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Thus, the argument in connexion with these three There is the full, clear, express declaration of vicarious propositions entirely fails. For it does not follow that expiation. It is the first formal revelation of the wonwhen Christ and the church appear in glory, the work drous fact, that a certain one from amongst the sons of of salvation will terminate. Nor is it Scriptural, nor men—a sinles: man-should be the victim of atonement even logical, to assert that none will be saved when the between Jehovah and his people. Who this sinless one New Testament “sealing ordinances” disappear; for should be is not revealed; but the fact that such an beyond doubt many were saved before these ordinances one should suffer is announced with the utmost definiteappeared. All the objects of the Scripture will not be ness. Would that we might quote the chapter, as a exhausted, because the special design of this dispensation whole. But who knows it not? Who that has ever is accomplished. Finally, Christ will still be Priest, known the sinfulness of sin, has not turned hopefully and the Spirit be more than ever poured out after and with comfort to this wondrous prophecy! the completion of the church, and of this age. In Grounded on this announcement of atonement and every part, therefore, Dr. B. is singularly and hope- justification, by the sufferings of one for all, we have in lessly astray ; and some of his arguments go far to Chapter 55, an invitation full of evangelical light and strengthen the system which he desires to oppose and grace. There are living waters, wine and milk, offered overthrow, in particular the peculiarity of the church without money and without price. The future day of and present dispensation, and a millennium governed judgment is not the sole topic which is connected with by different principles, and characterized by mercies of the introduction of the better age. It is, alas, very another order.
solemnly prominent; but grace, and penitence, and conversion are all to be vouchsafed. An "everlasting
covenant” is to be made with Jehovah's people; "even Original Contributions.
the sure mercies of David.” The term of that cove
nant is, “Incline your ear, and come unto me; hear, THE DAWNING LIGHT OF PROPHECY.– No. IV. and your soul shall live.” There is more than the mere THERE are several special portions of the grand course dawn of prophetic light here also. of prophecy comprised in chapters 40 to 66 of Isaiah, We have already before us, indeed, almost every which, though we cannot quote them, we must at least element of prophetic light, concerning the Messiah in point attention to, in a glance, however brief, at the his future earthly relationship. Heavenly things redawning light of prohpecy.
mained a mystery still; but very full revelation is The marvellous tenderness, and the persevering and afforded in the remaining prophetic books of the Old sovereign grace, by which Israel shall yet be converted Testament, as to the earthly things of the future king. and won back to Jehovah-hardened, degraded, cold, dom. and insensate as the Jew has notoriously become, dur- JEREMIAH presents formally the making of a new coing so many dreary ages of dispersion and unbelief-venant with the house of Judah and Israel, in connexion are features of this vast course of prophetic dealing, with full and solemn announcements of most of the which must not be overlooked. How does Jehovah, in grand events already seen in previous scriptures. See these chapters, seek to gain the ear, to soften the heart, for example chapters 30 and 3i. to comfort the spirit, to win the confidence of this des- EZEKIEL sets forth the departure of the glory from its pised and down-trodden people! Let chapters 40, 44, earthly habitation, and then its future return; shewing 45, 48, 49, 54 and 55, be read with this thought in the actings of a grand confederacy, of eastern nations view. The burthen is this :
chiefly, against the land and nation of Israel, at the " For a small moment have I forsaken thee;
period when the people shall have returned and settled But with great mercies will I gather thee.
in the land. This confederacy is quite distinct from In a little wrath I hid my face from thee for a moment; that western one, which, under Antichrist, shall seize But with everlasting kindness will I have mercy on thee; Saith the Lord thy Redeemer.
upon Jerusalem, and for a time oppress the Jews. This For this is as the waters of Noah unto me:
one, of Gog and Magog, will transpire somewhat later For as I have sworn that the waters of Noah should no more than that of Antichrist. Composed of Magog, Rosh, go over the earth;
Meshech and Tubal, and apparently of the remains of So have I sworn that I would not be wroth with thee, nor the nations, which at the first are headed by Antichrist, For the mountains shall depart, - and the hills be removed ; land, has been enjoyed by the nation.
it assaults the nd, after a season of quiet repose in the But my kindness shall not depart from thee,
It seems to be a Neither shall the covenant of my peace be removed, Russian aggression that is here predicted. It is judged Saith the Lord that hath mercy on thee."
