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died in the midst of these transactions. The claim toleration, and allow mass to be said. Queen of Scots, the link being broken which I shall then know that she is not trifling connected her with the French, was no longer with me." an object of suspicion to Spain. The Eng- Still he told De Quadra to say all that lish lords were already proposing to marry was kind for him; and if, after consideraher to Darnley, and unite against Elizabeth tion, the proposed letter should seem detheir double claims and pretences. In these sirable, he would not refuse to write it. two the bishop saw the natural instruments The correspondence upon this became inof the revolution. Lord Robert Dudley's tensely complicated, the inner drama of selfoverture he thought worth encouragement, ishness interweaving itself with the outward only as the most simple and certain means events of history. In Elizabeth herself there of destroying Elizabeth. However the mar- was an evident struggle. At times she riage might be managed, he was satisfied that abandoned herself to her infatuation. At the day which followed it would light her to times her nobler nature re-asserted itself. the Tower.
Now she would complain to De Quadra of Throwing a mask, however, over his scorn, the servitude in which she was held by and reserving his real opinion for the king, Cecil ; now she would throw herself again he gave a vague but smooth answer. He on Cecil's guidance, and try to break the could say nothing definite till he heard from spell cast over her by Dudley. Cecil, his master ; but a courier should be sent off soon master of the offer made to Philip, posthaste. Meanwhile, he again pressed to dexterously snatched the management of see Elizabeth herself. Some difficulty was the intrigue out of Sidney's and Dudley's made ; but the bishop persisting, the queen hands. He and De Quadra, each undergave way in her anxiety to gratify him, and standing the other's game, played against granted him a private interview, when the one another for Elizabeth's very throne and treacherous ambassador probed her secrets. soul. Through the incautious language of
The details of that strange meeting one one of De Quadra's household, Elizabeth's would be curious to know; but the bishop treachery to the Reformation got wind in this time kept the mystery of the confes- London, and the indignation became so sional sacred. The sum of what passed, he frantic that Cecil durst not come to an open said, came generally to this: that Eliza- rupture with Dudley, lest there should be beth admitted “she was no angel;" that an instant insurrection. He was forced to she loved Dudley dearly, and hated the re- humor the proposed coming of the nuncio, straint in which she was held by Cecil, and embarrassing it only with the conditionthat she would be very grateful if her kind which he knew could not be complied with brother would come to her assistance. that he should be accredited to Elizabeth with
Philip’s replies are less complete than De her full title of " defender of the faith." He Quadra's letters; but there remain rough did not openly object to the king of Spain's drafts and notes in his handwriting, or his intercession in behalf of Dudley ; ne insisted secretary's, to show the view which he took only that it should be laid before Parliament. of these wonderful intimations. At first he While Elizabeth hesitated, Dudley and professed a decent shock at the conduct of De Quadra were urging, on the other side, his sister-in-law. God, however, he allowed, a secret, or at least a precipitate marriage. could bring good out of evil; and unless he The preparations might be secretly comthought it necessary to conceal his real pleted. A form of Parliament, three lords, thought from his minister, he was inclined three bishops, and nine or ten of the Comto look with a kind of favor on the proposal. mons, could be called together, on whose He loved intrigue and back-door diplomacy, devotion Dudley could depend ; and with and there was something in this thing which the nominal sanction thus obtained, the suited his humor. “It will be better not ceremony could be completed before Cecil to reject,” he said, “what, in default of or the Council could interfere. Philip other opportunities, may be of use; but it came round to the views of his ambassador, will be well that the queen should show that and ceased to expect any serious good from she is sincere. She should let the Catholic the marriage ; but the bishop was still' enbishops out of the Tower. She should pro- couraged to further it, as a means of destroying the queen ; and he described her of her friends in England, there was her in letter after letter as becoming deeper cousin, Lord Darnley : but whichever of the and more hopelessly