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from the rushing of the boys to the porch ter. I dare say that to a novice, the gradual gate. However, I had my camera to think coming out of a picture under development about just then, and couldn't stop to specu- seems mysterious the first time or two. But late on the ringing of the bell. I believe if it is the simplest thing in nature. It is the a lion stood between a photographic artist light and the chemicals that do it. Good and his camera when the time is up, the light, good lens, and good chemicals—these lion could not stop him.

are your tools. I have seen in print a great Bringing my slide out of the church, I deal of poetical nonsense about photography found the boys ready for me. The sound -waves of light, images thrown off from of the bell had aroused the villagers, and a people and caught and retained by magic good many of them were standing at their — " quædam simulacra, modeis pallentia doors to see what was the matter. The only mireis,” (I copy that letter for letter out of way I could account for its ringing myself a book ;) "phantoms strangely pale,” it was, by supposing that the wind had shaken means as they translate it underneath. You it.

may be sure that when any one begins to Miss White met me in the garden. I write poetically on a subject, he knows nothcould see she was in a towering passion. ing of that subject. There is nothing poet

“If I had thought, sir,” she said, “that ical to be got out of what one knows; and you did not know how to respect a sacred every photographic artist will tell you that place where you were admitted on sufferance, there is nothing in the world more plain and I would not have employed you.”

matter-of-fact than photography. Whatever “Ma'am,” I answered, for I was nettled, there is in range of your lens, you will have as for respect, I took off my hat, though in your picture.

But sometimes an there was a draught like the wind from a extraordinary occurrence will happen in the blacksmith's bellows. I should no more most ordinary routine. An extraordinary think of touching the bell than you would.” occurrence happened in the development of

“Don't add to your sin,” she said ; “make my picture. I can't explain it in the least, haste and finish your work, and let me be rid but I am going to tell you what it was. of you."

I had said all along in my own mind that There is nothing riles a man more than a the pulpit would not come out well. In defalse accusation. I knew I should lose my veloping, a space remained perfectly white temper if I spoke; besides, my picture was in the dark pulpit corner between the two spoiling, so I turned on my heel and ducked arches, while the rest of the picture was showmy head into the dark tent.

ing more and more detail every moment. I am afraid I am using a great many ex- This was natural and what I had expected. pressions which people who know nothing Towards the last a pinnacle of the pulpit on of photography will not understand. But the light side and the edge of the cushion there is scarcely a family now which has not came faintly into sight. Then suddenly a an amateur photographer in it: some young great blur made its appearance where the lady who spoils her pretty little fingers, or pulpit ought to have been. I had never some young gentleman who blackens his known, in all my professional practice, a shirt cuffs and cambric pocket-handker- stain like this or coming in the same manchiefs, and whose pictures are not quite ner. The stain came as if it were shot into worth the spoiling of either. However, for the picture; sharp-outlined, distinct, full of the benefit of those who have not a photo- minute detail. I was puzzled. I held the graphic amateur in the family, I will explain glass up to the light. It was not a stain. that, when I say I began to develop my It was a figure! picture, I mean that I poured on to it à cer- Miss White was angry that she could not tain chemical solution which brings out grad- have the photographs at once, and would not ually all the details of light and shade which understand for some time that the negative are ready there, but unseen.

views of the church had to be printed. Of I began to develop. The windows started course, it was not likely that she would deout in a moment, then came the patches of tect with her_unpractised eye the figure in sunlight, then the white monuments on the the pulpit. People never can make out a walls, then the polished edges of the pews; negative, where all the whites are black and and then, very slowly, the outlines of the all the blacks white. I promised to bring arches, the round pillars, the walk between her the pictures on the next evening; and the pews, the details of the pews themselves, so packed up my traps and returned to the the communion table with its railings, the van. Commandments, and the pulpit.

I printed that afternoon, watching the I have heard people talk about photog- printing-frames in the intervals of portraitraphy as if it were a very mysterious mat- taking. The figure came out wonderfully sharp and distinct—an old gentleman with | Miss White was overlooking a man who was white hair, dressed in a black gown, every putting an oil picture into a case.