of God, and then all the earth is quiet, and all commoWell, Gentile reader, this Jehovah of the Jew will tions at an end. As to the glory, see Ezekiel xi. 23, have mercy upon the Gentile also. In the full light of and xlii. 1 to 7; and respecting the confederacy, see subsequent revelations, there is hope, yea, full assurance, chapters 37 to 39. both of faith, hope, and understanding, even for the DANIEL reveals the great facts of the times of the Gentile dog that approaches Jehovah in the way of his Gentiles. Four empires should successively rule over own provision.
and oppress the rebellious nation of the Jews. Yet but See how that way is set forth even in this prophecy one grand idea is seen throughout the course of all of Isaiah. There is more than merely dawning light these empires. It is man's unity of power, having its thereon, afforded in the well-known 53rd chapter. rise from Babylon, in opposition to God's unity, which must have its seat at Jerusalem. Thus all Gentile unity, upon his throne.” “And the counsel of peace shall be whether secular or ecclesiastical, is Babylon. And both between them both.” The King shall be enabled to Babylon literal and secular, and Babylon mystical and enter into a counsel of peace, even with the wayward ecclesiastical, will perish beneath the manifestation of Jew, through the medium of his own priesthood. To exMessiah's power, in the future day. The stone shall ercise mercy, there must be priesthood. Yet the potengrind to powder the image; not convert it. The tate might have reigned without shewing mercy; and judgment shall sit, and the beast, with its sovereign so consequently without any mediation. Mediatorship horn, shall be cast into the lake of fire. The heavens was not essential to the sovereignty of the Son of man. shall rule. The kingdom, i.e., the reign, of heaven In order to the exercise of grace, it was necessary; but shall be set up. See Daniel chapters 2, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12. not in order to the exercise of righteous sovereignty.
In Hosea, is the Scripture apparently referred to by Whence, then, the notion of a "mediatorial reign"? the Lord, in the words which were so startling to the There is mediatorial priesthood, and there is gracious disciples : “The Son of man goeth as it is written of sovereignty as the result. But the two, though united him." Thus in chap. v. 15, we have the emphatic in one person, are distinct thoughts, pertaining to offices declaration, "I will go and return to my place, till they perfectly distinct in nature. The one may exist, nay, acknowledge their offence : in their affliction they will does exist, without the other. The priesthood is exerseek me early." How exactly was this fulfilled, after cised now, not the sovereignty. The king indeed is the Lord had uttered the solemn resolution : “ Your born, and his title to the throne committed to his house is left unto you desolate, for verily I say unto hands; but he has not ascended his throne as yet; not you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, “taken to himself” the actual exercise of the royal Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.” power. “Mediatorial reign,” then, is simply confusion.
JOEL presents, amidst much else that is important, There is no mediatorial reign. There is mediatorial the “great and terrible day of the Lord.” It shall priesthood, and there is to be delegated sovereignty; transpire “in those days, and in that time, when Jeho- sovereignty committed by God to the hands of the son vah shall bring again the captivity of Judah and Jeru- of man, even a millennial sway. But a “mediatorial salem.” Mark this well. Then shall be the treading reign,” we repeat it, is simply nonsense. A gracious of the winepress, and then also the harrest. This helps reign will result from mediation, but there is all the to a right decision as to the same event in Matt. xiii.; difference of cause and effect between them. as also that in Rev. xiv. The harvest is not the end of In this prophetic book we have, also, one of the most the globe, but merely of the particular era which is solemn pictures of the great day of Jehovah's interconcluded by it. See Joel iii.
ference. ZEPHANIAH furnishes a complete reply to any ques. “Behold, the day of the Lord cometh, tion respecting the kind of circumstances which shall And thy spoil shall be divided in the midst of thee. be introductory of the reign of the Messiah. Mark the For I will gather all nations against Jerusalem to battle; word "then" in its connexion, in the following passage:
And the city shall be taken, — and the houses rifled, and the
women ravished; “ Therefore wait ye upon me, saith the Lord,
And half of the city shall go forth into captivity, Until the day that I rise up to the prey;
And the residue of the people shall not be cut off from the For my determination is to gather the nations,—that I may city. assemble the kingdoms,
Then shall the Lord go forth, To pour upon them mine indignation, even all my fierce anger; And fight against those nations,- as when he fought in the For all the earth shall be devoured with the fire of my jealousy. day of battle.