entangled. So abso- three she might choose, she was to have lutely in his power did she seem at last, Elizabeth's throne for her dowry. And the that he believed he could ruin her with a Spanish ambassador was able to congratuword. The scheme of the mock Parliament late himself that at last the course of the being relinquished as dangerous, an attempt English Catholics was clear. They knew was made to work privately on the lords. where to look and what to do. On the 23d of April, when the Knights of the Cecil of course knew all this, and while Garter met for the annual feast, Lord Sus- he could not overcome Elizabeth's passion, sex rose and proposed that the queen should either by fear or argument, he was able to be invited to marry Lord Robert Dudley. control her judgment. The Duke of Norfolk, Arundel, and Mon- The nuncio question pressing, he car. tague started to their feet in indignant op- ried a resolution in council, that for divers position. They proposed instead that she reasons, the coming of an envoy from the should be entreated to marry; but that Bishop of Rome was inexpedient and danDudley's name should be significantly gerous. Elizabeth was forced into a conomitted. Sussex found no supporters ; sent, and a formal refusal was sent. Philip, nor is it likely that he himself would have less skilful in such matters than he became voted for his own motion. The amended in later years, would at once have broken off petition was presented, and received with a all relations with her ; but the Bishop of burst of rage.
The queen said, if she Aquila desired permission, which he easily married, it should be to please herself, and obtained, to play, out a little further the not them.
The lords listened in cold si- Dudley drama. It was an amusement to lence; and she had gained nothing by the him to watch the working of the ultimate move.
influence on Elizabeth's mind; and never Meanwhile two parallel intrigues can be doubting that if the temptation was well traced in active progress. Cecil, whose managed, the woman's weakness would in chief object was to save the Reformation the end prevail, he entertained himself with (and to save the Reformation he well knew observing her as she trifled with destruction. was his only way to save the queen), was He heard with patience the exasperated outbusy with Bedford and Sir Nicholas Bacon cries of Lord Robert, he listened with affeckeeping up artificial difficulties in the way tionate sympathy to Elizabeth's lamentations of the coming of the nuncio. He desired over the tyranny of the heretics, which she to entangle the policy of the Government was unable to resist. He even advised with the interests of Protestantism so inex- Philip still to write the letter which Elizatricably that they could not be severed. An beth had asked for, in the hope that it might insurrection in Ireland, in which the pro- tempt her into a secret marriage. His single posed nuncio's hand could be traced, came object was to betray her into some act which conveniently to his assistance, and Eliza- would outrage the Protestants beyond enbeth not daring to interfere, a number of durance, when,“ abhorred” as she had made Catholics were arrested and imprisoned herself, she would fall over the precipice to purposely to exasperate them ; while, again, perdition. on the side of France, Cecil established a I will close this hasty article with a letter close and intimate communication with the which breathes the very spirit of the scene Prince of Condé and the Chiefs of the and time; so keen and clear it is, that three League.
centuries seem to roll back from off the On the other side, the Spanish Govern- world's age as we read. It is dated the ment and the Catholics were forming rela- 30th of June, 1561, and is addressed by the tions with the Queen of Scots. Philip bishop to Philip. There has been some offered her his son, Don Carlos, and Don fresh ill-usage, deserved or undeserved, of Carlos was in many ways a tempting bait Catholics. A number of them had been both to her and to the Scottish lords. In taken to Westminster, and fined for having default of Don Carlos, there was an Aus- attended mass. “Five or six clergy, who," trian prince; or, if she preferred the choice the bishop said, “ were pilloried for necromancy. A horoscope had been found upon they would have nothing to fear, while as them, with a calculation of the queen's and things were at present it seemed as if the Lord Robert's nativities, with other papers queen might not take a husband except and strange things; he did not know what, when and as it pleased Cecil and Cecil's con
federates. They would have been of no moment had
“I enlarged on this because I see that if they not fallen into the hands of men who we cannot separate her and Robert from were glad to turn priests into ridicule."
