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A solar year,
managed, and the commencement of the lunar year so irregular (it beginning not at the time of the summer solstice but at the new moon succeeding it, or perhaps the nearest to it whether before or after) as to create great error in calculating seasons, 'or dates of natural events.
• Another reason of greater weight was, that the lunar year was not made use of in calculating such occurrences. Civil affairs, such as the celebration of festivals, the election of magiftrates, the payment of salaries, interest of money, and all civil contracts were indeed reckoned by the lunar year, but what regarded natural events, as the rise or setting of stars or constellations, the works of agriculture, the flowering of plants, and the geftation of animals, together with all transactions that regarded the laws of nations, as the duration of treaties, truces, &c. were reckoned by the solar year. or the term of 365 days, is also understood to be meant whenever the space of an entire year is mentioned or a series of years. It has been the opinion of some learned persons, that the solar year was divided, as well as the lunar, into twelve months, each of which commenced at the entrance of the sun into the several signs of the zodiac, and this is confirmed by some expressions of Geminus, and particularly by the calendar of that author above mentioned, which is actually divided in that manner, which division is preserved in the calendar here exhibited.
• The next piece that appears is a calendar of the same kind ad. jafted to the climate of Italy, and probably nearly to the latitude of Rome ; compiled from the ancient Roman writers, those especially that treat on the subject of agriculture. This, as well as the other, has a calendar of the weather joined with it, which is mostly, but not altogether, taken from Columella,
• I have in this calendar inferted such Passages from the ancient Roman poets as appeared to be peculiarly descriptive either of the general appearance of nature in several seasons in that country, or of any other natural events that occur at any particular time of the year. To this calendar are subjoined, an attempt towards a divifion of it into natural months, according to the plan proposed by Mr. Stillingfleet, and two small sketches of the seasons at Aleppo in Syria, and at Nice in Italy, the former extracted from Dr. Russel’s History of the first mentioned place, the latter from Dr. Smollett's Travels into Italy. To these are added a table of the time of wheat-harvest in different parts of Italy, taken from Dr. Symonds, on the Climate of Italy, and published in the fourth volume of Mr. Young's Annals of Agriculture, and a table of the foliation of trees in this country for several years, taken from the Gentleman's Magazine.—Next come some remarks on the leafing, flowering, &c. of some trees and plants in Italy, made in the years 1768, 1769, by Dr. Symonds, and taken, as well as the foregoing, from Mr. Young's Annals of Agriculture. Next follow some remains of antiquity, taken from Gruter's inscriptions, being two rustic calendars yet remaining engraven on stone at Rome. These are often referred to in the calendar I have given, and tend towards its illustration. The next article is a table of hours for every month in the year, taken from Palladius. 13
· The use of this is thought to have been to enable the labourer in the fields to guess at the time of the day, by measuring with his foot the proportion which the length of that bears to the length of the hadow of his own person. The rule on which this depends, will, in a grofs view, hold good in menl of different ftature, because, generally speaking, the length of a man's foot bears nearly the same proportion to his height whether he be tall or middle fized.
* As che proportion which the length of any upright gnomon bears to that of its ihadow at any certain hour, varies every day, a table is here given exhibiting the proportion which the gnomon and its shadow bear to one another, at a medium computation for each month. The above tables, it is clear, were adjusted to thow the unequal hours, or each szth part of the time between the rise and setting of the fun. Thus for example on the 21st of December, when the length of the foot was to that of the Madow of the body as I to 29, the peasant knew that t'i part of the space of time between the rise and setting of the fun had elapsed, which they denominated an hour, and this proportion of measurement served to denote the first hour of the day, at that season of the year. On the 21st of the month of June on the other hand, when the length of the foot bore a proportion to that of the fhadow of the person as 1 to 22, the peasant knew that is part of the space between sunrise and sunset was past, which was by him denominated the end of the first hour, notwithstanding the real space of time in each of the intervals which he called hours varied considerably, an hour in the month of December being to an hour in the month of June as nine to fifteen.—Next follows a table of the days on which the sun enters into the different signs of the zodiac according to the computation of different ages.- Next come some tables of the weather in different countries, according to both ancient and modern ac. counts, intended for the purpose of comparing them together. The last and the largest of these pieces is an alphabetical table of the Greek plants. This is divided into two parts. The former of these exhibits ist the Greek name of the plant and the author who mentions it, 2d the name assigned to the same by Caspar Bauhin in his Pinax and other works, 3d the corresponding name given by Linnæus in his Spec. Plantarum, 4th the modern English name where that could be found. The second part of this table exhibits the Linnæan names of the Greek plants placed in alphabetical order with the Greek names subjoined. The use of this is to enable the reader to discover if any particular plant, the Linnæan name of which is known, be one of those with which the Greeks were acquainted. -- An attempt of this kind, though sufficiently laboricus to the compiler, must be liable to much error and uncertainty ; but some indulgence may be hoped to be given to the first attempt of this kind, at least in our own country.
