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Thy husband he is dead; and, for his death,
Thy brothers are condemn'd, and dead by this:-
Look, Marcus! ah, son Lucius, look on her!
When I did name her brothers, then fresh tears
Stood on her cheeks; as doth the honey dew
Upon a gather'd lily almost wither'd.

MAR. Perchance, she weeps because they kill'd her husband:

Perchance, because she knows them innocent. TIT. If they did kill thy husband, then be joyful,

Because the law hath ta'en revenge on them.-
No, no, they would not do so foul a deed;
Witness the sorrow that their sister makes.-
Gentle Lavinia, let me kiss thy lips;
Or make some sign how I may do thee ease;
Shall thy good uncle, and thy brother Lucius,
And thou, and I, sit round about some fountain
Looking all downwards, to behold our cheeks
How they are stain'd; like meadows, yet not dry
With miry slime left on them by a flood?
And in the fountain shall we gaze so long,
Till the fresh taste be taken from that clearness,
And made a brine-pit with our bitter tears?
Or shall we cut away our hands, like thine?
Or shall we bite our tongues, and in dumb shows
Pass the remainder of our hateful days?

What shall we do? let us, that have our tongues,
Plot some device of further misery,

To make us wonder'd at in time to come.

LUC. Sweet father, cease your tears; for, at your grief,

'-like meadows,] Old copies-in meadows. Corrected by Mr. Rowe. MALONE.

See, how my wretched sister sobs and weeps.

MAR. Patience, dear niece :-good Titus, dry thine eyes.

TIT. Ah, Marcus, Marcus! brother, well I wot, Thy napkin cannot drink a tear of mine,

For thou, poor man, hast drown'd it with thine own. Luc. Ah, my Lavinia, I will wipe thy cheeks. TIT. Mark, Marcus, mark! I understand her

signs:

8

Had she a tongue to speak, now would she say
That to her brother which I said to thee;
His napkin, with his true tears all bewet,
Can do no service on her sorrowful cheeks.
O, what a sympathy of woe is this?
As far from help as limbo is from bliss!"

Enter AARON.

AAR. Titus Andronicus, my

lord the emperor

Sends thee this word,-That, if thou love thy sons,
Let Marcus, Lucius, or thyself old Titus,
Or any one of you, chop off your hand,
And send it to the king: he for the same,
Will send thee hither both thy sons alive;
And that shall be the ransome for their fault.
TIT. O, gracious emperor! O, gentle Aaron!
Did ever raven sing so like a lark,

— with his true tears-] Edition 1600 reads with her true tears. TODD.

9

as limbo is from bliss.] The Limbus patrum, as it was called, is a place that the schoolmen supposed to be in the neighbourhood of hell, where the souls of the patriarchs were detained, and those good men who died before our Saviour's resurrection. Milton gives the name of Limbo to his Paradise of Fools. REED.

That gives sweet tidings of the sun's uprise?
With all my heart, I'll send the emperor
My hand;

Good Aaron, wilt thou help to chop it off?

Luc. Stay, father; for that noble hand of thine,
That hath thrown down so many enemies,
Shall not be sent: my hand will serve the turn:
My youth can better spare my blood than you;
And therefore mine shall save my brothers' lives.
MAR. Which of your hands hath not defended
Rome,

And rear'd aloft the bloody battle-axe,
Writing destruction on the enemy's castle?1

1

Writing destruction on the enemy's castle?] Thus all the editions. But Mr. Theobald, after ridiculing the sagacity of the former editors at the expence of a great deal of aukward mirth, corrects it to casque; and this, he says, he'll stand by: And the Oxford editor, taking his security, will stand by it too. But what a slippery ground is critical confidence! Nothing could bid fairer for a right conjecture; yet 'tis all imaginary. A close helmet, which covered the whole head, was called a castle, and, I suppose, for that very reason. Don Quixote's barber, at least as good a critick as these editors, says (in Shelton's translation 1612): "I know what is a helmet, and what a morrion, and what a close castle, and other things touching warfare." Lib. IV. cap. xviii. And the original, celada de encaxe, has something of the same signification. Shakspeare uses the word again in Troilus and Cressida:

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"Stand fast, and wear a castle on thy head."

WARBURTON.

"Dr. Warburton's proof (says Mr. Heath,) rests wholly on two mistakes, one of a printer, the other of his own. In Shelton's Don Quixote the word close castle is an error of the press for a close casque, which is the exact interpretation of the Spanish original, celada de encaxe; this Dr. Warburton must have seen, if he had understood Spanish as well as he pretends. to do. For the primitive cara, from whence the word encaxe, is derived, signifies a box or coffer; but never a castle. His other proof is taken from this passage in Troilus and Cressida:

O, none of both but are of high desert :..
My hand hath been but idle; let it serve
To ransome my two nephews from their death;
Then have I kept it to a worthy end.

AAR. Nay, come agree, whose hand shall go

along,

For fear they die before their pardon come.
MAR. My hand shall

LUC.

go.

By heaven, it shall not go.

TIT. Sirs, strive no more; such wither'd herbs

as these

Are meet for plucking up, and therefore mine. LUC. Sweet father, if I shall be thought thy son,

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"Stand fast, and wear a castle on thy head."

Wherein Troilus doth not advise Diomede to wear a helmet on his head, for that would be poor indeed, as he always wore one in battle; but to guard his head with the most impenetrable armour, to shut it up even in a castle, if it were possible, or else his sword should reach it."

After all this reasoning, however, it appears, that a castle did actually signify a close helmet. See Grose's Treatise of Ancient Armour, p. 12, from whence it appears that castle may only be a corruption of the old French word-casquetel. Thus also, in Holinshed, Vol. II. p. 815: "Then suddenlie with great noise of trumpets entered sir Thomas Knevet in a castell of cole blacke, and over the castell was written, The dolorous castell; and so he and the earle of Essex, &c. ran their courses with the kyng," &c.

A remark, however, of my late friend Mr. Tyrwhitt, has taught me to suspect the validity of my quotation from Holinshed: for one of the knights in the tournament described, made his entry in a fountain, and another in a horse-litter. Sir Thomas Knevet therefore might have appeared in a building formed in imitation of a castle. STEEVENS.

The instance quoted does not appear to me to prove what it was adduced for; wooden castles having been sometimes introduced in ancient tournaments. The passage in the text is itself much more decisive. MALONE.

Let me redeem my brothers both from death... MAR. And for our father's sake, and mother's care,

Now let me show a brother's love to thee.
TIT. Agree between you; I will spare my hand.
Luc. Then I'll go fetch an axe.

MAR.

But I will use the axe.2 [Exeunt LUCIUS and MARCUS.

TIT. Come hither, Aaron; I'll deceive them

both;

Lend me thy hand, and I will give thee mine.
AAR. If that be call'd deceit, I will be honest,
And never, whilst I live, deceive men so:-
But I'll deceive you in another sort,

And that you'll say, ere half an hour can pass. [Aside. [He cuts off TITUS's Hand.

Enter LUCIUS and MARCUS.

TIT. Now, stay your strife; what shall be, is despatch'd.

Good Aaron, give his majesty my hand:
Tell him, it was a hand that warded him
From thousand dangers; bid him bury it;
More hath it merited, that let it have,
As for my sons, say, I account of them
As jewels purchas'd at an easy price;

And

yet dear too, because I bought mine own. AAR. I go, Andronicus: and for thy hand, Look by and by to have thy sons with thee:Their heads, I mean.-O, how this villainy [Aside.

2. But I will use the axe.] Metre requires us to read:

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