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the rigid school answers that St. Paul decides the ques- either passing allusions, or large principles laid down, tion as to Adam, in Rom. and another ventures to because God addresses his family as having an unction thinks that he is nearly as plain about Eve in Ephes. v. from the Holy One, and knowing all things. “I have Not at all, cries the voice of Mr. Lord across the Atlan- not written unto you,” says St. John, “because ye tic, the word tutóg only means a similitude, not type know not the truth, but because ye know it, and that properly, in Rom. v., and nothing of the sort is said in no lie is of the truth. ...These things have I written Ephes. v. Thus the direct tendency of this demand for unto you concerning them that seduce you. But the chapter and verse in the New Testament touching the anointing which ye have received of him abideth in you, Old, is to limit us to a minimum of typical instruction, and ye need not that any man teach you: but as the if not to rob us of it altogether.
same anointing teacheth you of all things, and is truth, The fact is that Scripture differs from mere books of and is no lie, and even as it hath taught you, ye shall abide information and science, inasmuch as these are wholly in him.” Thus says the Holy Ghost by St. Paul, and irrespective of moral condition and may be mastered this just after glancing rapidly over a number of typical alike by the evil and the good, while that depends on transactions in the history of Israel :-"I speak as to our measure of subjection to the Spirit of God. And wise men; judge ye what I say.”. That is, the New as the children of God are not equally spiritual, so they Testament pointedly addresses itself not to the ignodiffer in the degree of their understanding of and relish rance of Christian men, but to their capacity to use the for all that is of God. If all Christians had a single Word of God aright, in virtue of the Holy Ghost dwelleye, every one would be full of light. But this is not ing in them. This is so much the more remarkable as
Each has to contend with influences, prejudices, being said to the Corinthians, whom the same epistle prepossessions, &c., which as far as they work, obscure had characterized as babes in Christ. “I have fed you the judgment, and thus lead to differing views and with milk, and not with meat: for hitherto ye were practice. Hence it is that the evidence of the Word not able to bear it, neither yet now are ye able. Newhich is irresistible to one is weak or null to another, vertheless," says the Apostle, “I would not have you rightly or wrongly, of course, as a man is led by the ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, Spirit. To take the same example as before, a man and all passed through the sea," followed by the statebetter taught than Bishop Marsh would see ground in ment that these things were our examples (literally, Jude 11 and Heb. xii. 24, for interpreting Cain and types, figures of us). Abel typically. And if they are to be so taken, why not Now, is it possible for an unprejudiced man to read Lamech and Seth, of whom serious and interesting facts this last passage, and to gather from it that the Holy are recorded in the same chapter? Again, the hardest Ghost is laying down a systematic summary of all that exactor of express New Testament authority can was typical in the journeyings of Israel? Is it not, scarcely deny a formally typical force to the deluge. rather, true that we have simply an application here, (See 1 Peter iii.) Has then the subsequent altar which as elsewhere, of so much as naturally bore on the Noah built no future bearing? Nor God's blessing of question in hand, the danger of idolatry, &c., and of him and his sons, with its solemn committal of the sword being content with ordinances without life? So, afterof government and the covenant with the earth and all wards, there is a striking use made of the fact, that flesh ? And the city and tower in the plain of Shinar, Israel, after the flesh, ate of the sacrifices, and were has it no language for our ears,—that Babel, where partakers of the altar; as, in the preceding chapter, language was confounded by the judgment of Jehovah, direct reference is made to the law of Moses. “ Thou and the various tongues of men began? If Sarah and shalt not muzzle the mouth of the ox that treadeth out Hagar, if Isaac and Ishmael have the explicit sanction the corn. Doth God take care for oxen? or saith he it of Scripture, is it not implied as to Abraham and Lot? altogether for our sakes! For our sakes no doubt, this If Melchizedek cannot be disputed, what are we to infer is written: that he that ploweth should plow in hope, about the combinations of the Kings and their conflicts, and that he that thresheth should be partaker of his what about the intervention of the head of promise hope." Spiritual husbandry was the grand idea in the and the deliverance of his earthly-minded kinsman mind of the revealing Spirit. Further on, in the same Are all these great connected circumstances unmeaning, chapter, the Apostle applies the special provision which save as moral and historical : Is “the possessor of God enjoined in behalf of the priests and all the tribe heaven and earth” an immaterial title there and then, of Levi; that, as they had no part nor inheritance with because “the most high God” merely is cited in Israel, they should eat the offerings of the Lord, and Heb. vii.?