them, things will go on as they are; whereas,
if God please that we can make a breach be“On St. John's day (the letter proceeds) tween them, we can then do all that we wish the Lord Robert gave a party, to which with ease. I have thought it best to go on by the queen's order I was invited ; and I in this smooth way because, if I kept aloof took occasion of these sentences to ask her from the queen I shall leave the field open to whether her secretaries and councillors were the heretics, and shall be playing into their satisfied, or whether there were to be more hands ; whereas if I keep her in good-humor of such doings? I put it to her also whether with your majesty, I have at any rate some the realm had received any particular advan- hope of persuading her, especially should tage as yet from their endeavors to make these heretics give her an opening, as they discoveries of treason? She replied that are not unlikely to do. They cannot endure the secretary was not in fault, and that the to see me so much at the queen's ear, or on world might say what it pleased. At last, such good terms with Lord Robert. however, she said it could not be denied that
“Your majesty may perhaps think that by your majesty had been a universal bene- acting in such a manner I am prejudicing factor in this realm, and had never injured the cause of the Catholics, but I beseech you a creature. With more to the same effect. to have no uneasiness on this score. You “I continued to show myself shocked and
may assure yourself that I know what I ain displeased with the conduct of the council- about, and that I shall not go too far. The lors; I told her I was surprised at her conduct. Catholics are devoted to your majesty, and She ought not to give herself up to men so there is no danger in putting their affection led away by passion as they were, especially something to the test. It is not three days in matters which directly or indirectly con, since the persons of whom your majesty cerned religion. If she yielded to them and knows have been again in communication their humors she would never pacify the king with me. They assure me that their party dom or know either peace or quietness.
never were so strong as at the present mo“She listened to me with her usual pa. ment, nor the queen so detested and abtience, and thanked me for what I had said. horred." Afterwards, in the evening, we were in a barge, from which there was a view of the Cecil, and Cecil only, saved Elizabeth from games; and she, Lord Robert, and I, being the ruin with which she was dallying. The alone at one end of it, they began to flirt knowledge that she escaped at last into a (comencáron á tratar burlas), which she reign of outward success and splendor, likes better than talking of business. The hardens our judgment, and provokes us amusement was carried pretty far, and at
rather to condemn her folly than sympathize last Lord Robert said to her that here was I upon the spot ready to act as minister, and in her trial. Were it not so, we could not if she liked they might then and there be think without pity of a young woman of betrothed. She showed no sign of displeas- twenty-seven, whose nobler and baser naure. She was afraid, she said, that I did tures were contending for supremacy, entannot know sufficient English. I encouraged gled in a shameful passion from which she them for a time in their coquetries. At last; could not free herself, which had involved speaking seriously, I told them both that if they would be guided by me, they would her already in disgrace, and perhaps in shake off the tyranny of those councillors, crime; and with the tempter at her ear who had made themselves masters of their mocking her with the hope of an elysium, sovereign and of the state ; they would re- behind which, as he well knew, lay a dunestablish religion, and give back to the geon and a scaffold. realm the peace and union of which it was
But the tempter failed, and Elizabeth was in such deep need. They could then marry rescued ; rescued perhaps rather by her inat their pleasure, and with that condition I would officiate at their nuptials with the telligence than by her conscience ; for she greatest happiness. Then they could pun- could not part wholly with her lover, who ish at their pleasure whoever tried to thwart remained til his death to discredit her gorthem; for with your majesty as their support ernment by wis share in it. She, however,
if not Lord Dudley, had sense enough to of her subjects grew with the hatred of her obey Cecil, and she had good feeling enough enemies. She became a goddess, an idol of not to quarrel with him as a meaner person clay transfigured by imagination into a diwould have quarrelled, for the service which vinity. Her intellect grew with her years ; he had rendered her. Left to her own guid- and her thwarted passions were compelled ance, she would have buried her name in for the future to expend themselves in triinfamy. Submitting to follow Cecil, she be- fling. But these dark hours of her trial left came the Gloriana, the Throned Vestal of their shadow on her to the last. She lived the West, the heroine and the champion of with a hungry and unsatisfied heart, and she the Reformation. Her faults were forgotten died miserable. in the triumph of her policy, and the love
J. A. FROUDE.
The Near and the Heavenly Horizons. By Ma- Near and the Heavenly Horizons,” they will be
dame de Gasparin. Edinburgh : Strahan & stow a work that will discourse "things pleasCo. London: Hamilton & Co.
