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fables, no description, says Mr. Du Chaillu, when Gambo and I heard a gun fired but a can exceed the horror of its appearance, the little way from us, and presently another. ferocity of its attack, or the impish malig. We were already on our way to the spot nity of its nature. It is not a carnivorous where we hoped to see a gorilla slain, when animal, but eats enormously of its vegetable terrific roars.

the forest began to resound with the most

Gambo seized my arms in food; it is not gregarious, but generally great agitation, and we hurried on, both found in pairs ; nor does it usually live in filled with a dreadful and sickening alarm. trees, though the young may sometimes do We had not gone far when our worst fears so for safety. It avoids the hunter as long were realized. The poor brave fellow who as it only hears him, but when they at last had gone off alone was :ying on the ground come face to face, the male animal, at least, in a pool of his own blood, and I thought, at never runs away. Probably he may be found first, quite dead. His bowels were protrud

ing through the lacerated abdomen. Beside sitting at the foot of a tree, the female feed- him lay his gun. The stock was broken, ing near. She gives the alarm and runs off and the barrel was bent and flattened. It with loud cries. Then her mate, sitting for bore plainly the marks of the gorilla's teeth. a moment with a savage frown on his face, “We picked him up, and I dressed his “slowly rises to his feet, and, looking with wounds as well as I could with rags torn glowing and malign eyes at the intruders, little brandy to drink he came to himself,

clothes. When I had given him a begins to beat his breast, and, lifting up his and was able, but with great difficulty, to round head, utters his frightful roar. This

speak. He said that he had met the gorilla begins with several sharp barks, like an en- suddenly and face to face, and that it had raged or mad dog, whereupon ensues a long, not attempted to escape. It was, he said, deeply gutteral, rolling roar, continued for a huge male, and seemed very savage. It over a minute, and which, doubled and mul- was in a very gloomy part of the wood, and tiplied by the resounding echoes of the for- He said he took good aim, and fired when

the darkness, I suppose, made him miss. est, fills the hunter's ears like the deep roll- the beast was only eight yards off. The ing thunder of an approaching storm." The ball merely wounded it in the side. It at brute advances by short stages, stopping once began beating its breasts, and with the every now and then to roar and beat his greatest rage advanced upon him. vast chest with his paws, which make it re- “To run away was impossible. He would sound like a great drum. His walk, from have been caught in the jungle before he had the disproportionate shortness of the hind gone a dozen steps. legs to the heavy body, is a waddle, which he could reloaded his gun. Just as he raised

“He stood his ground, and as quickly as he balances by swinging his long, thick it to fire the gorilla dashed it out of his muscular arms. “ His deep-set gray eyes hands, the gun going off in the fall; and sparkle with gloomy malignity; the features then in an instant, and with a terrible roar, are contorted in hideous wrinkles; and the the animal gave him a tremendous blow slight, sharply cut lips, drawn up, rereal the with its immense open paw, frightfully laclong fangs and the powerful jaws, in which erating the abdomen, and with this single a human limb would be crushed as a bis-he sank, bleeding, to the ground, the mon

blow laying bare part of the intestines. As cuit.” The experienced hunter reserves his ster seized the gun, and the poor hunter fire till the animal is about six yards off, for thought he would have his brains dashed if he misses, it is impossible for him to es- out with it. But the gorilla seemed to have cape. He must stand still and battle for looked upon this also as an enemy, and in his life,-generally the poorest chance for his rage almost flattened the barrel between a single blow of the gorilla's heavy, crooked his strong jaws. paw, breaks his breast-bone or tears out his gorilla was gone. This is their mode when

“When we came upon the ground the bowels; and no weapon which a man can attacked-to strike one or two blows, and wield can resist for an instant his enormous then leave the victims of their rage on the strength. On one occasion, when Mr. Du ground and go off into the woods.” Chaillu's party were out hunting, one of

The man died, but his probable destroyer them went off alone in a direction where he

was killed a day or two afterwards. thought he could find a gorilla :

