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tion and discussion. Three of these effays were printed in The Bee; two more are now first published'; and the five appear here, in the Shape of appendices to the papers of Arcticus; which form the body of the work.

In the tract, collectively, we have a fund of information respecting this most valuable animal, which we had not conceived it poflible to have collected together at this time. We had no conception of sheep being, at this day, any where existing in a state of nature: but, true it appears to be that a Species of sheep is now found in the most pertect state of wildnefs : not in one particular state or region, but in different and diftant countries. This species, however, differs so widely from the sheep of England and of the south of Europe, that we cannot readily admit it as the one sole parent of sheep; as Dr. Pallas declares it to be. Nevertheless, we can easily conceive that the sheep of Shetland, the native sheep of Scotland, and of the northern kingdoms of the Continent, may be lineal descendants of what Dr. P. styles Ouis Fera, Siberian Argali, or Wild SHEEP; of which we have the following description by Areticus:

· I shall begin my paper with a general description of this animal, as it appears to be the parent of all our domestic varieties of theep, however changed by fervitude, climate, food, &c. in the hands of man; but it would swell this dissertation to a volume, to enter into its dissection, and all the other minutiæ of zoology, with my learned friend. The same observation is applicable to the inany physiological and anatomical inquiries with wbich his nutes are enriched, but which I have taken the liberty only to give an outline of, with the conclusions he draws from them; and even that I presume is fully as much as will fall into the plan of the society, or suit the bounds allotted to papers in the Bee; but the curious inquirer may have recourse for that species of information to Dr. Pallas's learned work, his Spicilegia Zoologica, fasciculus undecimus, printed ac Berlin in 1776.

• Dr. Pallas found the ovis fera, or wild sheep, in all its native vigour, boldness, and activity, inhabiting the vast chain of mountains which run through the centre of Asia to the eastern sea, and the branches which it sends off to Great Tartary, China, and the Indies.

« This wild animal which our learned naturalist declares to be the mufimon of Pliny, and the ophion of the Greeks, is called argali by the Siberians, which means wild sheep; and by the Ruflians kamennoi barann, or sheep of the rocks, from its ordinary place of abode.

" It delights in the bare rocks of the Afiatic chain just mentioned, where it is constantly found balking in the fun; but it avoids the woods of the mountains, and every other object that would intercept the direct rays of the glorious luminary.

• Its food is the Alpine plants and shrubs it finds amongst the rocks. The argali prefers a temperate climate, although he does not disdain that of Asiatic Siberia, as he there finds his favourite bare rocks, sunShine, and Alpine plants; nay it is even found in the cold eastern ex13

tremity tremity of Siberia and Kamtshatka, which plainly proves that nature has given a most extensive range to the sheep in a wild state, equal even to what she has given to man, the lord of the creation ; a fact that ought to make us now in believing the affertions hinted at in my introduction, which tend to prove the sheep a local animal; or at leait confined to certain latitudes, 10 poffess it in all its value *.

• The argali loves folitude, or posibly perfect liberty, and therefore flees the haunts of all-fubduing man; hence it gradually abandons a country in proportion as it becomes peopled, if no unsurmountable object obstructs its flight; insomuch that Dr. Pallas thinks that no. thing but the surrounding sea can account for the wild sheep being found in an inhabited ifland; as is sometimes the case.

• The ewe of the argali brings forth before the melting of the know. Her lamb resembles much a young kid; except that they have a large fat protuberance instead of horns, and that they are covered with a woolly hair frizzled and of a dark grey. There is no animal fo flay as the argali, which it is almost impossible to overtake on such ground as it keeps to. When pursued it does not run streight forward, but doubles and turns like a hare, at the same time that it scrambles up, and over the rocks with wonderful agility. In the same proportion that the adult argali is wild and untameable, the lamb is easy to tame when taken young, and fed first on milk, and afterwards' on fodder, like the domestic sheep, as has been found on numerous experiments made in the Rusian settlements in these parts.