It was a fold of which was visible, with a pair of portrait of a gentleman. Though the face white bands hanging down over the breast. was much younger, it struck me like ligbtI hesitated a little whether I would not leave ning, this was the same person as the figure this figure out of the picture, which of course in my photograph. I knew how to manage. But at last I de- Miss White took off the paper in which I cided I would let it be as it was.

had wrapped the pictures. Of course she The pictures were very successful. I saw the figure in a moment. framed them neatly and took them to C- She gasped out, “ Papa !” and fell to the vicarage on the following afternoon, when it ground as if she had been knocked down. I was too late for portraits.

caught the pictures as she fell, so that the I knocked at the door, and a servant let glasses were not broken. me in and showed me to a room where Miss White was. The house was all in disorder. They were evidently packing up for leaving. I keep the negative among my curiosities,

Full TRADE WILL NOT INSURE PEACE.- house barrier to obstruct their intercourse. They It has always been a favorite notion with our have railways, telegraphs, post-office, and all the peacemongers that a palpable community of in- rest of the apparatus of civilized existence, in terests—more especially of commercial interests common-not to speak of social and domestie

ties. They perfectly “know and understand -between two countries, is an infallible security each other,” and no diversity of mother-tongue against their ever going to war with each other. interferes with their thorough mutual compreThere is no dogma about which Manchester poli-hension. Yet all this does not prevent them ticians feel more positive than this—that close from plunging into a war which, if we are to commercial intimacy is an unfailing guarantee judge from the singular bitterness of the lanfor peace. No nation, they tell us, will ever 'guage held on both sides, threatens to be among make war against its best customers. Mr. Cob- the fiercest known to modern history. Here, then, den only asks five or ten years' fair play for his we have the least irrational article of the ManCommercial Treaty, and he pledges his word chester creed tested under peculiarly favorable that it will be past the power of all the diplo-conditions, and found wanting. No sensible matists and admirals in creation ever again to man will dream of denying that community of embroil England and France in a quarrel. Only trading and other interests is ordinarily a potent let the seventy millions of people on the two peace-maker; but no man with his eyes open to shores of the British Channel learn to trade what is passing in America will venture to assert together, and to “know and understand each that any condition of international relations other," and he will defy all the clubs in Pall which it is in the power of commercial diplomacy Mall and all the unprincipled writers in Print- to create can be relied upon as a specific against ing-house Square to set them by the ears. Mr.

war.- Saturday Review. Bright, as usual, caricatures and exaggerates the theories of his less indiscreet coadjutor, and recommends that the French language should Amongst Mr. Manwaring's latest announcebe universally taught in English schools by way ments are " Awas-I-Hind; or, a Voice from the of precluding the possibility of future interna- Ganges, being a solution of the true source of tional misunderstandings. There is some plau- Christianity, by an Indian officer: ""Mysteries; sibility, and even a limited amount of truth, in or, Faith the Knowledge of God;" also, by the this "community-of-interests” doctrine, but same author, “Faith the Knowledge of God," passing events might suffice to warn its most en- being an introduction to “Mysteries ; ” and a ihusiastic votaries that it does not quite exhaust volume of Seven Sermons, being Answers to all the facts of human nature.

Essays and Reviews,” by the Rev. Robert No conceivable commercial treaty can ever Ainslie. unite England and France, or any other two countries, in relations of closer intimacy than those which eighty years of a common national exist- Ar Ailes, in France, lately, an elephant beence have cemented between the Northern and longing to an American travelling cireus broke Southern halves of the American Confederation; out of a stable in which he had been confined yet, after all, it turns out that a war between for the night, and made such a tremendous meal them is more than possible. They have traded in an adjoining field of ripe clover that he betogether for three generations with no custom- I came horribly swollen and died in a few hours.

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THE NATIONAL CRISIS.

pels our assertion-not the slightest regard THE Christian Review for July has an ar- for the feelings, the convictions, or the inticle thus entitled, which, by its manifest terests of that large body of states with merit and power, is worthy of a wider read- which they had been so long and so intiing than, in the pages of a quarterly, it can mately associated, and which could not be ever receive. The writer indicates in the supposed to look without concern upon a course of the discussion that his past affilia- movement which was disintegrating and tions have been not with the Republican shivering into fragments the structure of party, though he vindicates the action and our national institutions, undermining its principles of that party from misapprehen- very foundations, and inaugurating upon sion.-Christian Watchman.

our continent a system which would inev

itably substitute for one united, powerful, PURPOSE OF THE WAR.

