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Part of an article in The Quarterly Review. in the first instance, taken a similar view, 1. Opere Politico-Economiche del Conte Cam- and that it was unjust to demand that he

illo Benso di Cavour. Cuneo, 1857. should change his opinion merely because 2. Camillo Benso di Cavour. Per Roggero England had changed hers. This slight es

Bonghi. Torino, 1861. 3. Count Cavour, his Life and Career. By cession of Villafranca to Russia as a harbor

trangement was increased by the temporary Basil H. Cooper, B.A. London, 1860.

for commercial steamers and a coal depôt. Count Cavour holds far too great a place In consenting to this arrangement, which in the history of our time to permit us to conferred no territorial rights, Cavour wished pass over his death in silence. Short as was to conciliate that power now that the object his public career, he was the most remark- of the Crimean campaign had been attained, able man of our generation, and his influ- and desired at the same time to aim a blow ence will probably be felt longer and more at Austria, whose great mercantile steam aswidely than that of any living being. He sociation, the “ Austrian Lloyd,” was threathas called into political existence a nation ened by the establishment of the rival Ruswhich, if its future be not marred by untow- sian company for the navigation of the Black ard events or wilful misconduct, may be- and Mediterranean Seas. The English Govcome one of the greatest of the earth, and ernment, not unnaturally, suspected that may alter that balance of power upon which Russia had ulterior objects in view, and that the present relations of the civilized world the fine vessels built for her were not solely are based.

intended for passengers and trade. The language of Cavour at 'the Confer- These differences with the English Govences of Paris had only tended to embitter ernment, and the absence of any thing more the relations between Austria and Sardinia. than a cold sympathy on its part in the quarMutual recriminations led at length to the rel with Austria, led Cavour to turn for aid recall of the Austrian Minister from Turin, to France. He felt that the war which was on the 16th of March, 1857, followed by the impending, a war in which the very existwithdrawal of the Sardinian Minister from ence of Piedmont as a free state would be Vienna. War now became sooner or later imperilled, rendered a close alliance with inevitable. Neither the finances nor the po- that nation absolutely necessary. Overtures litical condition of Sardinia could bear the were consequently made to the emperor presence of a vast and threatening army on which led to the celebrated interview at her frontiers. On the other hand, constitu- Plombières in the autumn of 1858. On that tional institutions and a free press in Pied- occasion an arrangement was come to, soon mont, the gathering-place of refugees from afterwards to be ratified by the marriage of all parts of the peninsula, who fomented the daughter of Victor Emmanuel with Prince discontent in the neighboring states, were Napoleon. Its first result was the memoincompatible with the tranquillity of Lom- rable speech addressed by the emperor to bardy. Open war was preferable to this hos- Baron Hubner, on the first day of the new tile peace. Austria increased her troops by year—the signal for alarm throughout Eusending about fifty thousand men across the rope and for hope in Italy. Still Cavour Alps. Cavour asked the Chambers to sanc- believed that war would be deferred. He tion a loan of forty millions of lire to enable nevertheless obtained from the Chambers the Government to prepare for any events. another loan of fifty millions of lire to place He was resolutely opposed by the reaction the country in a state of defence ; justifying ary party, but obtained a majority after a this step in a very able circular addressed to remarkable speech delivered during the best the Sardinian Ministers at foreign courts. part of two days' sittings.

For a time the abortive congress proposed Unfortunately the good understanding by Russia gave some hopes of peace. But which had hitherto existed between Cavour the change of government in England, misand the English Ministry had suffered since understood by Austria, led her to believe the Treaty of Paris. In advocating with that a change of policy would follow, and France the union of the Danubian Princi- encouraged her in refusing concessions which palities, he had opposed our policy. He might have averted a war. When asked in pleaded that Lord Clarendon himself had,, the early spring whether hostilities were im


minent, Cavour still expressed a belief that ways rose between three and four o'clock ; Austria would shrink from them. “When," indeed, it was his common habit when in ofadded he, “ you hear that I have intrusted fice to make appointments for six o'clock in Garibaldi with high command, you may be the morning, winter and summer. He sucertain that war is inevitable.” Suddenly perintended the administration of almost that celebrated chief was named commander every department of the state. In a series of the corps of volunteers. One morning a of masterly circulars addressed to the Sarrough-bearded man, wearing a slouched felt dinian diplomatic agents abroad, he exhat and a countryman's blouse, demanded plained the situation of affairs, and boldly an audience of the minister. Declining to declared his policy. The rapid success of give his name, he was refused admittance; the allied armies seemed to have placed withbut as he insisted upon seeing the count, the in his reach the object of a life of toil and servant went to his master, and describing hope—a free and united Italy. It may, then, the uncouth appearance of the stranger, be imagined with what dismay and sorrow warned him of the risk of receiving unknown he received the news, almost by accident, of persons.

