has fewer rich than England she has also. crease the military feeling so strong in the fewer poor-can bear a national debt of five states, will check the prosperity of the West, hundred millions, and yet be no heavier and will perhaps menace the liberty for which weighted than ourselves. The Secretary's the volunteers say they fight; but the men demand is for less than one eighth of that can be obtained. So can the National Guard, amount. The men and the money are fortha force long since demanded by the holders coming, and annoyed as all men must feel of property, who see in the weakness of at the bombastic rubbish with which Amerthe Executive a permanent danger to them- icans overlay earnest feeling, we still know selves.

of nothing nobler than the constancy with It remains to provide the money, and it which the people sacrifice their dreams, their must be remembered that the lightness of wealth, and their lives to preserve their taxation which has hitherto distinguished the honor. states, only makes heavy taxation the more easy and productive. The financial secre

From The Press, 20 July. tary, like his chief, states his demand with sufficient clearness but in many words. The

THE WAR IN AMERICA. expenditure for the current year may be LARGE as is the vote of men and money taken at eighty millions sterling, of which which the Message of President Lincoln desum twenty millions must, he conceives, be mands from the American Congress, it can raised by taxes. By placing a tax on sugar, hardly be said to be adequate for a substanmolasses, coffee, and tea, he hopes that the tial prosecution of the war. Men are too indirect taxes may be made to produce fifteen apt to measure the proportions of this strugmillions, and for the remaining five he pro-gle by the standard of wars between indiposes two alternatives. A tax of half a vidual nations, and to forget that preparacrown in the pound on the entire property tions which would be stupendous as the of-of the North would produce just the amount fensive armament of a single state, figure deficient, or it may be made up by light im- but poorly as the equipment of one half of a posts on ale and beer, tobacco and spirits, continent for the subjugation of the other. bank notes and spring carriages, jewelry Mr. Lincoln must be advised by very sanand legacies. This is a goodly list of guine politicians or very poor military auburdens, and reminds one painfully how thorities, if he expects that 400,000 men near Sydney Smith's prophetical caution to and 400,000,000 dollars will furnish to the brother Jonathan is to its fulfilment. But Federal Government “the legal means for none of the duties, though some of them making the contest a short and decisive will be heavy-as, for example, ten pence a one." With no larger means at their dispound on green tea-are unbearable, or ex- posal, the Notherners will scarcely be able ceed those we ourselves pay, murmuring, but to make an energetic commencement of the obedient. None of them press on the sources campaign, and the close of the year 1861 of wealth, or demand from the people the will probably wear itself out in the same insacrifice of necessaries with which it would activity which has characterized its combe injurious to dispense. Even the property mencement. tax might be borne, and the machinery al- It does not seem that any great result has ready exists for collecting that impost for followed the movement of General Patterstate expenses. The Union will simply glide son across the Potomac. A loss of sixtyout of the class of lightly taxed states into three men killed and several wounded, which that of fairly taxed nations—a change the made up the combined casualties on both progress of events was sure sooner or later sides, will not probably be thought to have to involve. But this is not all the burden given any great military significance to his to be imposed. Sixty millions sterling- brush with General Johnston's forces, and it two hundred and forty millions of dollars- will only be by courtesy that their rencontre remain to be provided for by loan, and the can hereafter be styled “The Battle of moneyed interest is already, it is said, biased Martinsburg." towards the South. The moneyed interest, If it were not for the stoppage of trade however, whatever their “proclivities,” will throughout a great mercantile continent, follow their instincts, and swarm round a and for the stimulus which a perpetual ministry which creates a national debt like bivouac seems to give to those habits of vaflies round honey. Or if they do not, there grancy and dissipation which are already too remains the device of the open loan, a device prevalent among Americans, we might well which, in a country where every farmer saves rejoice that the civil war should have so long and five sixths of the national wealth is real, a prelude; and, as it is, any development