• An index to each of the calendars is added at the end of the work.'
The utility of such a colle&ion for the purposes of philosophy muft be evident: but it will be more peculiarly acceptable to those who unite the study of nature with that of the writings and customs of classical antiquity.
The History of two Cafes of Ulcerated Cancer of the Mamma; one of which has been cured, the other much relieved, by a new Method of applying Carbonic Acid Air ; illustrated by a Copperplate : with Observations. By John Ewart M. D. Bath.
8vo. pp. 62. is. 6d. Dilly. We have here proof of the spirit and of the success with which
elastic Auids are employed in desperate diteases in diffe. rent parts of the kingdom. The cases described in the present pamphlet are highly favourable to this practice, in a malady, of which no words can convey an idea sufficiently horrible. Of the accuracy of the facts, there seems no reasonable motive to doubt; especially as in one of the cases they are stated to have occurred in a hospital, and to have been witnessed both by the directors and several medical practitioners of Bath.
A circumftantial ftatement of the condition of the diseased breast is very properly prefixed to the account of the treatment in each case. The preceding circumstances, and the present condition of the ulcer, (cafe 1.) all concur in presenting the idea of cancer. “The length of the ulcer was almost five inches, and its breadth between three and four. Its greatest depth was about two inches; and from its lower end a.finus ran under the skin downwards, the size and extent of which, as well as the quantity of discharge from the sore, may be conceived from her being in the habit of pressing out of it several times a day from a table spoonful to two-thirds of a small teacupful of matter. The stench from the fore was at all times fo
offensive both to herself and to bystanders, as scarcely to be endured.' Other particulars are analogous ;--the axillary glands were never affected.
• The carbonic acid air, on its first application, occasioned a sensa. tion of coldness, which lasted for a few minutes, and was afterwards succeeded by a glowing warmth, which continued more than half an hour. The same sensations have been uniformly expressed by the patient, after each successive application of the air.
• The next morning she said he was easier, which was then afcribed to the usual propensity of people to be pleased with a new remedy. But greater confidence was given to her report, when, at the expira. tion of not more than three days, the surface of the fore appeared of a better colour, and the stench from it became less offensive. Each time the bladder was remo
hoved, which for some time was done twice a day, to evacuate the discharge from the fore, she was sensible of immediate pain on the admision of the atmospheric air ; and never failed to find ease very soon after the carbonic acid air was again applied."
By an unfortunate but inevitable accident, the experiment was embarrassed by the exhibition of ra of a grain of arsenic three times in a day; though, before this exhibition, not only the smell
from the fore was less fetid, but its surface shewed a disposition to granulate.
In somewhat less than three months, this was the fituation of things :
• No deep induration whatever is felt in the seat of the former fore, or in that part of the substance of the breast which was occupied by the finus; the whole of which bears handling and pressure without suffer ing the smallest uneasiness; but the skin formed by the cicatrix is some. what irregularly elevated and hardened. Some flight velications have at times risen upon it, extending no deeper than the epidermis, and apparently some remains of the ery sepelas which lately, affected her. They have now nearly vanished.