We have not left ourselves space to men“We had been about an hour separated tion several other strange and formidable creatures which Mr. Du Chaillu encountered, the zoological notes and the collection to the among which, venomous insects were the Zoological Society, it would soon have been most annoying; but he had much sport, and seen that his qualifications as a naturalist sometimes not a little danger, in pursuit of were of the lowest order, and that he has all the animals mentioned in his title-page. made few, if any, additions to our previous In his quest of striking natural scenes he knowledge. was less fortunate. He came within sound I have examined the collection of mammaof a cataract on one of the largest rivers, lia with care, and there is not a specimen which, from the aspect of the country among them that indicates that the collecthrough which it ran, must probably be one tor had traversed any new region. On the of the grandest anywhere existing ; but his contrary, all the kinds contained in it have boat was too frail to face the rapids, and been received long ago from the different the land journey too destitute of supplies to trading stations on the west coast of Africa, be attempted. He was equally unsuccessful and can easily be procured from them; and in attempting to ascend a mountain about the manner in which the specimens are pretwelve thousand feet high ; from which en- pared (bad state as they are in) shows that terprise, however, nothing turned him back they must have been preserved in or near the but sheer starvation and the complete failure habitation of civilized men, and not in “ the of his shoes. That he should ever have forest” where “daylight is almost shut tried shows unusual resolution under the out;” and the whole of the twenty species circumstances. Altogether, we cannot too which are said to be new to science dwindle strongly express our admiration of the un- into thin air. daunted pluck and resolution which carried From the interest which some of the fel. him to the points actually accomplished in lows of the Royal Geographical Society apother directions. He performed the whole pear to attach to “ Mr., Mrs., and Miss Godistance, eight thousand miles, on foot, and rilla,” one would suppose that they thought the amount of fever he went through may that the animals were now for the first time be judged of by the fact that he consumed brought to Europe, whereas we have been in four years fourteen ounces of quinine. receiving specimens of them for the last fif

teen years, both from the missionaries and From The Athenæum.

the traders in those parts, until almost every THE NEW TRAVELLER'S TALES. museum in Europe is provided with speci

May 14, 1861. mens, and some of them, as, for example, The public seem to be under a delusion that in the museum of Vienna, which was which, I think, has been greatly produced shown at the naturalists' meeting in 1856, by what I must consider the unwise conduct is considerably larger than any shown at of some fellows of one of the best-conducted, Whitehall Place. most excellent, and most justly popular of Turning from the collection to the book, our scientific societies.

one must be struck with the improbable stoSome time ago the arrival of a new Afri- ries that it contains, and must observe that can traveller was announced. He read his there is the same exaggeration in the illuspaper at the Royal Geographical Society. trations (which have evidently been prepared It was soon discovered that his qualifica- in this country from the notes of the author, tions as a traveller were of the slightest de- and not from sketches on the spot) as there scription; but some of the fellows seem to is in the text. Some of them are copied bave been so taken with his tales about the from figures prepared in this country to repgorillas and other animals, that they have resent other kinds, or for other purposes, allowed him to make one of their rooms into and without acknowledgment. a museum, and thus a great éclat has been As an instance, I may state that the young given to his labors, certainly not on account of the gorilla and the “Niare,” or wild bull, of his geographical discoveries, for the map are described as quite untamable. Now appended to bis work is one of the most we have reliable accounts of young gorillas primitive that I have seen for years. If the having been kept in confinement, and even Royal Geographical Society had transmitted shipped for England, and being any thing

but so violent; and as for the “Niarè,” it is belongs; but if any one wishes to satisfy the animal known in Sierra Leone and over himself how much an animal can be caricaCentral and West Africa as the bush cow, tured, let him compare the plate of the and the specimen of it that was alive for " white-fronted hog" with the living specisome years in this country, I can testify, men of the same species now alive in the from my own knowledge, was as mild and Zoological Gardens, or with the figure of inoffensive as our own domestic cattle. To that animal in the Proceedings of the Socishow the little reliance to be placed on the ety. Indeed, it would have been impossible illustrations, I may state that the horns of to have identified these animals if we had this animal, in each of the three plates on not had the skins in the collection so as to which it is figured, are turned in a wrong make the comparison. I am sorry to have direction. In the same way the horns of the to make these observations, but I think the “ new antelope” (figured at p. 306), which cause of truth and science requires it. We 4s an animal that was described many years are overburdened with useless synonyma, ago by Mr. Ogilby, under the name of An- and Natural History may be converted into telope euryceros, are so incorrectly repre- a romance rather than a science by travelsented, that they do not even show the lers' tales, if they are not exposed at the time. section of the genus to which the species

JOHN EDWARD GRAY.

The collection of the Campana Museum at Regent Inlet is of the same formation. The fosRome has been purchased for the emperor of the sils brought home by the author from these arcFrench by M. Renier, of the Institute, and M. tic regions astonish us by their resemblance to Cornu, the historical painter, who have been in those of Dudley and Colebrookdale. Rome for the last six weeks conducting the negotiation of the purchase.

TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES IN GERMANY IN

THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY.-The various laws GEOLOGY OF THE Arctic REGIONS.-Some which were frequently enacted in the fifteenth interesting details concerning the geology of the and sixteenth centuries, to check drunkenness, polar regions have been collected and hrought or, at least, immoderate drinking of wine and before the Royal Geological Society by Dr. Da-spirits, proved utterly abortive, owing to the sovid Walker. They are the results of the au- ! cial life of the middle ages, which was chiefly thor's observations during the voyage of the based upon quaffing. Fox in search of Sir John Franklin. On ap- Charlemagne himself was obliged to order proaching the coast of South Greenland, the ap. that the counts and margraves should at least pearance of the mountains at once shows their be sober when sitting in courts of justice, while igneous origin, and are found to be composed of the German emperors were at their coronationgranite, gneiss, and micaschist, with occasional ceremony, asked, “whether they promise, by the intervals of quartzose rock. After proceeding help of God, to lead a sober life ?” Indeed, all along the coast line for some five hundred miles the laws and regulations of the sixteenth century volcanic rocks appear. These are first seen at were mainly directed against drunkenness, but Disco Island, and continue, with a few inter- not against drinking. Even Luther was no en. ruptions, as far north as the expedition reached. emy to wine; witness the large goblet (still ex. The precise formation of the land between Jones' tant at Nüremberg) which he presented to his Sound and Lancaster Sound is not known, but friend Jonas. from its turbular appearance it is most likely the A temperance society was at last formed by same upper silurian limestone that occurs further the aristocracy in the sixteenth century, and the westward in Barrow Strait. To the southward following were among the rules :of Lancaster Sound silurian limestone appears 1. To drink daily only 14 cups of wine. as far as Possession Bay, where the primary and 2. Italian, Spanish, or hot-spiced wines are inetamorphic rocks make their appearance. Be prohibited, beyond 1 cup a day, which must be yond Croker's Bay, as far westward as visited, deducted from the daily allowance. ihe formation is upper silurian limestone ; the 3. For the further quenching of thirst, beer is hills of this present tabulated fronts to the sea, allowed. with deep ravines intervening, rendering these 4. These 14 cups must not be drunk at once, hills somewhat cone-shaped. The west coast of | but after at least three intervals.

[We republish entire, from the London Times of emblem of our nationality should be struck May 23 and 24, the magnificent paper of the his from the Capitol at Washington. An adMotley discusses the whole subject in a style of vance of the “Confederate troops” upon such singular grace and power, and exposes the that city; the flight or captivity of the Presicible a manner that his argument is unanswerable. dent and his Cabinet ; the seizure of the The paper has a historical value aside from its im- national archives, the national title deeds, mediate interest, and we can do our readers no and the whole national machinery of foreign more thankful service than in laying it before them in full

, at the risk of the exclusion of other intercourse and internal administration by matter.-N.'Y. Evening Post.]

the Confederates ; and the proclamation THE CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN CIVIL from the American palladium itself of the WAR.

Montgomery Constitution in place of the one To the Editor of the Times : The de facto devised by Washington, Madison, Hamilton, question in America has been referred at and Jay-a Constitution in which slavery last to the dread arbitrament of civil war. should be the universal law of the land, the Time and events must determine whether corner-stone of the political edifice-were the "great Republic” is to disappear from events which seemed for a few days of inthe roll of nations, or whether it is destined tense anxiety almost probable. to survive the storm which has gathered

THE UNION SENTIMENT. over its head. There is, perhaps, a readi- Had this really been the result without a ness in England to prejudge the case ; a blow struck in defence of the national Govdisposition not to exult in our downfall, but ernment and the old Constitution, it is certo accept the fact ; for nations, as well as tain that the contumely poured forth upon individuals, may often be addressed in the the Free States by their domestic enemies pathetic language of the poeta

and by the world at large would have been “Donec eris felix, multos numerabis amicos, as richly deserved as it would have been

Tempora cum fuerint nubila, nullus erit." amply bestowed. At present such a catasYet the trial by the ordeal of battle has trophe seems to have been averted. But the hardly commenced, and it would be presump- levy in mass of such a vast number of armed tuous to affect to penetrate the veil of even men in the Free States, in swift response to the immediate future. But the question de the call of the President, shows how deep jure is a different one. The right and the and pervading is the attachment to the wrong belong to the past, are hidden by no Constitution and to the flag of Union in veil, and may easily be read by all who are the hearts of the nineteen millions who not wilfully blind." Yet it is often asked, inhabit those states. It is confidently beWhy have the Americans taken up arms ? lieved, too, that the sentiment is not wholly Why has the United States Government extinguished in the nine million white men plunged into what is sometimes called " this who dwell in the ve States, and that, on wicked war" ? Especially it is thought the contrary, there exists a large party amazing in England that the President throughout that country who believe that should have recently called for a great army

the Union furnishes a better protection for of volunteers and regulars, and that the in- life, property, law, civilization and liberty habitants of the Free States should have than even the indefinite extension of African sprung forward as one man at his call, like slavery can do. men suddenly relieved from a spell. It

