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like unto Moses, shall arise, and all hearken unto him. announcements ? But, no! they are the true sayings A Redeemer shall stand upon the earth, in the latter of God. The future day shall accomplish them in reday; and in resurrection shall Job behold him. Who ality and fulness. is the wondrous One, in whom all these prophecies There is a further feature revealed in this majestic shall be concentrated ? Surely, the psalm we have now Psalm, even one of grace : glanced at seems to afford an answer:-In Jehovah's

“ They that know thy name will put their trust in thee." anointed one, even in Jehovah's Son. Yet how much There is not much said, but a bright ray beams forth. of mystery still remained.

Jehovah's name shall, in that future day, be so made The Book of Psalms is pervaded by prophetic known, as that it shall be the object of confidence, and utterances such as the foregoing. The second Psalm the place of refuge to the needy. Blessed prospect ! may serve as the key to very much that follows in the as yet distant, and but dimly seen; but sure and neverbook.

failing, for the mouth of Israel's God hath spoken it. In this wondrous book indeed, there are poured forth Psalm X., also, yields its tribute of testimony: the deep exercises of the heart both of David, and of

“The Lord is king for ever and ever :- the heathen are the saints of his dispensation. Their loud hallelujahs perished out of his land. also, ascend unto their own Jehovah. Whilst, in strict Lord, thou hast heard the desire of the humble : accordance with the principle of righteousness-enforced Thou will prepare their heart, – thou wilt cause thine ear to

hear: righteousness; "eye for eye, and tooth for tooth,” which

To judge the fatherless and the oppressed, characterised their economy and age, they are heard That the man of the earth may no more oppress.” calling ever and anon, for holy vengeance on those who There shall come this glorious day, then, when “ the were their foes. There are also passages in many of these psalms, shall the day be, of the future King!

man of the earth shall no more oppress.” How blessed shadowing forth mysteriously some deep and dreadful

What shall be said of the mysterious course of exertragedy strangely connected with the person of the cise of Psalm xxii.? There is One who has been “cast predicted future Sovereign. But who, with the light upon the Lord from his youth,” and “ made to hope in

him, even from his mother's belly.” He has been import, as to all this? Scarcely could those holy men

righteous throughout his course. Yet this one is heard of old, by whom the Spirit spake these mysterious

exclaiming, intimations, do otherwise than " search diligently, what

“My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me ?” or what manner of time, the Spirit which was in them did signify.” But “not unto themselves" did they Sorrows and woes encompass him : they have “pierced “minister those things." In the present age fuller his hands and his feet:" he is “ brought into the dust

of death." apprehension is vouchsafed. Yet how much that was

They “part his garments among them, and mysterious remained to them.

cast lots upon his vesture.” Yet he is “heard” at There were some grand features, however, which length, and helped," "saved," and delivered," even then were revealed with much definiteness and triumphantly, he then becomes the leader of Jehovah's clearness. Let us go on, then, to trace yet further the congregation. dawning light of prophecy.

“I will declare thy name unto my brethren : In the well known eighth Psalm, there is one spoken

In the midst of the congregation will I praise thee." of—a son of man, who is by Jehovah “crowned with The result is glory and honour,” and “made to have dominion over “ The meek shall eat and be satisfied : the works of his hands." This is one, who is “

They shall praise the Lord that seek him your heart shall

live for ever. dained to still the enemy and the avenger;" and who

All the ends of the world shall remember and turn unto the causes Jehovah's name to be "excellent in all the

Lord : earth.” “ All things

“put under his feet.” And all the kindreds of the nations shall worship before This headship must be future one.

The first man

thee." cannot be the one intended here. We see not yet all How much of mystery was there left resting on all this; things 80 put under any one. The succeeding psalm and yet how much for faith to rest upon, and for hope (the 9th) speaks similarly.

to cling to! But “ not unto themselves did they

How blessed are " Thou hast rebuked the heathen,—thou hast destroyed the minister those things, but unto us.” wicked,

our ears! Thou hast put out their name for ever and ever.