For THEN will I turn to the people a pure language, And his feet shall stand in that day That they may all call upon the name of the Lord,—to serve Upon the mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem on the him with one consent."
And the mount of Olives sball cleave in the midst thereof There is no ambiguity here as to the how the latter
Toward the east and toward the west, - and there shall be & day shall be introduced. It shall be “then” — in
very great valley; connexion with the terrible crisis predicted : “THEN And half of the mountain shall remove toward the north, will I turn to the people a pure language, that they
and half of it toward the south. may all call upon the name of the Lord, to serve him
And ye shall flee to the valley of the mountains;
For the valley of the mountains shall reach unto Azal: with one consent."
Yea, ye shall flee, like as ye fed from before the earthquake ZECHARIAH, in the use of the type of Joshua, son of In the days of Uzziah king of Judah : Josedek, the high priest, seems to set forth one far And the Lord my God shall come, and all the saints with
thee." greater than he. “Thus speaketh the Lord of hosts, saying,
We give this as a specimen, once for all, of the grand Behold, the man whose name is The BRANCH;
crisis which must transpire around Jerusalem. In how And he shall grow up out of his place,—and he shall build many Scriptures is not this “ gathering of nations"
the temple of the Lord : Even he shall build the temple of the Lord ;- and he shall shall terminate ; not at its commencement. It is no past
predicted! It is, too, when the captivity of the Jews bear the glory, And shall sit and rule upon his throne;- and he shall be a
crisis that is here described. It is certainly future, priest upon his throne:
And it is when “the Lord God shall come, and all the And the counsel of peace shall be between them both.” saints with him." We know, by subsequent revelations,
How distinct and beautiful the truths enunciated that there will be a coming of Jehovah manifested here. This potentate shall be a priest also, “a priest in the flesh. Is not the coming here spoken of that same personal coming? This prophecy does not reveal the ing to the gift of the grace of God given unto me by the mode of the coming which is predicted. We could not effectual working of his power. Unto me, who am less from this Scripture only, determine it. But surely, in than the least of all saints, is this grace given, that I the light of subsequent predictions, we may be assured should preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable that it is none other than the second personal return of riches of Christ; and to make all men see, what is the the Lord Jesus that is here foretold.
fellowship of the mystery, which from the beginning of Malachi, too, furnishes testimony to the great events the world hath been hid in God, who created all things of the future; we can furnish one brief quotation by. Jesus Christ: to the intent that now unto the only :
principalities and powers in heavenly places might be
known, by the church, the manifold wisdom of God." For bebold, the day cometh, that shall burn as an oven; And all the proud, yea, and all that do wickedly
, shall be Now unto him that is able to do exceeding abundantly stubble :
above all that we ask or think, according to the power And the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the Lord that worketh in us, unto him be glory in the church by of hosts,
Christ Jesus, throughout all ages, world without end. That it shall leave them neither root nor branch.
Ꮎ. But unto you that fear my name Shall the Sun of righteousness arise with healing in his wings;
SOME ACCOUNT OF MANUSCRIPTS. And ye shall go forth, and grow up as calves of the stall. No doubt the most ancient writing material was stone. And ye shall tread down the wicked; for they shall be ashes This was the substance that most readily presented
under the soles of your feet In the day that I shall do this, saith the Lord of hosts.