of the struggle which should suffice to mass of such enormous bulk ; and an occupation the scattered contingents of the North and of either of those cities could only be mainSouth-no matter with what good effect to tained by the employment of all the forces of their moral condition-and bring two large the Union, and such an expenditure of men kindred armies to each other's throats, and money as must of itself bring the war would be most lamentable. That the enor- to a close. mous frontier from Arkansas to the Atlantic It is not a plausible supposition that the should be sprinkled with groups of recruits, loss of one out of many capitals would prove who consume both their time and their con- more ruinous to the cause of the Southern stitutions in games of chance, political in- States than the capture of Moscow did vective, and brandy-smashes, and whose to the Russians in *1812. It is far more military drill seems confined to an intermit- probable, on the contrary, that causes tent and unregimental practice among them- analogous to those which drove back Naselves with the bowie-knife and revolver, poleon would bring about the extinction is doubtless to deplored. Such a state of of any Northern army that might mistake a things would be happily terminated by any similar occupation for a conquest of the solution of the present difficulty, perhaps South. The protracted siege of a fortress not even excluding a recognition, in some at her southern extremity sufficed to suck shape or other, of the seceding confederacy. the strength of Russia in 1855. But it was But to stop the present demoralization of not the importance of the capture that closed these levies, by giving to their embodiment the Crimean war with the siege of Sebastothe only purpose of which it is susceptible, bol. It was the siege that exhausted the vanwould be to correct, by a still more terrible quished, and not the loss of the place, which disaster, that which is already sufficiently in- might have been regained in subsequent jurious. The ridicule which has been so campaigns. The waste of money and lives largely thrown upon the tardiness which the in a land-transit from Archangel to the Sea Americans show in commencing actual war- of Azov,during which the armies of Nicholas fare has doubtless been more than commonly melted away as they went to war, and in irritating to the vainest of all living nations. which millions were spent before a shot was But it may be doubted whether it is wise, fired, made just that balance of chances in in communities like our own, which would favor of the allies which would tell for the suffer so largely from the conflict, to employ Confederated States, if the Government of so powerful an incitement to the contending President Lincoln could be induced to carry parties. Nor is it by any means certain that the campaign far to the south of the Potothe ridicule can be justified. Apart from mac. On the other hand, aggresive movethe acknowledged want of preparation on ments can form no part of the intentions the part of the Federal Government, and the or interests of the confederate generals. lack of real military resources and equip. Their strength and the strength of the cause ment upon the side of the confederates, it for which they contend is pre-eminently to sit does not scem easy to commence a campaign still. How the rear of his army could be from such an enormous base of operations. protected, or its retreat secured in an invaThe position and conditions of both parties sion of the Southern States, is a question are unmatched in the military history of the which those who condemn General Scott world. It is hardly to be imagined that an and affect to sneer at the Yankee appetite aggressive movement from either side would for battle have not yet been called upon to anresult in any thing else than the grave dis- swer. Nor does it seem that such people comfiture of the aggressor. And for defen- have thought it worth their while to inquire sive purposes, it would be absurd to attempt whether, in the present ignorance of what a concentration of large forces upon any one can be ultimately effected even by a successpoint in a frontier of 2,000 miles, even if the ful campaign, it may not be as well that the expense of transporting troops over such generals on each side should abstain from enormous distances did not preclude the en- any operations that would irremediably tertainment of such an idea by belligerents pledge the people of the North. At present, commencing hostilities with empty treas- short of the chimerial notion which is fast uries. It is difficult to estimate the number being abandoned of coercing the whole of the of men that would be requisite for the prose- South, all is vague and undetermined in the cution of a systematic war over so gigantic councils of Washington. There are few an area. The extent in mileage of the con- politicians who would venture to place the federate territory is rather more than reclamation of Carolina in the list of their equivalent to England, France, Italy, Ger- i contingencies, and still fewer who, failing many, and Spain, put together. The capture to do that, could sketch out any probabilitics of Charleston or Richmond, if effected, whatever for the revolution. It is by no would be an unappreciable blow in a body means certain that substantial intentions may not hereafter be formed by both sides, pect. The loss or gain of some or all of which will centralize and give object to the these states will make the success and failure struggle. But whatever they may be, they of the struggle. No advantages gained by must of necessity be subsequent to a recog- either party beyond such acquisition would nition of the permanent disruption of the ever be permanent, and probably no one Union. This proposition once assumed, a who looks to the welfare of America wishes contest for the possession of Virginia, Mis- that they could be. If the North were to souri, and Tennessee may possibly turn out close the conquest, having secured the above to be its legitimate consequence, as it has named provinces, many would probably reall along been the only issue to which the joice that its disruption from the South had aggression of the North could practiaally enabled it to free so large a section of the tend. The coercion of the main body of the great American continent as would then form seceding states is a project only less mani- the United States from the trammels and festly absurd than an invasion of the North distractions of the unhappy institution which by the South would be; and it is doubtful is the professed cause of the revolution. whether the Government at Washington ever seriously contemplated it. To save the border states for the Union, and to thrust