• This animal formerly frequented the regions about the upper Irtish, and some other parts of Siberia, where it is no longer seen fince colonies have been settled in these countries. It is common in the Mongalian, Songarian, and Tartarian mountains, where it enjoys its favourite solitude or liberty. The argali is found likewise on the banks of the Lena, up as high as 60 degrees of north latitude ; and it propagates its species even in Kamtchatka, as noticed before. The doctor gives us a description of a young argali ram of that country, which he took from Steller's zoological manuscript, a naturalist who Tiad been sent in a former reign to explore the wilds of Siberia.

• The argali is also found in the mountains of Persia, of which variety we have a stuffed fkin in the museum of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, fent here by Gmelin, who travelled about the saine time with Pailas; and one of that last mentioned gentleman from Darria, of which he has given a general description whilst alive, to be seen at the end of this article; although he had not then fufficient leisure to be fo particular as he has been in the description of a female argali, (likewise translated in this article,) although not with all the minuteness of the doctor's zoological accuracy; for the reasons given above.

• * We learn from Bruce's Travels, or rather we have there a confirmation of what was known long ago, that the horse is a native of a very hot climate, and is found in his greatest beauty, activity, fire, &c. between the latitudes 20° and 36o; yet there is no part of the world where that noble animal is reared in greater perfection than in "Great Britain, where by crossing the breed, you have obrained all the qualities of the different races united into one.'

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... The same wild animal is also said to obtain in the Kuril islands in great fize and beauty.' • The subjects of Dr. Anderson's Appendices are, • Appendix Firs. On what are called varieties or different breeds of

domestic animals. • Appendix Second. On the effect of climate in altering the quality of

wool. • Parallel between wool, hair, &c. and vegetables. • Of the ir.fluence of heat or cold on the animal filament itself. • Of heat as producing a permanent variation of Aleece of the in

dividual sheep. • Of heat, as affecting the progeny of such sheep, as have been

subjected to its powerful influence. Appendix Third. Enquiries concerning the change produced on

animals by means of food and management. • Appendix Fourth. Catalogue of fur-bearing animals that might be

introduced into Britain. • Appendix Fifth. Directions for choosing theep and other wool

bearing animals so as to obtain the best individuals of each breed:' • The several subjects are treated with that close attention and nice discrimination which mark in legible characters, Dr. A.'s talent for scientific discussion.

We do not mean to speak of any man as perfect and infallible: but, when we find only a few imperfections, we consider a work as allied to excellency. In the tract before us, (we speak of the editor's own remarks,) we meet with few defects, indeed, which demand our attention : there is one, however, which requires notice.

Dr. Pallas accounts for the fatty substance about the tail, which characterizes a particular breed or species of Afiatic sheep, by the ' bitter faline pastures' on which they have been accustomed to feed. Dr. Anderson properly doubts the influence of saline pastures, but adds ; ' of the effects of bitter pastures on the growth of sheep, we can have little experience in Britain as few of these bitter plants abound in any of our fbeep-walks.” In North Britain they may not : but in England, and in nearly every part of it, they are most abundant. On commons of cooler moisture, the chamomile, the dwarf willow, &c. &c. are frequent: on the drier downs, and upland pastures, the wormwood, horehound, and gentian prevail; and, on the richer lands, the dandelion, hawkweeds, agrimony, and a variety of other bitter plants, are abundant. We are clearly of opinion, however, that neither the salt marshes with which this island

may be said to be environed, nor the bitter grasses of the higher grounds, have any effect in changing the form of theep.

On other opinions and hypotheles of Dr. Pallas, we could have said much, had not Dr. Anderson's remarks precluded us. They are such, we do not hesitate to say, as render his tract

highly

highly interesting to every man who enjoys his mutton, or experiences the comforts of warm clothing; and more especially to him who is concerned in the propagation and management of this most useful and profitable animal.