itself, when men were rather anxious to preserve inde
structible records than to multiply copies. Probably Such is the tenor of the predictions of the Old Tes- the account of altars being built, and of a name being tament. The introduction, by a crisis of mingled mercy solemnly imposed upon them-- as when Laban and and judgment, of the universal reign of a king ap- Jacob parted in mount Gilead—may refer to the inpointed by Jehovah, is the grand feature of them all. scriptions then cut on the stone, which was to serve as But there is a mystery yet behind. This king is to a memorial. At any rate we have positive information have a hearenly bride, as well as earthly subjects. This that in the oldest known documents that were intended the Old Testament does not reveal. For this wondrous as books, viz., the commandments received by Moses thought we must proceed to the New. The church, from Jehovah, were engraved on stone. the body of the saints of the present interval, between No material could have been more durable. But it the departure and the return of the Lord Jesus—was was, at the same time, costly and cumbrous. There not the subject of Old Testament predictions. The are inscriptions in Egypt of a very hoar antiquity insaints of that past dispensation shall sit down in the deed, reaching up perhaps to the very dawn of human heavenly places of the future kingdom in the presence of postdiluvian history; but then they are on the tombs of the king as his friends, the “friends” of the bridegroom, kings, demanding a royal treasury for their execution, and they shall rejoice to see him take his bride ; but and a royal sepulchre for their place. Where stone was they shall not be of the bride. The saints of the future lacking, as in the plains of the Tigris and Euphrates, period shall be reigned over by the king, but they shall men were driven to adopt other expedients, and we not reign with him, as the bride shall. There are find at Nineveh and Babylon, no longer inscriptions spheres of glory; there are gradations in the kingdom. carved in rock, but impressions stamped in clay. The “heavenly things” were a subsequent revelation. From a very early period—we cannot say whenEarthly things shall be the portion of Israel, and the leather must have come into use, as making books at nations. Heavenly things, as well as royalty over least more portable than the stone or the clay. Nothing earthly things, are the portion of the bridegroom, of the was more likely to suggest itself; and in all probability bride, and of their “friends." “That in the dispensa- the rolls occasionally mentioned in the Bible were made tion of the fulness of times, he might gather together in of leather. Bark of trees is said to have served for one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and books; and it is affirmed that the Latin word Liber which are on earth, even in him.”
-whence we derive many words in our own language The day succeeds the dawn. The dawning light was originally this inner bark. Allied to this last was brightens into noon-day splendour. We direct atten- the better known and more widely-used papyrus, furtion onwards to that “completion" of the word of God nished by a kind of reed that is almost peculiar to the which was vouchsafed to the apostles, especially to Nile, and which certainly came into very early use. Paul. And we conclude these rery hasty sketches of a For, however fragile the papyrus books may appear, few leading features only, of God's progressive revela- there are some in the British Museum, to which is astion, in the words of that highly favoured apostle :- signed an age that reaches back to the time of the “Whereby, when ye read, ye may understand my Exodus. knowledge in the mystery of Christ'; which in other The export of papyrus seems to have formed a conages was not made known unto the sons of men, as it is siderable item in the trade of Egypt. And the now revealed unto his holy apostles and prophets by the Ptolemæan dynasty boasted of being at once the patrons Spirit; that the Gentiles should be fellow-heirs, and of of literature, and the owners of the most convenient the same body, and partakers of his promise in Christ material for writing. Papyrus was probably cheap by the gospel; whereof I was made a minister, accord- and readily obtained. But a new, a more expensive, and a far more valuable material had come to be known ment instead. Now also arose the custom of erasing a few generations before the Christian era, destined to what was written on old parchment, and of re-writing preserve some of the most precious documents of that something on it of more immediate interest. In this way, era. Without parchment, it may be questioned whether doubtless, many relics of antiquity have disappeared. the Scriptures would have come to us in the abundant While, from the imperfect manner in which the old quantity of copies that we possess. Probably on a less writing was sometimes effaced, it has occasionally been expensive sheet the same pains would not have been recorered. A manuscript thus restored, from under the taken to make those copies accurate.