his inheritance. Evidently, therefore, while there is In short, there might be reason in thus confining our nothing like or pretending to be, a catalogue raisonnée of investigation to those portions of the Old Testament Old Testament figures, they are profusely used, in adwhich are employed unambiguously as figures in the dressing believers ; (not Hebrews merely, but Gentiles New, if the New Testament either professed to be, or also); and as clearly those used are cited not in the least in reality was, an exposition of all the parts of the Old. degree as exceptional cases, but rather as specimens of But all must confess that this is not the case; which a vast class which pervades the Bible. it ought to be, if types are to be sought nowhere in Is it then seriously contended that the brief direction the Bible beyond the very limited horizon which is respecting the ox in Deut. xxv. 4, is picked out by the formed by the direct notices and explanations of the Apostle as the sole word in the chapter which has spelatest revelation. On the contrary, we have here cial application to Christians? Of course that was what
the Spirit wanted in 1 Cor. ix., and what the saints Are we not to enquire how they too bear on the future, who are exhorted needed to weigh. But if the occasion using those which are infallibly determined as our help, had demanded it, was there not typical instruction of with the general analogy of Scripture, to search into the deepest moment in the same context? In the first the rest; for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the verses, it is as to a brother, even if in the wrong, and deep things of God? If there is no dispute about the justly to be punished; in the last verses it is touching the Red Sea, why should there be about the waters of sworn enemies of the Lord and his people. Forbearance Marah? If the manna was unquestionably typical, towards Amalek would be indifference to the honour why doubt about the Sabbath connected with it? If of the one, and the wrongs of the other. The judge the smitten rock in Horeb is pregnant with lessons must see the faulty Israelites beaten according to his for us, why sever from it the subsequent conflict misdeeds, but with a fixed limit, lest “thy brother with Amalek ? Why nullify the beautiful picture should seem vile to thee." We are satisfied, also, that which follows in Exod. xviii., where Gentiles and Jews the central details of the chapter are equally written eat bread before God, and the leader of the people lays under the same prescient eye; the ordinance of per- down the order and means of right government? petuating each family name in Israel; and the keeping Again, if the worship of the golden calf be so full of up, under severe penalty, of purity and delicacy of warning, what of the judgment which Moses executes feeling, even where those nearest to us are menaced or with the sons of Levi? (Exod. xxxii.) Has the pitching suffering; and the maintenance of the most thorough of the tabernacle without the camp no voice for us, integrity in all dealings, small and great, in the sight and the deepened fellowship which Moses enjoyed with and blessing of the Lord.
the Lord there, and his earnest pleading before him ? Take, again, the provision for the Levites in Num- Here, again, the New Testament casts its unwavering bers xviii., &c., alluded to in 1 Cor. ix. 13. Is that to light upon an incident which, without it, we might be dislocated from its connexion, and to be regarded as have made of no account; for at first sight, it might the only food for the servants of the Lord, found there? strike the careless reader as the least promising, in a Is the priestly rod of Aaron, once dead, but now alive typical point of view,—the veil which Moses put on his again for evermore, without fruit for us? Is its sole face in speaking with the children of Israel, and took use as a token against the rebellious children of Israel ? off in going in before the Lord to speak with him, As to the red heifer in Numb. xix., we presume that 2 Cor. iii. To deny a figurative force to these other the most clamourous demand, apostolic endorsement, circumstances in Exodus, because one or two only may must bow to Heb. ix. 13. It was as appropriate in have the direct stamp of St. Paul, is to deprive us of itself as in the circumstances and season where it oc- an incalculable amount of their value. To
that we curs,—the type of Christ sacrificed and brought home, cannot understand them clearly and certainly, according by the Spirit of God, to the individual saints in the to our general intelligence of Scripture, is to reduce wilderness, where an unintentional defilement is con. Christians to the alliteration of a former economy: it tracted by contact with the things of death : in a word, would justify that dulness of hearing which the Apostle the shadow of God's gracious way of restoring commu- censures in the Hebrew saints, Heb. v. They were nion with himself, when interrupted in our wanderings unskilful in the word of righteousness, and 'needed here below. It is not redemption which is in question to be taught explicitly what they ought to have been here, but priestly grace, and the remembrance, in the teaching. He had many things to say respecting MelSpirit, of Christ's suffering to meet those unwilling chizedek; but their senses were comparatively unexersoils which might be too lightly slurred over in the cised to discern both good and evil. And when he does desert. And is it conceivable that grave men should open that remarkable story as a shadow of Christ, he think the scene of Meribah (Numb. xx.) to be a mere in no way intimates that all was said which might be historical fact? We are compelled to allow more in the said, but only what they were able to bear. Sufficient serpent of brass in the following chapter, because of is furnished to quicken, not to clog, their feeble spirithe Lord's word to Nicodemus in John iii. Is the land tual digestion. Thus no use is made of the bread and which lies between given up to barrenness? Or is it wine which Melchizedek brought out to the victors, only fallow ground, because men have been slow to take while there is considerable reasoning upon the dignity and till it in the name of the Lord? Strange indeed of his office and person, surpassed only in the real and would it be, that God should have written his Word as eternal glory of Christ. The moment the argument of those deem who acknowledge that Numb. xvii. and xx. the epistle requires the actual exercise of Christ's priestare eminently typical, but strip withal the intervening hood to be treated of, the Apostle glides on to the Aaronic portion of all such claim, in the face of a narrative at intercession within the veil, based upon sacrifice. (Heb. least as full and as striking.
