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observe that Dr. Shaw, in his description of the wolf, in No. I. seems to condemn the opinion of the late Mr, Hunter, that the wolf and the dog are of the same species.

With respect to the plates with which this splendid publica. tion is decorated, they are in general executed with much taste and elegance, and are visibly coloured in a style less glaring than in most productions relating to natural history. This is often considered as constituting a considerable degree of merit in a work of this nacure ; yet we know not whether, in some instances, it may not have been carried almost to an extreme.

Among the most curious as well as interesting plates, may be numbered the Simia Mormon, or variegated Baboon, pl. 9. Sie mia longimana, pl. 13. Pfittacus augustus, or Hyacinthine Maccaw, pl. 14. Vultur Magellanicus, or the Condor, pl. 1. Coracias militaris, or the crimson Roller, pl. 15. Trogon Leverianus, or Leverian Trogon, pl. 43. Phasianus curvirostris, or Impeyan Pheasant, pl. 25. Pfittacus terrestris, or ground Pare rot, pl. 53. Columba chalcoptera, or bronze-winged Pigeon, p!. 55. Lanus Leverianus, or Leverian Shrike, pl. 59, &č,

Art. XII. Transactions of the Society instituted at London, for the En.

couragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce ; with the Premiums offered in the Year 1794. Vol. XII. Svo. 55. Boards.

Dodfley, Becket, &c. We have so frequently acknowleged the utility of this pub

lic-spirited institution, with the general importance of its publications, that any repetition of such remarks would be mere waste of time and words, which we can ill afford.

In the present volume we have 27 articles, viz. On Planting, eleven ; on the Improvement of Orchards, one; on Agriculture, (proper) five; on Chemistry, three ; on Polite Arts, one; on Mechanics, three ; on Colonies and Trade, one; and on Miscellaneous Subjects, two. Some of these are entitled to particular notice.

We are happy to find that the society's premiums have been claimed for plantations of the Larch, a tree to which we look up with pleasure, as the most likely supply of fhip-timber for the British navy in future times.

Mr. Bucknal acquaints the society that he has continued his experiments on pruning orchards : fee the Ilth vol. of the Transactions, or our Rev. vol. xiv. N. S. p. 55. He expresses his entire satisfaction with regard to the ule of his medicated tar *; and he has added some useful hints on planting. We

The author's recipe for this preparation was copied in our Review, cited as above.

think,

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tbink, with Mr. More, the Editor, that this is a matter of great importance, and we agree with him in advising those, who make trials of the methods here recommended, to transmit to the society accurate accounts of their success.

Mr. Moore, of Appleby, in Leicestershire, gives an account of extraordinary improvements, by under-draining boggy and springy grounds: but we find nothing new nor peculiarly excellent in his method of performing this important operation.

Mr. Corbet, of Merionethshire, has made a profitable embankment; by which he secures 144 acres of marsh lands from the overflowing of the tide.

Mr. Henry Browne, of Derby, has been rewarded with the gold medal, for his ingenious evaporator, for the use of che. milts, &c. particularly in the preparation of falts. To feed the fire with a current of air paffing over the boiler, and thus to burn the steam, (as it is called,) is not a new idea : but to conduct the beated air from the fire, through passages formed on every fide of the vacuity above the boiler, fo as to promote evaporation by a heated atmosphere, is a method which we have not before seen. We copy Mr. Browne's own account of this valuable invention :

"Therewith send you a plan and model of a Furnace I use for Evaporation, and have found more serviceable for that purpose than any copper or boiler I ever saw; and I am of opinion it might be advantageously applied to the drying malt, as the heat is more equally disperted, and the vapour carried off much quicker than by the mode now practised. I have not observed the exact quantity of moisture which may be exhaled in a given time by a given quantity of fuel; but I can with safety say that at least one half of the fuel, and a great deal of trouble, is saved by this contrivance; as it docs not require near the attendance that boilers in general do, in supplying it with tiquor or fuel, which needs only be done twice in twenty-four hours ; for the fire, being confined in the first instance to the bottom, and the evaporation being regular, a certain quantity either of fuel or liquor may be put in at certain times : but the greatest advantage this Furnace poffefles, and the only part I flatter myself may be called new, is, the atmosphere being rendered of an equal heat with the liquor ; by which means more moisture is carried away by the current of her air, than by any other means I am acquainted with.

• The utility of this Evaporator, therefore, is in my opinion twofold: first, the evaporation is much quicker, with a lefs quantity of fuel, than in the generality of the boilers now in use; secondly, the operator, as well as the whole neighbourhood, cannot in the least be affected or annoyed, let the vapour or steam be ever so pernicious. That evaporation is much greater by this mode, will appear very plain, when the course of the heat is pointed out : it is first carried under the vessel, then reverted back on the sides, and finally it is car. ried over the surface; by which means the air, that is in contact with the liquo. is fo heated and highly rarified, that the fluid is raised into 5

Vapour

vapour or fteam, much quicker, and with less fuel, than if the atmosphere was cold ; and, as the air necessary to keep the fuel in combustion passes over the surface of the liquor, every pernicious vapour is carried with it into the fire, where it is decomposed, or at leaft so changed as to be no longer pernicious.