“Let him come in,” said Cavour, the interview of the two emperors at Villain his good-natured way: “it is probably franca, and the conclusion of the armistice, some poor devil who has a petition to make which was to end in peace. to me.” It was Garibaldi. Cavour had never For a moment he seems to have lost his seen him before. A long interview gave usual control over himself. Ile felt that his him the highest opinion of the character and country had been betrayed, lier dignity ofcapacity of this remarkable man, whom he tended, and his own pride mortified, by the made up his mind to employ as soon as the step which had been taken by the emperor time for actual war had arrived.

without consulting either his sovereign or himOn the 25th of March Cavour paid a hasty self. He remonstrated urgently with the visit to the emperor at Paris, and at a final king, insisted that the terms of peace should interview came to a full understanding with be rejected, the Piedmontese armies withhim as to the course to be pursued in the drawn from Lombardy, and the emperor left event of the breaking out of hostilities. Still to carry out his policy as best he could. The neither France nor Piedmont was thoroughly king was in favor of calmer counsels. He prepared for war when, on the 19th of April, felt that much had been gained by a great adCount Buol sent his ultimatum, demanding dition to his territories secured by treaty. the immediate disarmament of Sardinia, and Cavour insisted that to accept the proposed allowing three days for a reply. Cavour conditions would be to betray the Italian cause called together the Chambers at once, and, and those who had already compromised in a short speech, proposed that the Consti- themselves in its behalf. He pointed out the tution should be temporarily suspended, and infamy of calling upon men to rise on one day that full powers should be conferred upon and then to abandon them on the next to the king. The ultimatum was rejected, and those who never forgot or forgave, and upon on the 29th the Austrians crossed the Ti- whom the most solemn pledges were not bindcino. The French troops, still unprepared ing. But these arguments were urged in vain. for a campaign, wanting supplies and am- Overcome by his feelings, the indignant statesmunition, and even a proper medical staff, man is believed to have addressed words to the were partly hurried across the Alps, and king which led to his dismissal from the royal partly sent by sea to Genoa. Delays and presence. He resigned at once, and retired incapacity on the side of the enemy gave the to his farm at Leri. He refused even to see French and Sardinian armies time to unite the emperor, declining an invitation sent to and to occupy the principal defensive posi- him to dine at the imperial table. tions. The withdrawal of the Austrian troops During the period of his retirement from from the Legations, and a series of disas- oflice Cavour lived mostly at Leri. Although trous defeats, ending in the great battle of his mind was engrossed with public affairs, he Solferino, left the French the masters of all found time to attend to the management of Central and Northern Italy except Venetia. bis brother's estates and his own. Many of During this eventful period the activity and his friends visited bim. The railway station energy of Cavour were surprising. He al-I nearest to the small village adjoining the farm


is Livorno, between Turin and Novara. There at the check which had been given to his the count's carriage was usually in waiting, magnificent schemes for the liberation of all and a rapid drive over a road deep in mud or Italy; but he was comforted by the confidence furrowed with ruts, according to the season of which his countrymen had placed in his patthe year, brought his guests to Leri. The riotism and wisdom, and by the unexampled dwelling-house itself is one of those buildings constancy and prudence they had shown in an common in this part of Italy, distinguished hour of the severest trial. He felt that his more by its picturesque neglect than by any temporary retirement would ultimately secure architectural pretensions. In front is an ex- the triumph of the great cause with which his tensive court-yard, surrounded by stables and name and fame were forever connected. granaries, the outer walls of which are hung Above all, he rejoiced at the manner in which with graceful festoons of grapes, or with the the tortuous and uncertain policy of the emgolden heads of the Indian corn. A few rooms peror had been baffled by the uncompromishad been added to the farm for the comfort ing firmness of the Italians themselves. of visitors. But Cavour himself usually in- Of the character and policy of Louis Nahabited a small half-furnished chamber in poleon he was accustomed to speak with which transacted business. On a holiday auch freedom. No one had had better ophis “ fattore” or bailiff, the village doctor and portunities than Cavour of sounding their priest, and one or two farmers of the neigh-depths. He was the only living man who borhood, generally dined with him at his mid- had ventured to grapple with him face to day meal. In appearance and dress he was face, and who had used him for his