as well as things profitable.” The story This is a charming little book, translated of“ The Poor Boy," in the first part, is exquisite from the French of Madame de Gasparin. The for its delicacy of treatment, whilst “ The Parastories which make up the first part of the some
dise we fear” and “The Authority on which I What far-fetched title are graceful and touching; rest” will bear out all the conmendation we the style reminds us of George Sand in her best have bestowed upon its religious tendency.and most healthful works. Some of the sketches,
Athenaeum. slight as they are, may take rank with “La petite Fadette” and the “ Marne au Diable,” Considerations on the Human Mind, its Present they have a more refined and delicate tone: they are equally true to human nature, equally full of
State, and Future Destination. By Richard life and local color; though perhaps less vigor
Grattan, M.D. Manwaring. ous, and not fully worked out into a sustained To do any thing with this work would require story,—the difference is betwixt the sketch and us to give some account of Dr. Grattan, whose the sketch expanded into a completed and devel- life pervades it, and then we could not attempt oped picture. In the second portion, called " The any brief description. Such a mixture of autoDistant Horizon,” Madame de Gasparin dis- biography, theology, politics, metaphysics, medcourses of her own religious faith and experience : icine, and a few more than all things besides, is it is genuine, graceful, and thoroughly human; not published every day.
As Dr. Grattan her faith is interpenetrable with her own human thinks, and thinks strongly, and expresses himsympathies—she speaks only what she herself self in a way of his own, his book is seldom unknows and feels and has had experience of; what interesting. People who cannot tolerate a hereshe says will find its own way to the hearts of all tic should keep out of his way; for he is that who are in the same condition. Madame de exceptional case, a Unitarian assailant. This Gasparin bas the touch of genius, which has the much-attacked sect, generally speaking, is only true strange gift of speaking to every one “in too happy to be let alone, or, at most, allowed their own tongue.” Her piety may be called to be very quietly and formally argumentative. "mystical,” and her theology would not per- But Dr. Grattan does not mean the orthodox 10 haps stand its ground in a Scotch sermon, but have a monopoly of strong censuro, and he lays it will find its way to the hearts and understand about him handsomely, and gives the “ Athanaings which would never open to the Assembly's sians as good as they bring. - Athenæum. Catechism or to the expositions and exercitations of " a Sound Divine.” It is the genuine truth and individuality of what Madame de Gasparin Australian Sketches. By Thomas McCombie, says which gives the irresistible charm : there is
Esq. London: Sampson Low, Son, and Co. nothing pretentious in her exhortations, but a power of eloquent sympathy which disarms A COLLECTION of detached pictures of Auscriticism and drops like honey and manna, or tralian life, the scene of which lies for the most pearls and diamonds, if the reader prefers the part in the gold-fields of the colony:
Mr. old fairy allegory of gracious words. Those McCombie tells us nothi that is particularly who wish to give or recommend good books to new, but he describes what he has seen in a friends who are sad or suffering, may feel sure straightforward manner, and his narrative is by that in bestowing Madame de Gasparin's “ The i no means devoid of interest.
From The Spectator, 1 June.