THE CONSPIRACY. would have been amazing had the call been At any rate, the loyalty of the Free States longer delayed. The national flag, insulted has proved more intense and passionate than and defied for many months, had at last been it had ever been supposed to be before. It lowered, after the most astonishing kind of is recognized throughout their whole people siege recorded in history, to an armed and that the Cconstitution of 1787 had made us organized rebellion ; and a prominent per- a nation. The efforts of a certain class of sonage in the Government of the Southern politicians for a long period had been to re“Confederacy” is reported to have pro- duce our commonwealth to a confederacy. claimed amid the exultations of victory that So long as their efforts had been confined to before the 1st of May the same cherished argument, it was considered sufficient to an

swer the argument; but now that secession, achieved our independence, but we had not instead of remaining a topic of vehement constructed a nation. We were not a body and subtle discussion, has expanded into politic. No laws could be enforced, no insurarmed and fierce rebellion and revolution, rections suppressed, no debts collected. Neicivil war is the inevitable result. It is the ther property nor life was secure. Great result foretold by sagacious statesmen almost Britain had made a treaty of peace with us, a generation ago, in the days of the tariff but she scornfully declined a treaty of com"nullification." “ To begin with nullifica- merce and amity; not because we had been tion,” said Daniel Webster in 1833, " with rebels, but because we were not a statethe avowed intention, nevertheless, not to because we were a mere dissolving league of proceed to secession, dismemberment, and jarring provinces, incapable of guaranteeing general revolution, is as if one were to take the stipulations of any commercial treaty. the plunge of Niagara, and cry out that he We were unable even to fulfil the condition would stop half-way down." And now the of the treaty of peace and enforce the stipplunge of secession has been taken, and we ulated collection of debts due to British subare all struggling in the vortex of general jects; and Great Britain refused in conserevolution.

quence to give up the military posts which

she held within our frontiers. THE UNITED STATES A COMMONWEALTH. The body politic known for seventy years ment of our independence we were mortified

For twelve years after the acknowledgas the United States of America is not a con

by the spectacle of foreign soldiers occupyfederacy, not a compact of sovereign states, ing a long chain of fortresses south of the not a copartnership; it is a commonwealth, of which the Constitution drawn up at Phil- great lakes and upon our own soil. We were adelphia by the Convention of 1787, over And these were the fruits of such a confed

a confederacy. We were sovereign states. which Washington presided, is the organic,

eracy and of such sovereignty. It was, until fundamental law. We had already had the immediate present, the darkest hour of enough of a confederacy. The thirteen our history. But there were patriotic and rebel provinces, afterwards the thirteen original independent States of America, had forts at last rescued us from the condition

sagacious men in those days, and their efbeen united to each other during the Revo- of a confederacy. The “Constitution of the lutionary War by articles of confederacy. United States " was an organic law, enacted The said states hereby enter into a firm by the sovereign people of that whole terrileague of friendship with each other.Such

tory which is commonly called in geograwas the language of 1781, and the league or treaty thus drawn up was ratified, not by the phies, and histories the United States of

America. It was empowered to act directly, people of the states, but by the state gov- by its own legislative, judicial, and execuernments - the legislative and executive

tive machinery, bodies, namely, in their corporate capacity. country. It could seize his property, it could

, upon every individual in the The Continental Congress, which was the

take his life, for causes of which itself was central administrative board during this

the judge. The states were distinctly proepoch, was a diet of envoys from sovereign hibited from opposing its decrees or from states. It had no power to act on individuals. It could not command the states. It exercising any of the great functions of sov

ereignty. The Union alone was supreme, could move only by requisitions and recommendations. Its functions were essentially many thing in the Constitution and laws of diplomatic, like those of the State-general of Of what significance, then, was the title of

the States to the contrary notwithstanding." the old Dutch Republic, like those of the “ sovereign” states, arrogated in later days modern Germanic Confederation.

by communities which had voluntarily abdiTHE EARLY HISTORY OF THE NATION. cated the most vital attributes of soverWe were a league of petty sovereignties. eignty When the war had ceased, when our inde- THE GOVERNMENT AN ESTABLISHED pendence had been acknowledged in 1783,

AUTHORITY. we sank rapidly into a condition of utter But, indeed, the words “sovereign" and impotence, imbecility, anarchy. We had “ sovereignty” are purely inapplicable to the

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