• As the diminution of labour in all operations is so much to be wilhed, I think it necessary to add, that by this contrivance one man can do more work than three can in the usual method, the fire-place being so contrived, that as much fuel may be put on at one time as will serve twelve, or even twenty-four hours; and the same may be faid of the supplying the vessel with fresh liquor.'

A model of the apparatus is lodged in the society's valuable repository.

For the paper under the class of Polite Arts, we are indebted to Mr. George Blackman, of Hemming's-Row; it discloses (with unusual liberality) his method of making oil-colour cakes, for the use of artists; to be rubbed down in oil, as water-colour cakes are in water. Mr. Cofway and Mr. Stothard bear testimony in their favour. The former is of opinion that the manner in which they are composed is a new and useful discovery: and the great advantage they possess of drying without a skin on the surface, is a very essential improvement on the usual mode of oil painting, particularly for small works.'

George Butler, Esq. of Kent, has invented an improvement of the well-bucket; which, we think, might be adopted for wells of every depth; though it seems to be especially applicable to deep wells, and the horse wheel, to which Mr.' Butler has adapted it. The thought is simple as it is useful : instead of filling the bucket by dipping or overturning it in the water, a valve is fitted in the bottom of it, to admit the water as soon as the valve presies on its surface; and the valve being made water-tight, it prevents the escape of the water when the bucket is raised. On its arrival at the top of the well, a shoot is placed under it, and the valve is lifted to let out the water. Under an ingenious idea of making it empty itself, Mr. B. has added a complicated apparatus ; liable to be out of order, and not at all necessary. In a machine of this nature,-to be worked by the lowest order of ruftics,-fimplicity, lightness, and durability should be particularly attempted.

We must not pass unnoticed the worthy Secretary's estay on weights and measures, which, as he observes, is intended to thew an easy and practicable method of forming and preserving fandards deducible from each other, and which, it is presumed, if carried into full execution, will put an effectual stop to all future disputes on that subject.'-The thought of using pieces of agate for standard weights, as a substance less likely than

metals

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metals to decay, or to lofs by corrosion, &c. is novel, and seems worthy of attention.

Captain Bligh's account of the transportation of the bread. fruit tree, and other plants, now remains to be mentioned. We can only spare room for the result of the undertaking ; which appears in the following table : An Account of the Result of CAPTAIN BLigi's Voyage to procure

Planrs in the South Sea.

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OT AHEITE.
Bread-fruition
Rattah
Ay,yah
Av, vee or Vee
Oraiah
Pee,ah
Vaihee
Cocoa Nut
Ettow (red dye)
Mattee (ditto)
POSSESSION ISLAND,

NEW GUINEA.
Sao, or Sow, kind of
Plum,

TIMOR.
Bread-fruit, Otaheite

kind
Bread-fruit, which bears

feeds,
Mango
Iamblang
Tambo Iremavah
Iambo Maree
Blimbing
Chermailah
Karambola
Nonerang, or Lemon

China
Colambee
Nanka
Namnam
Pomegranates

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Plants at JAMAICA, landed at Hendes Green Port Mon Savannah

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landed landed for Surry Surry county at St, at St. county and and of

He- Vin- of Mid-General General Cornwall,

Itna. cent's. dlesex. Depot. Depot.
Seeree boah, or Long
Pepper

2
Seeree down
Peenang, or Beetle Nut

5 Bintaloo

2
Dangreedah
Bughn, ah Kanangah
Lattee, or Tickwood

SAINT HELENA.
Plantain

3 China Orange

3 Dwarf Peach

I Almonds

3 Nutmeg from St. Visi

cent's Coffee

5
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Poorah, ow
Vefsels containing young

plants of Namnam,
Sow, Nanka, &c. five
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136 • The total number of Plants delivered at St. Helena, St. Vincent's, and Jamaica, amounts to one thousand two hundred and seventeen; and seven hundred plants of various kinds were landed in the River Thames, for his Majesty's Garden at Kew.'

We have not room to particularize the other communications, which do not seem to suggest any thing remarkably worthy of attention from the general reader; and the volume itself will doubtless be consulted by those who are more peculiarly concerned in its contents.

Art. XIII. Philofophical Transaktions of the Royal Society of London, for the Year 1794. Part I. 410. 8s. sewed. Elmsley.

ASTRONOMY.
He first article belonging to this class is a short letter from
Miss Caroline Herschel, announcing the discovery of a

comet

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