· The ulcer would in all probability have been healed sooner than it has been, if the finus had been laid open to its bottom; but I was unwilling to allow it to be touched by a knife, left more might have been attributed to it than its due; and the experiment was not necessary in the progreffive state of amendment of the fore.
. She was discharged on the 30th of September, with orders to return twice a day for some time to have freth gas applied, as the best defence of the newly-formed skin from any external injury'.
Of the second case, the symptoms were the most dreadful that can be imagined, and the patient appears to have been reduced nearly to the last extremity. She was sensible of almoft an immediate abatement of pain on the application of the air. In two days, the breast was quite easy; she enjoyed a better night than for some months; and she could soon move the arm of the af. iected side with more ease than formerly. The discharge, we are told, was gradually amended, and the ulcerated surface diminished.
- How far,' says the author, her recovery may proceed, I do not presume to conjecture. But it is no small recommendation of what has been applied, that it has kept a person in ease and comfort for two months, who for so great a length of time before had known only agony and torture; and who in the same interval has to a most fura prising degree recovered her general health.'
To his narrative Dr. Ewart has annexed some observations tending to establish the nature of the affection in these two cales; he also mentions some former attempts to relieve or cure various kinds of ulcers by carbonic acid air ; he then adds queries concerning its mode of operation; and he concludes with a recital of surgical cases to which the same practice may be applicable. There seems reason to expect that essential relief, in the moft excruciating and destructive surgical disorders, will be derived from carbonic acid air, and perhaps from other elastic fluids. Whether they will perform permanent cures time only can decide.
We have been informed that some doubts were started soon after the appearance of this pamphlet, as to the permanency or completeness of the cure in the first of the two cases : but we do not
understand that the pleasing account, given by Dr. Ewart, of perfect relief from pain and progreffive amendment, was at all questioned. The affair was too important to neglect opportunities of personal inquiry; and in December last we were credibly informed that there was no ulcer on the breast of the first patient; and that is above two months pofterior to the last date in the reports before us. The efficacy of the treatment will certainly not be suffered to rest on two cases. We should nevertheless be glad to receive a continuation of Dr. Ewart's history.
The method of applying the air is distinctly represented in an engraving. It is exceedingly remarkable that another philosopher followed the same method of keeping the same air in constant contact with a carcinomatous ulcer, with the same fuccess : yet his contrivance seems to have been as soon forgotten, or as little known, in this country, as if it had not existed. The philosopher to whom we allude is Mr. Magellan; and his method appears to have been well known to Foureroy, Morveau, and the French chemists. It consisted “in cutting away the bottom of a bladder so that it might furround the breast, and in fixing the edge to the skin by adhesive plaister applied round the bladder."He is said also to have cured an ulcerated cancer of the breast by keeping fixed air constantly applied in this manner.
ART. XIV. An Address to the Prime Minifier of the King of Corfica, on
the Subje&t of its late Union with the British Crown, developing the real Planners of the Measure, and demonstrating--that the Constitution, which was so graciously ratified in June laft, to his Majesty's Corsican Subjects, contains, in Principle, that very System of Representation, which has been so long and so unsuccessfully fought to be obtained by the People of Great Britain and Ireland, from a Parliamentary Reform. By a Barrister. 8vo. pp. 61. Is. 6d. Stewart.
1795. He general purport of this pamphlet is so clearly marked in
the title, that we need only examine the merits of the exsecution, and make some observations on such passages as strike
us either as praise-worthy or objectionable. In a work composed for the purpose of the wing that the constitution given to Corsica is precitely that which is thought too democratic or too dangerous to the British conftitution, to be allowed in this country, the reader will expect fevere attacks on Mr. Pitt; the minister who, while he refifts all plans of reform at home, yet, in concurrence with other statesmen, has advised his favereiga to accede to a constitution for the Corsicans, in the adminiftration of which an infinitely greater thare is given to those new subjects, than the people of England and Ireland possess in the administration of the conftitution of their respective countries. The author marks, in strong terms, the poli