second writing above it, is called a palimpsest, and a Abut the early half of the second century before codex rescriptus. There is, for instance, in the British Christ, when the Romans were engaged in contesting Museum, one of the oldest known manuscripts of the empire of Eastern Europe with the kings of Mace- Homer's poems thus resuscitated. Recently Carlinal donia, there arose out of the ruins of some of the larger Angelo Mai discovered in the Vatican Library of Rome fragments of Alexander's dominions, a small kingdom a lost treatise of Cicero de Republicâ, over which had in the north-west of Asia Minor, that owed much of been written a commentary of St. Augustin on the its fortune to the favour of the Romans, and perhaps Psalms. And one of the most precious existing MSS. for that reason incurred the suspicion and dislike of its of the New Testament is now in Paris, over which had neighbours. It was called the kingdom of Pergamos, been written the works of the Syrian father Ephraim. from the city of that name, afterwards immortalised as The want of something cheaper than parchment was the seat of one of the seven churches which the apostle soon met by the discovery of paper; which seems to addressed in the beginning of his apocalypse. A town have come gradually, and as it were imperceptibly, into still stands on or near the ancient site, preserving in use. There is no evidence that cotton paper was used the name of Bergamo the recollection of Pergamos. in Europe earlier than the 9;h century; while that
The kings who ruled there imitated the Ptolemies in made from linen was not known before the 12th. In patronising learning, and founding a library. They this case, as in many other European discoveries, the excited, in consequence, the jealousy of the Egyptian Chinese are said to have preceded us, though without sovereigns; one of whom, Ptolemy Epiphanes, about ever making their inventions very extensively useful. 190 B.C., in order to arrest the growth of a library that It must be also clearly recollected that the newly-disbade fair to rival that of Alexandria, prohibited the ex- covered material was supposed to be in the place of the portation of papyrus. Thereupon, the king of Perga- papyrus which was gone: as the name of the ancient mos, driven to his own resources, encouraged the inven- reed-made papyrus was quickly applied to the paper tion of a new writing material. And a peculiar made from the cotton or the linen. preparation of skins became known, called, from The quality of the material upon which any manuPergamos, Charta Pergamene, or parchment.
script may be written, goes of course a considerable way This is the story, which has been sometimes doubted. in determining its age. The parchment of one century But at any rate, it was in Pergamos that the parchment is not the same as that of another. Nothing written attained its greatest celebrity, and from that city it on cotton paper can be older than Charlemagne; and certainly took its name. Parchment, and its finer kind, nothing on linen paper, than William the Conqueror. vellum, have ever since retained the renown of uniting Moreover the quality of the material decided most una convenient form and surface with a tolerably imperish- erringly the kind of characters traced, and so gives us able nature. Nothing but the cost, ever prevented this a corroborating testimony to the age of a document. becoming the one material for books. The story of The characters of every branch of the three great papyrus being no longer exported from Egypt may be languages, Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, were all originally true. But if so, the prohibition could only have been much the same. Many of our own printed capital temporary; for papyrus was certainly used in Italy, letters approach most nearly to the oldest known types and without doubt, elsewhere also. At a later epoch, of the Phænician and the Greek alphabets. They were as we know from the discoveries at Pompeii and Her- generally hard, and composed of straight lines, indicating culaneum, and indeed down to the Arabian occupation that they had first been cut upon stone ; just as the of Egypt in the seventh century, papyrus still seems to cuneiform characters of Nineveh and Babylon are prehave been the ordinary substance for writing in most cisely such as would be stamped on clay with the blunt parts of Europe.
end of a style. The seizure of Egypt, however, by the Mahommedans, From the ancient Phænician type, two chief branches is said to have stopped the use of papyrus thenceforward divided : the ancient Greek and the ancient Hebrew for ever. It is not likely that it was known at any time character. The former are represented almost exactly afterwards. Soon there came in the dark ages, when by the capital Greek letters now in use; while the almost all records of the ancient civilization seemed latter have no living representatives, but are known by about to perish; and only the monasteries still pre-inscriptions on coins of the Maccabæan dynasties, and served some few valued treasures of literature. Parch- on the ruins of Palmyra : for the Greek small letters, ment became now the only material for writing, and, and the Hebrew square characters, are comparatively little as it was required, it rose in price: so that it was modern. considered a great possession. We are told of a certain All the ancient Greek manuscripts are therefore Gui,count of Nevers, presenting to the Chartreux of Paris, written only with the capital, or, as they are called, a service of plate, and of the monks asking for parch- the uncial letters; being those which would naturally be formed by any one writing carefully on a valuable gave up their own letters and adopted those of their parchment. But with the use of paper, a new letter masters. And so the square characters came to be became known, viz., what we call the small letter, or called Chaldean. The improbability and the basewhich is also called the cursive character. This small lessness of the story, never seem to have struck any Greek letter was absolutely unknown before the use of one. But as soon as it was discovered that the Babypaper was discovered. Therefore every manuscript so lonians never used this letter, the story was given written is certainly of a date posterior to the age of up. So likewise, when it is known that these square Charlemagne.
characters had no existence before what is also called That age was one of considerable activity, and of the Captivity-in that period when the Babylonian vigorous effort to escape from the gloom that was settling Jews were governed, under the Sassanians and the about Europe. One sign of that activity was the use Caliphs, by their own Prince of the Captivity- there of paper for the quicker and cheaper writing then de- can be little doubt that this period saw the invention manded. Whether from the use of a cheaper material, of the square characters; and that the story of the or because of the need of quickness, it is certain that adoption of them in the time of Ezra, really arose from men then began to write more rapidly and carelessly, and confounding together the first and the second captivities could no longer wait to form the careful uncial or capital at Babylon.