But the mystery is deepened by the revelation itself, O thou enemy, destructions are come to a perpetual end : of Psalm xlv. The writer's heart is fired, and his And thou hast destroyed cities;-their memorial is perished tongue as the pen of a ready writer. He pours forth

with them. But the Lord shall endure for ever :- he hath prepared his a strain of chastened, adoring eulogy. He "speaks of throne for judgment.

the things which he has made touching THE KING.” And he shall judge the world in righteousness,

“Thou art fairer than the children of men :-grace is poured He shall minister judgment to the people in uprightness." into thy lips : How much of the Book of Psalms is occupied with

Therefore God hath blessed thee for ever. language such as this. Who, that has applied thein to

Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, O Most Mighty, with thy

glory and thy majesty. the past, has not felt the unpleasant impression of exag- And in thy majesty ride prosperously- because of truth and geration and hyperbole, on reading such magnificent meekness and righteousness;



And thy right hand shall teach thee terrible things. here. That must be the subject of some future revelaThine arrows are sharp in the heart of the king's enemies;

tion. Let us learn carefully what that is, which the Whereby the people fall under thee. Thy throne,

o God, is for ever and ever:—the sceptre of thy Spirit really unfolds, in each successive passage. kingdom is a right sceptre.

Psalm lxvii. points forward to a day, when God's Thou lovest righteousness, and hatest wickedness :

'ways shall be known on earth, and his saving health Therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee—with the oil of among all nations." It is added : gladness above thy fellows.

“ Then shall the earth yield her increase ;-and God, even What wondrous speech is this! The future king, of our own God, shall bless us. whom so many wondrous things have been predicted God shall bless us;- and all the ends of the earth shall fear already, is here addressed as being GOD. And that in him. no such style, as elsewhere it was said to some : Israel's own God shall bless them; but all the ends of “I have said, ye are Gods; and all of you are children of the earth, also, shall know his saving health. the Most High; but, ye shall die like men."

Psalm lxxii. enters, as is well known, at great length The strain here is unqualified, and absolute: “Thy into the same wondrous theme. There shall arise a throne, O God, is for ever and ever.” This is spoken king, whose dominion shall be from sea to sea, and from to the King. Yet, it is immediately added, God, thy the river unto the ends of the earth; they that dwell God hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness.” in the wilderness shall bow before him, and his enemies Who can explain this mystery? Faith must wait. shall lick the dust. Yea, all kings shall fall down Not unto themselves did they minister those things.” before him, all nations shall serve him. He shall be But ponder well the glory with which this Psalm is feared as long as the sun and the moon endure; throughfilled. Yet further, there is a bride presented to this out all generations. His gentle sway shall be like rain potentate, in this Psalm :

upon the mown grass; and as showers that water the "Hearken, O daughter, and consider, and incline thine ear;

earth. Again and again, and yet repeatedly again, it is Forget also thine own people, and thy father's house; declared that, in that day, the poor, the needy, the disSo shall the king greatly desire thy beauty :

tressed, and him that had no helper previously, shall be For he is thy Lord; and worship thou him."

cared for, rescued, relieved, and blessed. Yea, all men This must be the daughter of Zion. She is not com- shall be blessed in Him, all nations shall call him posed of both Jew and Gentile, as the church is. She blessed. The whole earth shall be filled with his glory. has one people and one parentage naturally: The Gen- The Jehovah Elohim, the Elohim of Israel, shall effect tile is "there with a gift” (verse 12); but is not part of this wondrous revolution. David's heart was full; his the bride. It is an earthly, though so glorious a scene. utmost wishes satisfied. Yea, it was beyond all that he The Psalmist thus concludes :

could have asked or thought. His repeated " Amen" “I will make thy name to be remembered in all generations: closes the strain; and we are merely informed, in the Therefore shall the people praise thee for ever and ever.”

concluding verse that, The Psalm which follows is exceedingly majestic:

“The prayers of David the son of Jesse are ended.” “God is our refuge and strength,—a very present help in David's full heart was relieved; his ready utterance in trouble.

recorded; his uttermost desire expressed. David, himThere is a river, the staeams whereof shall make glad the self, had nothing beyond this to say. city of God,

Psalm xcvi. concludes its lofty course of worship and The holy place of the tabernacles of the Most High. prediction in the following strain: God is in the midst of her;-she shall not be moved : God shall help her, and that right early.

“Let the heavens rejoice, and let the earth be glad;—let the The heathen raged, the kingdoms were moved :—he uttered

sea roar, and the fulness thereof. his voice, the earth melted.