vii. 25, viii.—x.) How arbitrary, then, to assume that So in 1 Cor. x. 1–10 a few leading facts are alluded we have more, in such New Testament expositions, to, as having befallen the Israelites, and chiefly re-than clear light cast upon certain grand landmarks, that, corded in Exodus and Numbers : the passage through thus using what we have, more may be given ? the Red Sea under Moses, the manna, the water from This is entirely confirmed by what we read of the the rock, on God's part; the lust, idolatry, tempting holy places, sacrifices, feasts, and other rites, stated or Christ, and murmuring, on theirs. Are we then to occasional.' It were utterly unreasonable, if we may exercise no spiritual judgment respecting the other dis- venture on the ground of the objectors, to hold that the plays of God and man, no less solemn and profitable? mercy-seat, the candlestick, and the altar are the only vessels of the sanctuary which have a typical significance, idea. Every other of which the Bible speaks is as because others are dimly, if at all, explained, while these much as possible conformed to that standard. The are clearly alluded to in Rom. iii., Rev. i., and Heb. state of things under the Fathers and Israel is exalted xiii. respectively. Is it merely the covering-lid which somewhat, the characteristic points of the present ecohad a meaning, and not the ark of the covenant itself? nomy are considerably depressed, the grand distinctions - that holy throne whereon God rested in moral judg- of the age to come are well nigh ignored, so as to obliment of his people, the law within, and the cherubim terate, as far as fancy can, those differences of dispenits external supporters? The table, too, with its twelve sation in which God has been thoroughly testing man, loaves, had this no far-reaching value, as well as the and displaying his own righteousness and grace and candlestick with its seven branches ? And the two glory, to the ultimate and abiding joy of all who trust altars, with their suited spheres, is one blind, and has in him. the other alone an eye that looks onward? Were the We would not be understood as slighting much that robes of glory and beauty which the high priest wore, is really good and valuable in Dr. F.'s book. A good for mere passing show? Or if the curious girdle tells a deal of what we have been insisting on in this paper, is tale of service, what are we to infer as to the ephod truth common to him and to us. Nor do we mean that and robe, and broidered coat, and breastplate, and mitre ? Dr. F. is singular in making the church, so-called, the Their consecration, too, is surely something for us; for great centre of movement in his system: for theologians if Christ loves and has washed us from our sins in his in general are in the same way disciples of Ptolemy, own blood, he has also made us kings and priests. In rather than of Copernicus. But Dr. F. has the unshort, all things are ours-the washing, the blood- happy distinction of working out this fundamental error sprinkling, and the anointing; and all the sacrifices more systematically, as far as regards his two subjects, too; the sin-offering, burnt-offering, ram of consecra- than perhaps any one who has gone before him. How tion, and meat-offering. There were, no doubt, reasons this vitiates his work will appear abundantly. Thus why the Apostle could not then speak particularly of the in chap. ii., in shewing how the relation of type and sanctuary and its vessels. There is no reason to deny antitype implies that the realities of the gospel were the force of all as figures, though we may not have contemplated from the beginning, he says that on this equal clearness of view about each. The same con- account “the gospel dispensation is called the dispensiderations apply to the feasts and other ordinances in tation of the fulness of times”; whereas it is as plain Leviticus. It is most anomalous to own that the pass- as can be that Ephes. i. so speaks of the future admiover and its accompanying feast of unleavened bread nistration of the universe, when God shall gather togehad a prophetic bearing, and to disown it in the feast of ther in one under Christ's headship, all things both trumpets. It were passing strange that Pentecost should which are in heaven and which are on earth. And this have its fulfilment, and that Tabernacles should have is so far from being confounded with the aim and ob
How much more simple and harmonious to jects of the gospel dispensation, that the following infer that, as a whole, not merely the Levitical system, verses pursue the latter topic in relation to those who but the historical facts and times, persons and things are being gathered out from both Jews and Gentiles. of Old Testament Scripture, were ordered, selected, and If Dr. F. deny the justice of our accusation on the plea presented in the Word of God, so as to teach a little to that, in this same vol. i., page 61, he speaks of the those of small faith, more to those of larger spiritual Redeemer as “Himself the beginning and end of the measure, with an ever-increasing fulness as the eye scheme of God's dispensations,” we answer that he means becomes more single to Christ, and the ear more attuned the Redeemer solely in relation to his church, as far as by the Spirit to his voice?