ART. X. A General View of the Fishery of Great Britain, drawn up

for the Confideration of the Undertakers of the North British Fishing, lately begun for promoting the general Utility of the Inhabitants and Empire at large. By the Rev. John Lanne Bu

chanan. 8vo. pp. 253. 55. Boards. Kay, &c. THIS is an irregular performance, requiring, some exertion

and perseverance to be rightly estimated. Superficial readers will probably throw it aside, as the effufion of disappointment, resentment, or a warped understanding : but, among much extraneous matter, thrown together in a strange manner, we find some valuable materials, which a more skilful workman would have readily formed into a goodly edifice. Mr. Lanne Buchanan, however, seems to be more the matter-offact-man than the author.

Conceiving the fileries of the British Coasts to be of the greatest importance to the lasting prosperity of the nation, we think it right to give the tract before us a more conspicuous place in our miscellany, than it would have merited as a literary performance,

As Mr. Buchanan paffed some years in the Hebrides in character of missionary *; made himself persona!ly acquainted with filhermen and the nature of filhing; and is hin self a subscriber to the fund of the British Fishing Society, established a few years ago; we consider him as entitled to attention,

The author's profefled object is to censure the managers of the society's affairs; and, though he may have been led, in some few instances, to a degree of rancour, yet he presses for. ward a host of facts, from which we apprehend it will be difficult for the directors to thield themselves. He sets out with the origin of former British filhing companies, points out the prudent steps which these.companies took to obtain the desired end, marks the causes which defeated their good intentions, and enumerates the advantages which have followed, notwithdtanding that the main object has invariably miscarried. He next inquires into the origin of the Dutch fisheries, dwells on - their careful mode of conducting their business,' and sums up the advantages and disadvantages arising to them from their • steady perseverance in carrying on the fisheries :' taking every opportunity, however, of abusing the Mynheers, as if they • See M. Rev. vol.xii. p. 1540 for his Travels in the Hebrides.

had

had been engaged in some private dispute about what might be called the Dutch Scotch fishery ; disgraceful enough, perhaps, to this nation, and redounding, in like proportion, to the Dutch commercial credit and political wisdom.

After having given an abstract of the act for incorporating the British Fishing Society, Mr. B. proceeds to thew that • the stations marked out by the managers are not the best for the purpose of extensive fishing'-' that the ablest and most experienced fishers are not to be found where the villages bave been erected' that the fish are elsewhere more numerous, and vastly fuperior in quality to the different kinds catched around the villages erected by the undertakers :' in short, that the inspectors of the proper fishing stations have been misled in their choice :' finally entering into what he calls a modest enquiry into the expenditure of the public money, and how far the managers acted from principles of sound policy: adding, however, to this finale, a conclusion and a postscript.

The charges of weight brought against the Company are, firft, that of mil-judgment in pitching on the scene of action, which ought to have been in the Hebrides, not on the main land of Scotland; and, secondly, that of beginning at the wrong end of their work, by expending the monies subscribed in erecting costly buildings, instead of laying it out in vessels and tackle to catch fish :

• It is granted, that store houses and some lesser houses for the active fishers are, as they formerly were,, absolutely necessary to begin with any probable degree of seeming success : but great costly buildings for Collectors, Comptrollers, and even large public-houses, might have been at first wanted, until the number of fishers were able to de. fray part of the expences, at least, to the Company by their sucess. ful fishing.'

Besides these palpable errors of the Company, Mr. B. points out some errors of Government; and, among the reft, the fol.. lowing; which, we think with him, deserve serious confideration, and call aloud for redress :'

• What added greatly to the hurt of the fishing trade in Scotland in these latter times, appears to have arisen from the regulations and heavy restrictions refpecting foreign and home made falt. These are particularly hurtful to the ides, without florehouses to supply them with salt in their neighbourhood; and the poor inhabitants or fishers are incapable of procuring it, from its extravagant price when fold by merchants, and its immerse distance to purchase that article at first hand, where it may be had at a moderate price. This circumstance deserves serious confideration.

« All herrings cored for home sale are subject to a duty of one shil. ling per barrel if used in Scotland ; and only three pence and four pence if used in Esgland; which heavy duty must greatly retard the

fisheries,

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