Let the field be joyful, and all that is therein : The Lord of hosts is with us;—the God of Jacob is our

Then shall all the trees of the wood rejoice before the Lord:

For he cometh, for he cometh to judge the earth: refuge. Selah. Come, behold the works of the Lord,—what desolations he

He shall judge the world with righteousness,-and the people hath made in the earth.

with his truth." He maketh wars to cease unto the end of the earth; Psalm xcviii. concludes almost precisely in the same

words. Jehovah will come to rule the earth : “he Be still, and know that I am God:

There is intimation of a new I will be exalted among the heathen,—I will be exalted in the cometh," "he cometh.”

mode of manifestation of his presence. He shall be earth." Ps. xlvi. The same splendour of prophetic intimation of a

present as he was not previously. Thus much is plainly glorious future, prevails here also. But there is an

predicted. Still faith must wait, and expectation be

held in suspense. additional feature in this Psalm. “The city of God”

Psalm cii., however, seems to shed some further the “place of the tabernacles of the Most High,” filled with his glory, is his special abode. This is mani- light, even upon this coming of Jehovah. festly David's own city, Jerusalem. Yet this scene of

“Thou shalt arise, and have mercy upon Zion: blessedness is to be realized only, when, at some future

For the time to favour her, yea, the set time is come

For thy servants take pleasure in her stones,-and favour the period, Jehovah shall have “made wars to cease to the dust thereof. end of the earth,” and thus be “exalted among the So the heathen shall fear the nar of the Lord,-and all the heathen," or Gentiles; as well as in His own chosen kings of the earth thy glory." city. There is no intimation of any heavenly Jerusalem, Such is the theme of the Psalm. But it is added,

their beds.

When the Lord shall build up Zion,—he shall appear in his book of Psalms. The spirit of thanksgiving prevails, glory."

more and more, as the volume draws to its close. The It is surely Zion the earthly-Israel's actual, literal, concluding Psalms are but one vast, majestic Hallelujah metropolis, that is here spoken of. No heavenly Zion chorus. Yet the character of righteousness is still mainwas revealed to the saints of that day. The heavenly tained ; and the future day of equity set forth. church was an unrevealed mystery then, Eph. iii. 1–10. “Let the saints be joyful in glory;- let them sing aloud upon Let this be pondered well. The hearenly Zion shall have been built up to completion before the Lord appears

Let the high praises of God be in their mouth,- and a two

edged sword in their hand; in glory. But here is a Zion which shall be raised up

To execute vengeance upon the heathen,- and punishments from its state of ruined stones and dust, when the Lord upon the people; shall appear in his glory. This shall be the time, too, To bind their kings with chains,- and their nobles with

fetters of iron; when the heathen nations, also, shall learn to fear Jehovah's name. There shall be an “appearing in

To execute upon them the judgment written:— this honour

have all his saints. Praise ye the LORD.” (Ps. cxlix. 5—9.) glory” when

Jerusalem shall be rebuilt unto the Lord, Only hallelujahs follow. and the Gentiles converted to him. Further revelation, however, must declare what this “appearing in glory" Psalms. The fuller and yet more specific revelations

Such is the prophetic testimony of the Book of may signify. One other Psalm only will we cite.

given by Isaiah, may properly engage our attention in

our next. “ The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.

THE LANGUAGES OF THE BIBLE. The Lord shall send the rod of thy strength out of Zion: We propose to devote a portion of our pages, to the Rule thou in the midst of thine enemies.

consideration of such subjects as may help our readers The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent,

in the study of the sacred volume. Very often it is Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek. found that there are expressions in the Scriptures hard The Lord at thy right hand shall strike through kings in the to be understood, simply because we may be in day of his wrath.

ignorance of some customs and peculiarities alluded to. He shall judge among the heathen,” &c. (Ps. cx. 1-6.)

And the books in which these difficulties are explained, The future king must first be exalted to Jehovah's are too long and too expensive for the great mass of own right hand. Will it be from thence that he will readers of the Bible. Or, it may be, that a man's come when he appears in glory? Without any further other vocations leave him but little time to learn the revelation, the thought is already rendered probable. languages in which the scriptures were written. And, But what increasing wonders crowd upon us! What, while we may be satisfied that no part of God's will is or what manner of time, may this mysterious spirit of really hard for those who are only seeking the burden prediction signify? How earnestly to be desired is of the message which declares the will; yet we have further light! What unimagined events await the no right wilfully to neglect any part of that message. future day!