Even O'Connell, unprincipled as THE DUTY OF ENGLAND AND THE he may sometimes have been, never on this AMERICAN CRISIS.
point shrank from a vigorous assertion of THE time has arrived when the national the truth. In the very height of his agitawill on the American quarrel ought to be tion, when the vote of the American-Irish expressed. A party, numerous in Parlia- was invaluable, the great demagogue dement and powerful in the press, is begin- nounced the crime his feebler successor ning to intrigue for the recognition of the blandly declares it inexpedient to discuss. South. They are aided by the fears of the We cannot doubt that Mr. Bright will be cotton dealers, who dread an intermission found at last on the side of the oppressed, of their supplies, by the anxiety of com- but to check discussion is to aid those who mercial men who see their best market alone in a free community can be apprehensummarily closed, and by the abiding dis- sive of debate. like of the aristocracy for the men and There is too much reason to fear that the manners of the North. For the moment, government, though certainly not prejudiced their object is apparently to deprecate de- in favor of the South, allows itself to be debate. They dare not as yet brave openly ceived as to the true state of public feeling. the prejudices of freemen, or advocate a The country believes that the Cabinet, howcause based on antagonism to all that Eng- ever cautious, may still be trusted where lishmen hold dear. But they hope, if the slave-owners are concerned, and, as usual, nation can only be kept silent, they may when satisfied, is quiescent. But the Mintalk the administration into acts which will istry will make a fatal mistake if it concommit us ultimately to the Confederated founds calm with indifference, or believes States. Their object was palpable in the that the people would accept favor to the slight conversation which occurred on Tues- South either with apathy or applause. With day night. Mr. Duncombe brought forward the policy of neutrality, provided it be real, the case of some British subjects forcibly Englishmen of all opinions may concur. enrolled in the Southern militia, and with The majority, with whom freedom is not a the rashness which so often destroys the synonyme for free trade, would rather, pereffect of his sincerity, suggested what would haps, 'see government resolute to prohibit in practice be an attack upon the South. the extension of the area over which slavery Up sprang Mr. Bernal Osborne with an ar- is law, but the practical difficulties are great. rogant denial of his facts, to declare the Many are willing to sit still and leave the North guilty of outrage in aiding an insur- issue to the American people and the Provi. rection of the slaves. He was followed by dence which can use even the rowdies of Mr. Bright, who, with a curious reminiscence New York to extend a great benefit to manof his old pæans in honor of the republic, kind. But if the neutrality is to be only averred that an educated race could not be official, if our “moral aid " is to be lent to malevolent for long, and that discussion at one side or the other, if the sympathies of present could only envenom strife. Eng. England are to be formally expressed, there lishmen, in short, were to look on at the can be no reasonable doubt as to our side. greatest contest of modern times, and re- Every consideration alike of morality and strain themselves, if possible, from even convenience impels us irrresistibly towards wishing for the right. This position, when the North. assumed by the member for Liskeard, ex- There is no need to employ the vulgar cites in us, we acknowledge, but slight sur- argument that, cæteris paribus, it is as well prise. Sympathy for suffering is not the for a state without friendships to be on the satirist's trade, especially when the sufferer winning side. The North, whether weary is “low.” But it is with regret that we see of agitation or eager for war, whether its the member for Birmingham play, however enthusiasm remains or gives place to the unconsciously, into Southern hands. It is reaction Englishmen expect, must still fight not from economists that we expect the on till victory is achieved. The loss of the magnanimity which can forget a tariff to Mississippi is ruin to the West, and madefend a principle. But we do expect that terial interests as strong as moral obligations a member who is either a freeman or a fire compel the Unionists to succeed. brand, who protests that the tax-payers of Still less it is necessary to follow Mr. Great Britain are the deluded serfs of a few Clay, and hint at the wrath our action may families, will at least stand up manfully on evoke in a nation whose friendship may one behalf of the slave. The harshest aristoc- day be desired. There is an apology for racy in the world is in arms to extend the that sentence when coming from Mr. Clay most brutalizing of tyrannies, and it is not which could be extended to no other politifrom the Radical leader that we expect a cian. He is not, as the Saturday Review protest against placing an obstacle in its / asserts, a son of Henry Clay, or a phil