W. H. J. letter, but, by making them quickly, contracted them into the cursive or small characters, which bore about the same relation to the uncials as our hand-writing
People and Land of Ysrael. now does to our printing. And these small letters were not the well-formed elegant things turned out by our modern type foundries: they were irregular, and ugly,
JERUSALEM. and illegible, differing very much in different manu- A LETTER from Jerusalem of a recent date, in the scripts ; so that, even when they came to be printed, Augsburg Gazette, says :-it was some time before the printers made them other
" In digging out the foundations of a house which is being wise than had been exhibited in the scrawls of the 13th built in this city for the Austrian Catholic clergy, the workmen and 14th centuries. We have begun to make them discovered at a depth of about fifteen feet from the surface more regularly and carefully, and have eschewed all several subterranean rooms, the walls of which are of hewn those abominable contractions in which the early printers discovery is, however, a grotto cut out in the rock, and sup
stone, and the floor of mosaic. The most important part of the delighted. But still it ought to be borne in mind, as a ported by five columns. There are certain indications which fact not very generally known, that our small Greek lead to the belief that this grotto had served as a church for the letters, now printed, are really more carefully formed early Christians; but the grotto, it is supposed, was formed from the bad writing of the manuscripts just anterior before the advent of Christianity. Several capitals of Corin.
thian columns and fragments of antique marbles have also been to the discovery of printing; and that this bad writing found.
The Austrian, French, and Prussian consuls, accom. was only a hurried way of dashing through the uncial panied by the architect Endlicher, who is superintending the or capital letters, such as we see on the classical monu- building, have visited these subterranean galleries, and have ments, and in the parchment MSS.
had photographic drawings made. The Mussulman authoIn the case of the Hebrew letters, we have an en
rities throw no obstacles in the way of those archæological
researches," tirely new mode of proceeding. There are no Hebrew MSS. in existence older than the 10th century, that The Abbé J. H. Michon has just published a pamsame age which saw the discovery of paper and the use phlet entitled, “La Papauté à Jerusalem.” He thinks of small cursive letters. The only ancient monuments that the influence of modern ideas having produced no of the old Hebrew letter-such as the coins of the effect on the Administration of affairs at Rome, the Maccabees—a coin of Bar Cochab—and the inscriptions progressive element of the nation has become a forat Palmyra—are not the same as the present beautiful midable enemy to the stationary element of the Ponsquare Hebrew character.
tifical Government; that the old machine may, it is We are, therefore, irresistibly driven to the conclusion true, go on, well or ill, so long as it is aided by foreign that these elegant letters coine from the schools of diplomacy or foreign occupation; but that the moment Babylon and Tiberias, where the doctors of the post- these are withdrawn, the Papacy will be helplessly Christian dispersion so long congregated, and which exposed to revolution, and that the danger is imminent. were broken up about the 10th century—that is, about The solution of this question is not to be found, he the time of the oldest document in which these square thinks, in political, administrative, or civil reform, nor letters are found. They are precisely of the form which in the secularisation of clerical power. It is to be found pains-taking scrupulous men, like the masoretic doctors only in the abdication of temporal power. He is of of Babylon, would make out of the harder and more opinion that, in such a case, the capital of the spiritual irregular letters hitherto used. And, indeed, the rise Papacy could not be Rome. This power would lose in of these specimens of calligraphy is almost contemporary dignity, and would still suffer from political compliwith the rise of the ecclesiastical or black letter in cations. He believes that there is but one city in the Europe, in the more valuable MSS. which the hard-world which presents conditions indispensable to its working Monks painted, rather than wrote. Formerly independence and grandeur, and where a new era would there was a current opinion that the Jews at the arise for the mission of a true apostle; and that city is Babylonish captivity, in Daniel's and Ezra's time, Jerusalem!