We may save well-meaning Christians from those sad Yet one further intimation also is, for the first time, displays of zealous ignorance, which occasionally bring vouchsafed in this Psalm. The future king shall be scandal upon Christianity itself, if we give them an a Priest ; “Thou art a priest for ever, after the order intelligible account of many things connected with the of Melchizedek.” A further theme of wonder now Bible—such as the different languages in which the presents itself. Light dawns upon yet another topic Bible has been written; the distinction between the for earnest contemplation. Blessed ray of peaceful canonical and the apocryphal books; the most famous hope! Here is priesthood too, eternal priesthood. A translations that have been made; the manners and priest is one who is ordained to offer sacrifices for the customs, the history and the geography referred to; guilty. The institutions of Israel's economy had put and the way in which our English Bible has reached us. this beyond question already. And what a priest ! These and similar topics we shall treat in a succession The great future potentate shall exercise the mediatorial of papers. We begin with "The Languages of the office! Blessed door of hope! But for whom shall he Bible.' act? What victim shall he immolate ? With what It may be necessary to premise that learned men successWhat, or what manner of time, does this divide the whole number of languages that are, or ever spirit of prediction signify? How earnestly is further have been, spoken, into several chief families. Of light to be desired. How does the burthened, affrighted these by far the most important are— First, the Indoconscience of a law-condemned one yearn after certainty! Germanic family, including Sanscrit, Greek, Latin, and “Those bulls and goats—can they take hence my German, with nearly all European tongues. And heary load?” They shadowed forth something reme- secondly, the Shemitic, including Arabic, Hebrew, and dial. What can that something be? Still mystery Aramaic or Syriac. enshrouds; still faith must wait. “Not unto them- Of this latter family, the Arabic has been the most selves," did those prophets“ minister those things." cultivated; and, being the language in which the

But there had been revealed abundant matter for Koran is written, is known to Mussulmen all over the triumphant worship. “Hallelujah! hallelujah!” world. Such is the grand bürthen of the closing portion of the The Hebrew, called the sacred tongue, because in it nearly all the Old Testament is written, seems to have The language that took its place was much more been spoken in a comparatively small district; perhaps widely spread : it is called Syrian in the English only in Palestine, Phænicia, and the immediate neigh- translation of the Bible, as at 2 Kings xviii. 26. Dan. bourhood. It is called Hebrew, because it was the ü. 4. But it is usual now to call it Aramaic, since language of the people of that name; and they appear Aram is the real biblical word for Syria, and seems to to have been so designated, from Heber; who being have designated the country North and East of the the last patriarch, before the dispersion from Babel, Euphrates, from which Abraham had originally emimust have possessed an authority (as speaking to an grated, and where afterwards arose that fierce and undivided people) which no succeeding patriarch could conquering race which founded Nineveh and Babylon. have had.

It used to be called Chaldee, but erroneously; as the The term Hebrew language does not, however, occur only place, where the tongue of the Chaldeans is in the Old Testament. There it is called the language mentioned, is at Dan. i. 4: and there it manifestly of the Jews, as at 2 Kings xviii. 26, or the lip of Canaan, means a language peculiar to a priestly caste at Babylon, as at Isaiah xix. 8.

not to the whole people. Most probably this was the language of Canaan, At the time of our Lord, this was the native before Abraham came into it. For we observe that his language of Palestine; and occurs in our Testaments, relatives on the other side of the Euphrates spoke in the words Ephphatha, Talitha Cumi, Eli Eli lama another tongue (Gen. xxxi. 47,) and in the narrative Sabacthani, &c. This was also the language of the of the intercourse between the Hebrews and the people inscription on the cross, and of St. Paul's speech as of the land, there is no allusion to any difference of recorded at Acts xxi. Although in both these inspeech. Then again, the names of places in Canaan, stances the Hebrew is mentioned, there is no doubt from the very earliest times, have all a meaning in that it is the modern, not the ancient, language that is Hebrew but not in any other language ; and in the few meant. existing records of the dialect of the idolatrous part of In it are also written those parts of the Old Testathe land, as in the Phænician, on coins discovered at ment, which are not in Hebrew: viz. Daniel ii. 4, to Tyre, and Malta; and in the daughter of the Phænician, vii. 28; and Ezra iv. 8, to vi. 18; and vii. 12—26. namely the Punic or Carthaginian, preserved in a Also the ancient Chaldee paraphrases on the Bible, and Latin comedy of Plautus (Pænulus v. 1, 2), we find a the Talmud. And to the present day it is the sacred form of speech identical with the Hebrew. And lastly, language of the Nestorians and Syrian Christians; even and very convincingly, as showing that the Hebrew was of those on the Malabar coast of India. indigenous to a country placed like Palestine, the same The only other language that remains to be noticed, word is used to denote both Sea and West