From The Saturday Review, 20 July. back as far as possible the boundary line of

THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR. the new confederacy, is a fair effort of policy; Four hundred thousand men and eighty and it was safer, before those states which millions sterling! A few months ago, Engwere wavering had seceded, to advertise the lish democrats were in the habit of holding reconquest of those already in open rebel- up to the envy of their countrymen the great lion, than to stimulate further secession by republic which had neither an army nor a professedly stepping in to restrain it. national debt; and now one section of the

Whatever may be the knowledge which Union is raising colossal forces with an esthe populations of the Union have of the timate that every soldier will correspond to true objects of the expedition, nothing can an expenditure of $1,000. In the South, be more creditable to their courage and also, troops are counted by myriads; and patriotism than the rapidity with which the although money is there less abundant, rich levies have grown, and the cheerfulness with and poor are eagerly contributing their perwhich the prospect of a heavy taxation is sons and their produce for the maintenance entertained. It is perhaps as well that our of a deadly war. The inference is not that home capitalists will be deterred by their republican institutions have broken down, fears of repudiation from subscribing largely but that no community, however free and to the loans which will shortly be contracted. I intelligent, can be relieved from the immuGreat Britain will thus neither directly nor table conditions of political society. The indirectly contribute to the success or neces- United States were exempt from the danger sities of either of the belligerents. The fa- and cost of a standing army, because they vorable state of feeling which doubtless ex- had no equals on their own continent to reists in the South towards this country has spect or to fear. Their domestic organizanot induced our merchants to take the bonds tion seemed to defy the risk of dissolution of the new government. And the North long as it had never been tried. As soon has perhaps to thank the rabid threats with as a cause of difference arose which interested which its press has insisted upon our unjust a part of the federation more nearly than partiality for the loss of much substantial the traditions of the Union, the fabric fell assistance to its exchequer. In the face of asunder, like many a political combination such national hostility as the New York pa- of the ancient world, and the only instrupers affect to represent, it would be highly ment by which it can be brought together dangerous for any Englishman to invest his again is the rude contrivance of military money in fresh American securities. force. The armaments will involve a debt,