purpose. not unlike one of them. His simple, easy The estimate he had formed of his capacity manners, his hearty laugh, and his cordial was not a high one, but he fully admitted greeting were those of an honest country gen- his fertility of resource, his physical and tleman. There never was a man who looked moral courage, and his knowledge of the less like a statesinan upon whom rested the people he governs. “He has no definite fate of nations. He was full of frolic and fun. policy,” he remarked to an English friend. He would slyly hint to the doctor that the “ He has a number of political ideas floating stranger who had just arrived was Mazzini in his mind, none of them matured. They himself, or he would invent for the priest, with would seem to be convictions founded upon the humor and gravity of Charles Lamb, some instinct. He will not steadily pursue any marvellous story of the discoveries in unknown single idea if a serious obstacle presents itregions made by an English traveller who had self, but will give way, and take up another. joined the party. He would enjoy the joke This is the “mot de l'énigme " to his policy. like a very child, rubbing his hands quickly It is by steadily keeping this in view that I together, as he was wont to do when pleased, have succeeded in thwarting his designs, or and keeping up the “mystification” with in- in inducing him to adopt a measure. The finite relish. But if one of his neighbors only principle-if principle it can be called asked him a political question he would reply which connects together these various as if he were addressing the Chambers, ex- ideas, is the establishment of his dynasty plaining the facts with the greatest clearness, and the conviction that the best way to seand giving his own opinion upon them. This cure it is by feeding the national vanity of was the time to see the real character of the the French people. He found France, after man; to understand that union of rare quali- the fall of the Orleanist and republican ties which made him the idol of the Piedmon-governments, holding but a second place tese people, and led them almost to overlook amongst the great powers ; he has raised her the greatness of the statesman in their love to the very first. Look at his wars, look at for his personal worth.

his foreign policy ; he has never gone one When the meal was over, and the guests, step beyond what was absolutely necessary as is the custom of the country, had'dispersed, to attain this one object. The principle osCavour resumed his gravity, without losing tentatiously put forward in the first instance the extreme simplicity of his manner. Under has been forgotten or discarded as soon as the outward calm and good-humor there his immediate end has been accomplished. lurked a feeling of deep indignation against It was so in the war with Russia; it has the French emperor. He chafed and fretted I been so in the war with Austria. In the

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Crimea he was satisfied with the success of said ; "it was rather an impulse than the his army in the capture of Sebastopol, which result of any well-considered design. Two took from the English troops the glory they splendid victories had added sufficiently to had earned by their admirable devotion and the glory of the French arms. The horrible courage, and to which they would have scenes he had witnessed on the field of battle added had the war continued. In the strug- had made a deep impression upon him. He gle with Austria he was astounded by the felt much disgust at the quarrels amongst greatness of the victories of Magenta and his generals, who were sacrificing the honor Solferino. The military glory of France of their country to personal jealousies. Then had been satiated, and he thought no more there were the heat, the dust, and the labor, of the liberty of Italy, of that free and unit- for he did not spare himself; indeed, he did ed nåtion which he was to have called into every thing. His exertions and the fatigue existence from the Alps to the Adriatic. he went through were amazing. His health

was beginning to give way. He had had “ It is this uncertain policy, guided by dynastic and selfish considerations, which enough of campaigning and its hardships, makes him so dangerous to you, and which and was anxious to get back to Paris. To renders it necessary that you should ever be add to all this he could not resist the temptaon your guard. Not that he is hostile to tion of dealing in person with a legitimate England, or that he has any definite design emperor, as his uncle had done before him, against her. On the contrary, he has much of imposing, without consulting any one, affection for your country. He is a man of the conditions of peace, and of earning at generous impulses, and has strong feelings the same time, by his generosity and modof gratitude towards those who have served and befriended him. At the bottom of his eration, the gratitude, and perhaps eventual heart he is greatly attached to Italy. His support, of a still powerful, though vanearliest recollections are bound up with her. quished enemy. These various motives and He is to this day a carbonaro' in his desire considerations together led him to abandon for Italian freedom and hatred of Austria. the great cause in which he had embarked, He has not forgotten the kindness and hos- and to forget the proclamations, the prompitality shown to him when an exile in Eng-ises, and the hopes of the day before.” land. He admires your institutions and the character of the English people. But all

Cavour was convinced that the difficulties this is as nothing when compared with the of an attack upon the Quadrilateral had maintenance of his dynasty, the establish- been greatly exaggerated. He believed that ment of which he looks upon almost in the the fortresses would have soon fallen. The light of a religious obligation. If the mo- result of subsequent inquiries made by the ment came when he thought a sacrifice nec- Austrian Government itself into the state of essary to sustain it, however great that sac- Mantua and Verona fully confirmed his rifice might be, however painful or repugnant opinion. After the fatal day of Solferino a to his feelings, he would make it.