human blessing is concerned. His various glories are But if this last remark be admitted, as it is to us merged in this one. Son of David, Son of Abraham, clear and certain, their fallacy is obvious who try to Son of man-all these and more are exclusively limited squeeze the types of Scripture into a human system. to him as head of the church. Thus, no space is left for Every branch, indeed, of revealed truth has been the various circles which have him for their common stripped of its bloom and fragrance by a similar process. centre. . If there be any which more than others resist, and Dr. F. cannot prove that which is the very substratum suffer from such violence, it appears to us to be the of all his writings. We have shown more than once in very twain which Dr. Fairbairn has chosen—the kin- the Bible Treasury, that the church of God, properly dred themes of Scripture type and prophecy. His so designated, is peculiar to the present dispensation: school has not been safe or happy. He is a good deal Dr. F. affirms, without even attempting to demonstrate, enamoured of, and tinctured by, the novel speculations its identity throughout all dispensations. Hence, to of German critics. He is keenly attached to the spiri- take in all the redeemed, he is compelled to reduce the tualizing tendencies, which would blot out, if they idea of the church to "a nursery for training souls to could, the special hopes and inheritance of Israel from a meetness for immortal life and blessedness." Were the chart of God's future counsels. He does not see this an adequate definition, his conclusion doubtless that the church is but a little, though exceedingly follows; for nobody questions that God has always blessed and glorious, part of the purposes of God as to been saving souls by his Word and Spirit. But we man. Accordingly, the work which God has now in deny his premises, and submit that he overlooks the operation, and which contemplates by grace ourselves doctrine of Scripture. It is not a question of words as its objects, becomes in his view the all-absorbing merely, as some would say, but of things. The New
Testament is explicit, that the church is based upon It is the practical application which is the main redemption, not promised only, but accomplished, and difficulty. God and his Word will never admit of rules demands the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven as its which can save us from the need of being spiritual, formative power, uniting all, whether Jew or Gentile, in whether in intelligence or in walk. Such rules, like one body, of which Christ in heavenly glory is the creeds and articles, have scarcely any positive value, head-a condition which was not true of the times though they may be of use negatively in checking and anterior to the cross, and is not, nor can be predicated correcting men in a path of error. of the saints who are to be called on earth during the millennium. Clearly, then, it is not a question of being saved only, but of other and higher privileges,
A NEW BIBLE, OR A TRUE BIBLE? ordered in the sovereignty of God and super-added to
No. II. salvation. Dr. F., we repeat, cannot prove his thesis. The next important correction of the authorized transHe takes it for granted and continually asserts it because lation of the Bible, which we are anxious to notice, is it is absolutely necessary to his system. He will hardly that passage which relates to the Divine institution of take advantage of a mistake in the common version of the Sabbath, Gen. ii. 1—3. The first sentence of the Acts vii. 38, where “the church in the wilderness" second chapter should have been made the last sentence means simply, really, and nothing but the Israelitish of the first chapter. The second chapter should then congregation there. Almost as rationally might it be ar- have begun in the following manner: gued from the mere term, that “the church” is intended "And on the seventh day the Omnipotent had finished his by “the assembly" in Acts xix. Neither the one nor the work which he made; and he rested on the seventh day from all other, in the foundation or in the form, was the church his work which he made. And the Omnipotent blessed the of God as presented in the Scriptures which develope it. seventh day and sanctified it; because in it he rested from all Dr. F. may flatter himself with being spiritual (as
his work which the Omnipotent created and made." contrasted with Jewish or semi-Jewish interpreters),