On the whole, it is not to be apprehended customs duties, and direct taxes ; and althat there will be any grave and immediate though the resources of the country are change for the worse in the position of af- equal to the occasion, it is doubtful whether fairs. It is probable that the war will even- the forms or spirit of the Constitution will tually concentrate itself in one or other of survive the change in the circumstances of the states which are to be prizes of the con- the country: Cheap administration and the flict. There will be compaigns in Virginia peace which is founded on immunity from for Virginia, in Missouri for Missouri, in attack are but vulgar objects of enthusiasm. Tennessee for Tennessee, unless their pos- A state may reach its highest pitch of greatsession is made the subject of negotiations. ness when it has mortgaged the earnings of More than this the North can hardly attempt, many generations for the maintenance of and less than this the South can hardly ex- enormous military and naval establishments. The spirit displayed by the Northern States irrevocably pledged to the cause of the Union. of America in the vindication of the Federal The great states of the North-west ought, compact is far more respectable than the if they understood their own interest, to reboasted prosperity which has always been sist the grasping selfishness of the Atlantic used to excite the wonder of Europe. The cotton-spinners and iron-masters. The Govprudence and practicability of Mr. Lincoln's ernment must have already discovered that enterprise may be questioned, but the regi- the stoppage or discouragement of trade has ments which are marching to Virginia and little tendency to increase the pecuniary reMissouri from all the regions of the North are sources of the country. Sober politicians animated by a generous belief that it is their also perceive that a prohibitive tariff is a duty to preserve the unity of the great Repub- boon to the Southern States as long as the lic. In the meantime, the Confederate Gov- quarrel lasts, and that it may at any time ernment is preparing for the struggle in si- prove an obstacle to the desired compromise lence, and the few scattered accounts from the which no one has the courage publicly to South afford glimpses of a fierce determina- mention. The New York journals, and the tion to resent all attempts at coercion to the popular opinion which they reflect, seem to death. The army and wealth of the United feel a certain shame for their vulgar and unStates seem wholly irresistible as long as provoked onslaught on England. The mothe distant spectator is influenced by the nopolists of Pennsylvania will scarcely percontagious enthusiasm and confidence of the suade Congress that an iniquitous system of Northern population; but a more compre- taxation is justifiable and patriotic, merely hensive view of the conflict makes the con- because it is incidentally distasteful to the quest of the seceding states appear as for- hated foreigner. midable and as uncertain as the march to Having performed the constitutional duty Moscow. It will be difficult to feed one of providing the supplies, the legislature hundred thousand men in a hostile country, will perhaps proceed to transcend the limits and twice that force would be easily out- of its authority by passing an act of indemnumbered in Georgia or in Mississippi. nity in favor of the Executive. Mr. Lincoln

Congress will not fail to grant the vast may have been morally right in all the meassupplies in men and money which the Ad- ures which he has adopted, but he has found ministration has thought it necessary to de- it necessary to violate at every turn a conmand. Of the four hundred thousand men stitution which was never calculated for the two hundred and fifty thousand are already contingencies of civil war. He has enforced levied, and a large portion of the $400,000,- martial law in Baltimore without ever pro000 has been expended by the Federal Gov- claiming it, and he has held intercourse with ernment or advanced by the states. A navy the revolutionary or bogus Virginian govhas still to be created, and a multitude of ernment which has been originated by the recruits to be formed into an army, and at Wheeling Convention. In his first proclapresent the whole country would resent any mation after the capture of Fort Sumter, the hesitation in the provision of ample means President paid the customary tribute to profor victory. Mr. Chase's plan for obtaining priety in his odd warning to the so-called inthe necessary funds seems to be well-consid surgents to retire to the homes which they ered, practicable, and straightforward. A had never quitted. As soon as the North large loan is to be raised while patriotic zeal began to arm in earnest, the affectation of is still at its highest, and duties on coffee reading the Riot Act to nine or ten soverand other unprotected commodities are, for eign states became too flagrantly absurd. the first time, included in a tariff constructed From that time the President has carried not for protection but for revenue. A small on the war in the capacity of a dictator with direct tax is to form a further security to the a high-handed disregard for legal scruples national creditor, and it may be assumed and objections. In England, Parliament that it will be raised by the constitutional would retrospectively authorize any measure process of adding the necessary percentage which was proved to have been essential to to the municipal and state assessment. The the safety of the commonwealth. The Senate impost will fall with undue weight on visible and the House of Representatives, if they property, but it is necessary, in all questions affect to indemnify the President and his of taxation, to follow the custom of the coun- ministers, will in the eye of the law only try. The Secretary of the Treasury and his share his technical guilt. The judges of the colleagues have probably devised the most Supreme Court, if they are allowed to exereffective mode of raising money, and it is cise their functions in safety, will treat an scarcely probable that Congress will suggest act of Congress in a matter beyond its comany alternative scheme. It is not known petence as a scrap of waste paper. All whether the Morrill tariff will be modified, branches of the Government, however, are pow that Massachusetts and Philadelphia are at liberty to appeal to some possible clause


of indemnity in a future revision of the con- Republicans and Democrats, the influence stitutional pact; nor, with the people at their of moderate and far-sighted politicians will back, is it necessary to reflect that the revival gradually increase. of the Union, if it were possible, would leave With three or four hundred thousand the most zealous advocates of the war once ' men, and with the command of the sea, the more in a minority.