is the Greek, in which, the whole of the New Testament In this language, the whole of the Old Testament is written: a peculiar dialect of which prevailed in is written, with the exception of parts of the Books Western Asia and Egypt, in consequence of the conof Ezra and Daniel. And it is remarked how little quests of Alexander the Great. Its chief locality was change the language underwent during the thousand Alexandria, where the first Ptolemies had transplanted years over which the composition of the book extended. most of the arts and sciences which used to flourish This is due to the natural inflexibility of the language before in Athens. This dialect is therefore called itself; the isolation of the people from he rest of the Alexandrian Greek, and is distinguished from the world; the influence of the Pentateuch in fixing it; language of the classics, by having engrafted on it, and the general belief in its sacredness. For these many Hebrew and other Oriental modes of expression; reasons, the language of Moses is substantially the same no doubt partly in consequence of the great numbers of as that of Malachi, in spite of some antique phrases Jews, who, from an early period, dwelt in Alexandria. in the former, and the gradually increasing admixture Even in Palestine, although Hebrew retained its of Syrian with all the writers that succeeded Isaiah. place as the sacred language, and Syrian or Aramaic

The Hebrew died out, as a spoken language, at, or was spoken in the country parts, there is every probasoon after the Babylonish captivity, and was replaced bility that Greek was the ordinary speech of intercourse; by the Syrian or Aramaic, which was the language of and that it stood in the same relation to the native their conquerors, the Assyrians and Babylonians. This Aramaic, that English does to Welsh in Wales at the was the language in which Eliakim begged Rab-shakeh present day. to speak to the people in Jerusalem, because they did In this Alexandrian Greek is written the whole of not understand it, as the chiefs themselves did. It the New Testament; the ancient Septuagint translaseems clear therefore that the language of Syria began tion of the Old; and the works of Josephus and Philo. to penetrate Israel after this time; and, when the Jews As it was the common language of the Eastern part of remained for two generations in Babylon, they must the Roman Empire, it became necessarily the common have lost, nearly, if not entirely, all recollection of language of all early Christians, who for some years their former speech. For Ezra seems to have interpreted were confined to that part of the world. And even the words of the Law to them, on their return. (Neh. when Christianity had reached Rome and the West, vič. 8.) While yet from the fact of Zechariah, Haggai, there is evidence that Greek (aud not Latin, as might and Malachi, continuing to write in Hebrew, we may have been supposed) was, for a long time, the eccleconclude it had not quite disappeared; as we know it siastical tongue. had a little later at the time of Alexander's conquests. It is a matter of discussion whether our Lord and


his Apostles spoke Greek or Aramaic; and it does not of Israel that most generally embraced the Gospel, and seem possible to pronounce a decided verdict on the carried it into distant lands, away from its original question. It is likely enough that all the people of cradle in Judea and Galilee.

W. H. J. Palestine, except the most retired or the most ignorant, understood and used, both forms of speech. Hence the threefold inscription on the cross. In Aramaic and

Correspondence. Greek for the people: just as public documents in Wales might be in Welsh and English :--and in Latin, because that was the official language of Pontius Pilate, Sir, I shall consider your column of Jewish Intelligence and the government servants.

as one which adds greatly to the interest and to the value of From the fact of some few Aramaic words of our your new periodical. Lord being preserved, we might conclude that he did Only let the information be thoroughly Jewish- let it not always speak in that tongue; and it must have shew what the nation, what those who are still Jews in rebeen observed that when St. Paul addresses the people ligion, are thinking, and purposing, and doing, as well as from the castle stairs in Hebrew (i.e. in Aramaic), they what is done by christians on their behalf. Do not confine were pleased by this mark of respect to their native the sphere of information to the latter. tongue; and had expected that he would rather speak