In this passage, as it stands in the original, it is of because he sees not Israel only, but the church under great importance to observe that from the intensive the tutelage of the law and the rudiments of the world. form of the Hebrew verb signifying ended or finished, it He may reproach us with being Jewish, because we ought to be translated completely finished, or caused to affirm that the Jews and not the church had to say to come to an end ; and that the use of this form implies the Babylonish captivity. To us, we avow, it seems that God had made a full end of his work before the distressing confusion, to apply what is said of Israel to seventh day commenced. The Greek translators of the the church, as if it was all the same thing organically, Septuagint version, apparently not seeing the force of though now improved and enlarged. To use it, as he this intensive form of the Hebrew verb, have thought does, without proofs, is to build without a foundation. proper to alter the phraseology of the first sentence,
Dr. F. objects, with justice, to the vagueness of the and to translate it thus : rules laid down by such as Glassius, and offers his own “And God finished on the sIXTH DAY his works which he specific directions, which are a decided improvement.
made." But the fact is, that the most important pre-requisite Now, it is quite true that God did finish all his works for rightly interpreting the types, is an adequate know- in reference to the creation of man, on the sixth DAY, ledge of the truth of which they are the forms. Thus, if a and that on the SEVENTH DAY he rested from those person confounded the character of two different acts, works; but the same thing is clearly and distinctly offices, dispensations, &c., he would in similar ratio implied by the Hebrew expression; and therefore the make a jumble of their prefigurations. Another element idiomatic English phrase which most correctly renders of some weight is the nature of the surrounding con- the sentence according to its real meaning, is had finished. text. This, if duly applied, would cut off many popu
Trivial as this amendment of the authorized version lar turns, e.g. the appearance of Esau borrowed by Jacob, may seem to be to the ordinary reader, it meets the which some make to figure the imputed righteousness of objections of many gainsayers, and shuts them up to Christ! Here, however, are Dr. F.'s five canons :
the conclusion that God performed no part of his work “Nothing is to be regarded as typical of the good things on the seventh day, but consecrated it to that rest under the gospel, which was itself of a forbidden and sinful which was absolutely necessary for man, and which nature." (I. 138.)
he, by a gracious anthropopatheia transferred to him“We must be guided not so much by any knowledge pos. self. In this way the Creator manifested his deep sessed, or supposed to be possessed, by the ancient worshippers sympathy with his creature, and gave him an earnest concerning their prospective fulfilment, as from the light fur: and a foretaste of that heavenly rest which awaits the nished by their realization in the great facts and revelations of the gospel.” (I. 143.)
suffering believer in Jesus. On the perpetual authority We must be careful to make ourselves acquainted with the of the Sabbath, as an institution of God, when man truths or ideas exhibited in the types, considered merely as was in a state of innocence, we refer to what we have providential transactions or religious institutions.” (I. 148.) said in a former number, p. 25.
"The type has properly but one radical meaning, yet the In addition to this institution in paradise, God gave fundamental idea or principle exhibited in it may often be to man another of equal importance, the sacred insti. capable of more than one application to the realities of the tution of marriage. Strange to say that man has more gospel.” (I. 152.)
“Due regard must be had to the essential difference between frequently and more wickedly attempted to destroy these the nature of type and antitype." (I. 157.)
two holy and beneficent institutions given to him in a state of innocence, than any others which have been vance by his own people, God would speedily bring deinstituted since the fall. One evidence of his desire to struction upon the globe, and swallow up, as he did Korah, render the law of marriage subservient to his own Dathan, and Abiram, the whole race of ungodly sinners, corrupt purposes, is the omission of the word two in who are living in open defiance of his precepts. Let the very words of the institution. The great Lawgiver the government of this country, and its legislators and himself, when he tabernacled on earth, for the sake of judges, beware how they tamper with the commandments the redemption of man, restored this word, which the of God which have never been abrogated; and let them Jews had taken away, in order to render its injunctions not dare to pass any laws that would diminish the of none effect.