steadily consolidating nationality, a chaotic We say, then, at the outset, that the pur- aggregate of divided, jealous, feeble, and pose of the war on the part of the loyal conflicting sovereignties. They rushed to states, is the defence of our National Gov- the dismemberment of a great empire, to the ernment, the protection of our Constitution sundering of relations which involved the inagainst a movement whose tendency, if not terests of thirty millions of freemen, and the its purpose, is to destroy it. Whether mis- hopes and destinies of a continent, with less taken or not, this is with us the issue, and of formality and ceremony than private citthe South must do us the justice of conced- izens could have shown in dissolving an oring to us at least honesty of conviction. It dinary commercial partnership. They broke is not, in our judgment, a war of conquest away from the body politic as if they were and subjugation. It is not a struggle for bursting from a loathsome carcass whose national aggrandizement. It is not a cru- contact was contagion, and whose embrace sade for the overthrow of slavery. It is was death. They tore down and trampled simply the endeavor, which is the right and on the national flag, the sacred banner unthe duty of every legitimate governmental der which their fathers and ours had first organization, to protect itself from deadly marched to national independence, and then assault, whether from without or from within. to national greatness and glory. They seized Under the assumption of a so-called right the nation's fortresses, its arsenals, its arms, of secession, certain sections of our country, they reared their batteries against its forts, or rather portions of the people of certain they fired upon its ships, and finally they sections, have attempted to withdraw them- consummated their wrongs by attacking a selves from our national Union, nullify within small, feeble, half-starved garrison, whom their borders the laws of the United States, the Government proposed to provision but and set up an independent government. In not to reinforce; and it was not in default carrying out this purpose they took no steps of elaborate preparation, of deadly purpose, to secure a peaceful and harmonious, not to of unwavering execution, but simply by force say constitutional, withdrawal. They sent of impregnable walls, that the whole of that no deputies to their sister Northern mem- gallant little band did not, at the close of bers of the Union, nor to that central Gov- that unparalleled piece of military jousting, ernment to which all owe a common and lie blackened and gory corpses, destroyed by equal allegiance. They asked no national their brethren—their brethren, politically, convention in which they might have a hear- literally-beneath the national banner which ing of their grievances, or by which, if their they had sworn to defend, and which they minds were not fully made up, and their were too honorable to betray. It cannot be exodus from the Union was under all pos- forgotten that the fact that “nobody was sible contingencies a foregone conclusion, hurt” in that terrible game of mimic war, they might be discharged from the obliga- was not owing to the humanity or chivalry tions of the compact, and the numerous of South Carolina. She did not, in a time delicate and difficult questions which their of peace, and under the patient guns of the withdrawal would infallibly originate, might fortress, which might have blown to atoms be put in a train of amicable adjustment. the incipient germs of hostility, weave around They manifested—the truth of history com Fort Sumter her horrid net-work of slaugh

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THE SUMTER OUTRAGE.

ter; she did not, through long hours, rain have awakened. Dead to every sentiment her showers of shot and shell upon the de- of nationality must have been the people voted fortress, redoubling her fire when the who could remain insensible to such an asbursting flames told that the garrison were sault on the government of their country. assailed by a nearer, if not more formidable This was equally the case under the Northfoe, without intending a work of blood. If ern or the Southern interpretation of the ConGod made the bombardment innocuous, she stitution. Under the Southern interpretameant it for destruction. The lurid flame tion it was an act of war. If the South were which played around Sumter, harmless as in the Union, they were assailing the governthe coruscations that quiver on the clouds ment of their country; if they were out of of a summer evening, she meant for the the Union, they were assailing a foreign lightning-blaze and the destroying bolt of state. In either case, there is no principle the tempest. She did her utmost that the in the law or the practice of nations which men who had the presumption to remain in allows the outrage to go unpunished. The their place under the orders of the Govern- government that had done so would have ment and the protection of the national flag, consigned itself to contempt, and the people should be killed, and the varnish of courtesy who had allowed it would have shown themwhich softened the close of the fray, sincere selves unworthy of a government. The as we may believe it was, cannot blind our Northern people so felt it. It kindled in eyes to the unprovoked character and deadly them a deep-felt and a righteous indignation. intention of the assault.

The promptness with which they responded to that thunder-peal of defiance, and to the

cry of an aggrieved country-for, like the Rarely, we feel constrained to say, has a voice of the Athenian herald in the popular greater outrage been perpetrated than the assembly, the voice of the chief magistrate assault upon Fort Sumter. Still more rarely, was the voice of the country-showed that perhaps, has there been committed a greater the previous calm was the calm, not of inpolitical blunder. Up to this time the North different, but of thoughtful and anxious men, had been distressed, humiliated, still hoping of men who were not dead to the humbled against hope that what seemed to them a and distressed condition of the country, and strange and inexplicable frenzy, would who needed but a voice, an occasion, and a pass away, and that forbearance under the leader, to rally to the defence of institutions series of Southern aggressions could not but in which were enshrined their proudest politbe followed by a salutary reaction in the ical reminiscences, their dearest interests, Southern mind. And we deem it by no their highest hopes. means impossible, that had the South refrained from this culminating act, had it