May I ask for a correct and definite account of the purGreek, which they understood equally well. On the pose, and the results of the late mission to Palestine of Sir

Moses Montefiore and the chief Rabbi, S. Adler? I have other hand the question of the chief captain, “ Canst seen particular reports of this in the

papers, but only partial thou speak Greek?” would seem to have originated the and very general and vague ones. Is it too late to lay such second question, “Art thou not that Egyptian ?" as an account before your readers? Greek was certainly the language of Egypt at that Can you furnish from time to time the Spirit of the time; and therefore the chief captain supposed he was Jewish Press? I think that is the sort of title frequently not an inhabitant of Palestine.

adopted in such cases in the journals of the day. At any rate, there was certainly a distinction between

I am, Sir, yours obediently,

AN OBSERVER OF THE FIG TREE. Greek-speaking Jews, and others. For we notice in the Acts of the Apostles (chap. vi. &c.,) that some are called Hebrews and some Grecians. There is a difference of opinion as to whether the distinction consisted

People and Land of Israel. in the speech they used; or in the version of the Bible that they read. For while the Jews of Palestine, and THE CONDITION OF THE JEWS IN PALESTINE. eastward of that country, constantly used the original It affords us much satisfaction to comply with the wish of Hebrew Scriptures, only rendered into Aramaic at the one of the friends of Israel, by presenting some information

as to the condition of the Jews in Palestine. very moment they were read; the Jews of Alexandria, and generally in the countries west of the Holy Land, and definite account of the purpose and the results of the

The correspondent to whom we refer, desires a correct seem not to have known the Hebrew, even in the late mission to Palestine of Sir Moses Montefiore, and as synagogues, and to have used only the Greek Septua- many of our readers may not have noticed the very general gint translation.

and vague accounts respecting that benevolent mission, As Greek was the tongue of their Syrian oppressors which appeared at the time in some of the newspapers, we in the time of the Maccabees, the Rabbis looked upon November to L' Univers Isralite, by a Jewish resident in

avail ourselves of a faithful record communicated last it with aversion, as being especially a profane tongue, fit only for entirely worldly business, but never to be Jerusalem, who had the opportunity of witnessing the opeintruded into the synagogue. This feeling was aggra- men by whom they were accompanied, Dr. Loewe, Director

rations of Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, and the gentlevated by the fact that the Jews of Alexandria, where of the Israelite College in England; M. Haïm Guedella, chiefly Greek-speaking Jews abounded, - had not only who had founded in Jerusalem a Talmudical School and a a translation of the Scriptures, which, they advanced Library; and M. Gerson Kurshedt, of New Orleans, testaalmost to the same rank as the original : but even a mentary executor of the late Judah Touro. temple of their own, which in some respects was per

This third visit of Sir Moses Montefiore and his friends mitted to rival the holy building in Jerusalem.

to Palestine was made, like the preceding, in consequence But, anyhow, Greek was the current language of the of the great distress endured by the Jewish population in

Jerusalemn and other parts of Palestine, and, like them, with world at the time of the appearance of Christianity :

a view not merely to afford temporary relief, but also to the language with which a man might travel from end assist those industrial occupations by which the people

might to end of the Roman Empire. And there appears a be saved in future from the misery to which they were exspecial providence in the circumstance that the Gospel posed in times of scarcity. It was also designed to establish was sent forth at the very time when there was thus a various educational, benevolent, and religious institutions. universal language, in which to convey it. It was

The writer of the communications to wbich we have renecessary to the free circulation of the message, that ferred, observes, that there are at present in Palestine it should be written in the speech of the Empire, not in many hundred Israelites occupied in agriculture, to whom some local dialect , And the Grecians or Hellenists, perfect protection is given by the government and the

various local authorities. There is established at Jerusathough despised by the Palestine Jews, appear certainly, lem a school for young females, the organization of which by means both of their more common tongue, and also would not suffer by comparison with any similar institution of their greater enlightenment, to have been the part in Paris. The foundation stone has been laid of an hospital


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