“No one has had better opportunities of panic had scized the Austrian army. The knowing him than I have. He has talked result of the battle was first known in Verona to me with the greatest openness of his fu- by a vast rabble of soldiers and camp folture plans. But he has invariably assured lowers blocking up the gates leading into the me at the same time that his first object was city. The greatest disorder prevailed even to maintain peace and a good understanding in the forts, which were without the necessary with England. I believe,” he solemnly added, " that from policy as well as from af guns and ammunition, and in some of which fection such are his views; and that only in the troops had been gained over. At the a moment of the utmost emergency, when same time the inhabitants of the city were he was convinced that his influence in France ready to rise. It is believed that Louis Nadepended upon it, would he depart from poleon was not unacquainted with these facts them. But that moment may come, and and that he urged them upon the emperor you would be madmen if you were not pre- of Austria at Villafranca to obtain his acpared for it.”

ceptance of the conditions of peace. As regards the Peace of Villafranca, Ca- The following anecdote illustrates the vour attributed it to no distinct policy, but fickle and uncertain character of the French rather to a variety of motives. “There is emperor.

Before the battle of Magenta, no profound secret or mystery about it,” he / the critical position of his army had caused

Its per

him the deepest anxiety. He had almost sued has been severely censured. It is conmade up his mind that a defeat was immi- sequently of much importance to his fame nent. It was even feared by his ally that that it should be cleared up. We believe he would throw up the game, and enter into that, if he made promises on the subject of a precipitate peace. Through incredible the two provinces, it was with the earnest mismanagement the Austrians were com- intention of keeping them. We are confipletely defeated. The emperor lodged the dent, from information derived from authennight after the battle in the house of the tic sources, from our knowledge of his charparish priest of the town around which the acter, and from his love of truth, that when bloody contest had raged. When he had left the whole history of these transactions is in the morning, his humble host sought for known his reputation will not suffer. some memorial of the great man. At length To understand this question fully we a sheet of paper, crumpled up, was taken must go back some years. It is admitted from the empty fireplace. It was the rough that Savoy, although the ancient inheritance draft of the famous proclamation of Milan. of the royal house which now rules Italy, The depression of the previous days had might, from the language, habits, and symbeen succeeded, after the wonderful victory, pathies of a considerable portion of its popby unbounded elation. Now every thing ap- ulation, and by its geographical position, be peared within the emperor's reach, and he naturally coveted by a government like that called upon the Italians to be soldiers to-day, of France. Accordingly, whenever a favorthat they might be citizens on the morrow. able opportunity has occurred, it has been

After the resignation of Cavour several occupied as a French province. ineffectual attempts were made to form a manent annexation to France was not, thereministry. At length his strong hand was fore, the peculiar policy of Louis Napoleon succeeded by the feeble grasp of Ratazzi —it had long been the wish of the French and La Marmora. But from his farm at people. The price that Italy was to pay

for Leri he really governed Italy. His fame the help of France in a successful struggle had never been greater; the confidence felt against Austria had been fixed at the surin him by his countrymen never more com- render of Nice and Savoy long before he plete. The peace of Villafranca had been came to the throne. The Republican party received with one feeling of scorn and indig- had haggled over it when there was a quesnation. By his opposition to it he had tion of forming in 1848 and 1849 a “Subgained unbounded popularity. Encouraged alpine” kingdom by the union of Lombardy by his example, and strengthened by his ad- and Venetia to Piedmont.* It is altogether vice, the Italians made a stern and effectual a mistake to suppose that the question was protest against the treaty by simply refusing a personal one between the emperor and to fulfil its conditions, and to receive back Cavour, or that the idea was a new one put the princes they had expelled.

forward for the first time at Plombières. It was evident that no ministry of which On that occasion the emperor suggested he was not the head could stand. Those that, in the event of a strong Italian kingdom who had succeeded him were soon sending being formed on the southern slopes of the day by day, almost hour by hour, to consult Alps by the addition of Lombardy and Ve. him. It was not long before he was invited netia to Sardinia, France would recur to her to attend the meetings of the Cabinet. A old claim for compensation in Savoy and reconciliation took place with the king, and Nice, without the surrender of which he Cavour was named the representative of would be unable to justify to his subjects Piedmont to the Congress of Paris, which the sacrifice of blood and treasure entailed was to have settled the affairs of Italy, but by a great war. Cavour's reply was, we which never met. In the beginning of 1860 believe, almost in the following words : the Ratazzi Ministry resigned, and he again “ Sire, if Italy free, completely united, and became prime minister.

recognized by all Europe, should one day Cavour had scarcely returned to office when it became known that the emperor * This clearly appears from the important and had demanded the cession of Nice and Savoy. recently published. (" Documens et Pièces au

interesting collection of papers of Daniel Manin, Ilis conduct in the negotiations which en-thentiques laissés par D. Manin.” Paris, 1860.)

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