Northern Government may threaten the The President's message is the oddest Gulf coasts of the Confederation without document which was ever issued by the Gov- , weakening the main armies in Virginia and ernment of a great nation. Mr. Lincoln's on the Mississippi. Like Napoleon in 1812, admirers boast that the chief magistrate of the invader is stronger in numbers and in the Union once navigated a timber float; organization, but the Americans of the South and it is satisfactory to observe that an are strangely degenerate if they are easier to august bargeman from the Mississippi is, in subdue than the serf population of Russia. style and rhetoric, precisely on a level with If an unforeseen conquest is nevertheless an uncrowned bargeman on the Thames. achieved, the difficulty of administering a "The little disguise,” says Mr. Lincoln, hostile province will be even more insuper" that the supposed right is to be exercised able than the dangers of the war. Whatever only for a just cause, themselves to be the may be the issue of the conflict, it will leave sole judges of its justice, is too thin to merit hundreds of thousands of armed men to be any notice. Thus sugar-coated, they have disbanded, and some of them will have acbeen drugging the public mind of their sec- quired that exclusive taste for their profestion for more than thirty years, and until at sion which is common to veterans. The next length they have brought many good men candidates for the Presidency will assuredly to a willingness to take up arms against the be military leaders, and it is by no means Government the day after some assemblage certain that the supporters of a defeated of men have enacted the farcical pretence of general will acquiesce in the triumph of taking their state out of the Union, who some unknown Polk or Pierce. It will be could have been brought to no such thing necessary to find employment for the army, the day before.” The honest President and Mexico will probably be the first victim seems, in his process of self-education, to of the new American institutions. The athave learned to write imperfectly, and it is tack on Canada which has so often been strange that an educated country should be threatened will perhaps follow in due course, governed by an utterly illiterate ruler. But and the fleet will undervalue and tempt the in substance the people and the Government overwhelming naval force of England. . Acunderstand one another, and the sugar-cording to the latest accounts, a collision coated druggists, though they may smile at was said to be imminent on the right bank the ungrammatical denunciation of their of the Potomac. Northern enthusiasts, who farcical pretences, will not the less under- are wholly ignorant of General Beauregard's stand that they have to deal with an inex- intentions, forget that a battle, before it is haustible store of money and of soldiers. fought, must be accepted as well as offered. The comic effect of the President's message As the struggle for the possession of Richwill only be fully appreciated by those who mond will have no decisive effect on the war, are safe from the consequences of his curi- it will be satisfactory to find that unnecessary ously expressed conclusions.

bloodshed has been avoided or postponed. The most interesting question to be determined in the debates of Congress relates to the conformity or independence of individual

From The Economist, 20 July. opinions. A few senators and several rep- THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE. resentatives, if not friendly to the cause of MR. LINCOLN's message is no exception the South, heartily disapprove of a war of co-' to a remark we made not long since, that ercion and conquest. If they have the cour- the official documents of a revolution are alage to resist the popular clamor of the mo- most always very unworthy of the magnitude ment, a nucleus of opposition will soon attract of the revolution itself. They are necessawaverers and hasty converts who have been rily an attempt to reduce to law a state of overborne by the sudden display of apparent things which has no law; they necessarily unanimity. It would be idle to oppose the comment in the language of jurisprudence general sentiment, which is right and patri- upon a tumult in which jurisprudence itself otic as well as universally popular. Judi- has ceased to exist. There is but little in cious dissentients will confine themselves to all Mr. Lincoln's retrospective exposition protests against violent measures, and they which has not very frequently been said bewill wait for opportunities of pacification and fore, or which, except for the exigencies of his compromise. With the inevitable reappear- official position, need to have been repeated ance of the obliterated distinction between now. Mr. Lincoln proves that the South

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