WHO BEGAN THE WARP confined itself to less obtrusive, though not Let then our brethren who deprecate the less real, acts of hostility, the North, uncer- blood-thirsty spirit of the North, and dwell tain, hesitating, divided as to the true line with just eloquence on the horrors of war, of policy, might have remained inactive un- remember who initiated the contest, and until the revolution had become an accomplish- der what provocation the loyal states took ed fact, until the government de facto had up arms. They did not fire the first gun; transformed itself into a government de jure, they did not make the first hostile demonand compelled her to pay the penalty of de- stration; they did not stir a finger until the lay in the ultimate recognition of the Con- nation had been assaulted, and until the federacy. That event harmonized her dis- safety of its capital was threatened, not tractions and termiuated her supineness. merely in the irresponsible vauntings of It showed how determined and desperate Southern papers, but by a high official at was the purpose of the Confederacy, and Montgomery. They waited, in the hope how utterly vain were all hopes based that sanity would return to the Southern upon its lingering attachment to the flag mind, until they had almost become the oband the Constitution of the country. Deep, jects of the world's and their own contempt, indeed, must have been the sleep of those and the attack on Sumter seemed half justiwhom the cannon of Fort Sumter would not fied by the reasonable doubt, whether the

nation had the sensibility to feel, or the spirit tering visions of a vast empire, embracing to resent it. Nowhere, we solemnly believe, the fairest portion of our territory, and girin the history of the world, is there pre- dling the Gulf of Mexico, resting on servile sented such an instance of the forbearance labor, and commanding a monopoly of some of a great and high-spirited people under of the great agricultural and manufacturing grievous provocation. We say, deliberately, staples of the world—such visions have for high-spirited. For had there really been the years dazzled the eyes of Southern politiinsensibility and indifference which the cor- cians, and determined them, at the earliest respondent of the London Times imagined, practical moment, to dissolve a political conhad there been as much of “ human phlegm” nection which was distasteful to them, and as there was of “divine calm,” there would which contained elements wholly incompathave been small merit in its forbearance. But ible with their dream of empire. But how it was not so. A keen agony of interest have they drawn to their support the large was thrilling along every nerve of the social middle class, which did not share in their body. Whatever might have been true of ambitious and splendid illusions ? venal politicians, the great mass of the peo

We shall endeavor to state the case with ple were acutely sensitive to the wounds strict fairness, as between the North and the which were inflicted on the national honor. South. The South hold to the doctrine of They were silent, because they knew not how state sovereignty, and the right of each of to speak. They were passive, because they the constituent bodies to resume at any time knew not how to act. They gazed in mingled the powers which it has granted, and thus at horror and incredulity upon the mad freaks its own sovereign pleasure retire from the naof the demon of secession, unable to per- tional Union. The North deny this doctrine. suade themselves that a movement of such They hold that the separate sovereignty of the far-reaching extent, so vital to the national states is, under the Constitution, and so far interests, that cut to the very quick of the as its provisions go, merged in the single sovernational life, could be originated and carried eignty of the American people. They regard through, by their brethren in the state and the Constitution not as a compact between in the church, with such an utter disregard states, but an instrument framed and adopted of the forms required by both prudence and by the people in entire independence of state courtesy. Is it matter of surprise that they lines. These separate theories of the Constitustood awhile confounded by the startling tion determine the separate views of the two phenomenon, and that, when convinced of parties regarding the nature of the war. The the terrible earnestness of the movement, South are fighting for independence ; the they addressed themselves with correspond- North are fighting for the Government. The ing earnestness to the work of resisting it? rallying cry of the South is Pro aris et focis,

Our homes and our altars. The rallying cry GROUNDS OF SECESSION.

of the North is, The Constitution and the But it is time to inquire into the grounds Country. The North believe that, enjoying which the Southern people allege for their the protection and the blessings of a governact of secession. They have not embarked ment of extraordinary excellence, in rallying to in the movement without reasons which jus- defend it they are but discharging the most tify it to their own minds, and it is but sacred and imperative of all secular obligasimple justice to them and to ourselves that tions. The South believe that, in addition to we contemplate as far as possible the sub- the inherent right of secession, they are rising ject from their point of view. We refer not, to resist a long series of aggressions, which of course, to the leaders in the movement. bave culminated in the election of a sectional With many of them it is an iniquitous con- President, and the triumph of a political party spiracy. We do not give them a particle of which aims at the overthrow of Southern incredit for the honesty of purpose which we stitutions. They thus justify to themselves have no doubt actuates a large portion of their act by the double right of secession and the Southern people. Mr. Alexander H. revolution. They seek the grounds of their Stephens undoubtedly stated the truth, when movement partly in the Constitution of the he attributed their action in a large measure country, as giving the right of peaceful withto disappointed and factious ambition. Flat- / drawal, and partly in that constitution of hu

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