ye not read," said our Lord sanctity of the Sabbath, or allow the people to do as to the Pharisees, Matt. xix. 4, 5, “ that he who made they like on that holy day. We warn them not to open them at the beginning, made them male and female, the places of amusement, or of secular instruction, to the and said :
public on the Lord's day, or to permit them to be “Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and opened for the pretended benefit of the people, especially shall cleave unto his wife, and they two shall be one flesh ?” the lower classes ; lest they should have reason to
. 24. repent their proceedings when it is too late. We warn “Wherefore, they are no more twain, but one flesh. them also not to tamper with the laws of marriage, or What therefore God hath joined together let not man put to dare to secularize that which God has rendered asunder.” By the restoration of this little word two to sacred by his own institution. If they do so, either the phraseology of the law of marriage, He completely rashly or presumptuously, they will dislocate the whole forbade divorce, adultery, bigamy, and polygamy, those frame of society, and produce a social revolution of the horrid evils which arise from the corruptions of this very worst description—a revolution which will involve holy institution, and which have sullied its dignity and both themselves and the people in one common ruin. its beauty in all ages; and in none more than in the Let them not be deceived, but remember that it is true present day, among the Roman priesthood, the followers both of nations and of individuals : " God is not of Mahomet, the lower classes in this country, and the mocked”; he will not be mocked; " for whatsoever Satan-deluded Mormons.
a man soweth that shall he also reap." This little word two, which has been omitted in the We wonder much that the clergy of our land have present Hebrew text, from what cause we know not, not raised their voice in a more public and emphatic but which we can easily conjecture, is still to be found manner than they have done, and protested against the in the Samaritan text of the Pentateuch, in the Sep- open infringement of God's laws, which has been aided tuagint Greek version written about 280 B.C., and and abetted by Sir Benjamin Hall and his co-adjutors, indeed in all the ancient versions. In the revision of and the motley squad of trumpeters and musicians our authorized version, this word should therefore which has followed in his wake. We wonder still certainly be restored to its place, so that there may be a more that any clergyman should be found, or allowed full agreement between the history of Moses and the to hold a place in the church, who would advocate for words of our Lord. This correction is omitted in the one moment the conversion of the whole or any part of Pocket Paragraph Bible, but supplied in the Annotated the Lord's day into a holiday, as Dr. Hook and others Paragraph Bible of the Religious Tract Society. have done. “Tell it not in Gath; publish it not in
Until mankind return to the sacred observance of the streets of Askelon.” That those who are appointed these two divine institutions first established in paradise, by government, and paid by the nation to preach the when man lived in a state of innocency and holy com- truth and expound the laws of God, should be among munion with his Maker, happiness can never be those who justify a departure from the original sanctity restored. All the attempts of philanthropists, legis- and integrity of any divine institution, is both preposlators, and divines, with all the nostrums of political terous and lamentable ; and we hope that it will be economists and agitators, and all the schemes of the viewed in its proper light by those who have the power advocates of national education, will utterly fail of to effect an amendment. their intended effect in the amelioration of society, We formerly observed that the translation of that unless these holy, good, and just laws of God be part of the address of Satan to Eve, in which he says, patronized and enforced by government. There is a "Ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil," requires spurious liberality now afloat which avows the dangerous amendment, inasmuch as it does not convey the whole notion, that if a man be honest and upright among his truth of the passage in the original. It ought to be neighbours, pays his debts, and does not rob or steal
, or translated into these words : "Ye shall be as the Omniotherwise injure his neighbour in his worldly affairs, he potent, knowing good and evil.” As it now stands in has a right to observe or not observe these laws of God, the common version, it would seem to imply that Adam just as he pleases ! Horrid fallacy! It is true that we and his wife were acquainted with more gods than one, cannot make a man a Christian by act of parliament; and that polytheism was known in the world, and cobut it is equally true that every human government has eval with the creation of man. This idea we know is a right to exact the observance of those laws which are absurd, for polytheism did not originate among men till necessary for the well-being of society, and the happi- after the Flood : and if Satan had used such language ness of the human race.
as that meant by the word gods, implying that there The Christians who faithfully observe these laws are were more gods than one, he would not have been unthe salt of the earth; and were it not for their obser- derstood by Eve at all; but if he used the proper name