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IV.

ought to consult their will only, and at their pleasure to CHAP. relax, or be more regardful of their conversation.

28. Pope Gregory's decree concerning the authority of the four Councils seems misrepresented by the Archbishop, since certainly there is some difference betwixt affirming, that those four Councils are not less to be honoured and reverenced than the four books of the holy Gospel; and saying, that as he received and reverenced the four books of the holy Gospel, so he confessed he received and reverenced those four Councils; which is all that the Pope

there says.

Treatise of

29. The Archbishop's saying that it was the unanimous opinion of all the Doctors, that though the sacred Councils may err in matters of fact, they cannot yet be mistaken in matters of faith, is a misreporting them or mistaking them; since that the catholic or universal Church, in a general Mr. WharCouncil, may err even in matters of faith, was the opinion face to Bp. of the following eminent Doctors, viz. Occam, Peter de Pecock's Alliaco Cardinal of Cambray, Thomas Walden before men- Faith, p.39. tioned, Panormitan, Antoninus, Cardinal Cusanus, Nicholas de Clemangis, and many others in this age. Though indeed, if, as the Archbishop represents this opinion, such sacred Councils may mistake in matters of fact, it seems inconsistent with the argument used by his Grace before, to prove the authority of the Church or Clergy greater than that of the Gospel; since how can they be depended on as keepers and witnesses of holy Writ, who may be mistaken in a plain matter of fact ?

30. His Grace's observation, relating to the understanding the sense and meaning of the holy Scriptures, seems no way to affect the Bishop; whose opinion it was, that the Clergy ought not to induce or constrain other people in the belief and faith of any other points and articles, ás upon the faith of which dependeth our salvation, than are expressed in the literal or grammatical sense of the holy Scriptures, or follow them so expressed. What is this but in other words to say as St. Hierome does, that holy

IV.

Whetham

CHAP. Scripture is to be understood as the sense of the c Holy

Spirit requires, by whose finger it was written ?

33. But however weak the Archbishop's reasoning and arguing might be, the threats with which it was concluded

proved, it seems, too strong for our Bishop; insomuch Acta Johan. that we are told he was so thoroughly terrified with them, stede, Ms. as to be struck quite dumb, and after a little recollection

to make the following low abject answer. “I am in a “ strait on all sides, and for a little while under a distrust “ which of the two offers it is best for me to accept; for if “ I should defend my opinions and positions, I am sure to “ suffer death and be burnt; and if I do not defend them, “ I shall as surely be made a gazing stock by the re

proaches of men, and not go off without scandal. It is “ better however for me to suffer the reproaches of the “people, than to desert the law of faith, and to be sent “after my death into hell-fire and the place of punish“ ment. · I make it my choice therefore to abjure, and in“ tend for the future so to live, as not to deserve any such « citation as has now been served upon me, nor to give “any even the least suspicion at any time hereafter.”

34. The opinions or positions of the Bishop, here referred to, were thus represented by the Doctors, who examined his books, in the six following articles or conclusions; which they censured as savouring of heretical pravity, and which the Archbishop, condemned as erroneous and heretical.

1. That it is not necessary to salvation to believe that our Lord Jesus Christ after his death descended into hell.

II. Item, That it is not necessary to salvation to believe in the Holy Ghost.

III. Item, That it is not necessary to salvation to believe in the holy catholic Church d.

© Nunquam Pauli sensum ingredieris, nisi Pauli spiritum imbiberisNunquam Davidem intelliges, donec ipsa experientia Psalmorum affectus indueris. Bernardi Sermo. tres de Monte.

. This seems to have been the common reading of this article at this time,

IV.

IV. Item, That it is not necessary to salvation to believe CHAP. in the communion of saints.

V. Item, That the universal Church may err in those things which are of faith.

VI. Item, That it is not necessary to salvation to believe and hold, that what a general Council and the universal Church appoints, approves, or determines in favour of the faith, and for the salvation of souls, is to be approved of and holden by all the faithful members of Christ. Likewise, that what she reprobates, determines, or condemns to be contrary to the catholic faith, or good manners, is therefore by the same faithful ones to be believed and held as reprobated and condemned.

35. These conclusions we may observe contained none of those assertions with which our Bishop is charged by Gascoigne and Bury; but being condemned by the Archbishop and his assessors as erroneous and heretical, the Bishop was obliged, according to the choice given him, either to make a public abjuration of them, and acknowledge their falseness; or else to be degraded from his episcopal office, and delivered over to the secular arm to be burnt to death. And here we have an unhappy instance of human weakness and frailty, by which the Bishop was induced to yield, and give way to the terrors which were made use of to frighten him into a submission to that unjust authority, which was usurped over him. He there

the better, I suppose, to rove that infallible authority of the Church or Clergy, which was now become the fashionable opinion. Thus on a tombstone in the high chancel of the ehurch of Feversham in Kent, on which is the effigies of William Thornbury in brass, a Vicar of that church, who died 1408, I find this inscription in a semicirclet of brass over his head : Credo in sanctam Ecclesians catholicam, sanctorum communionem. However it was afterwards altered, or read otherwise, as appears by an exposition of the Creed in English, printed by de Worde, 1531, wherein this article is thus read, I believe a holy Chirche catholical. On which the author thus expounds, Pope Leo Fol. 218, b, saith, and Alexander de Ales reciteth the same, it should not be said, I believe, into the holy Chirche catholicall, but rather thus, I bileve the holy Church catholical. -And although St. Anselm and other Doctors expound this article otherwise, yet I suppose this manner of exposition to be most common among holy Doctors of the Church.

IV.

CHAP. fore, though with great reluctancy and unwillingness, sub

mitted to abjure the above-mentioned conclusions before the Archbishop in his court of audience. In the form prescribed to him for this purpose (which was in Latin e) he

Abjuratio Peacoci in Foro judiciali. In Dei nomine, Amen. Coram vobis reverendissimo in Christo Patre et Domino, Domino Thoma Dei gratia Cant. Archiepiscopo totius Anglie Primate et apostolice sedis Legato. Ego Reginaldus Pecock indignus Ecclesie Cicestrensis Episcopus, pure sponte, simpliciter, et absolute confiteor et recognosco, quod ego retroactis temporibus, videlicet per viginti annos proxime preteritos et amplius, de ecclesiasticis sacramentis et articulis fidei aliter sensi, tenui, docui, scripsi et dogmatizavi quam sacrosancta Romana et universalis Ecclesia docet, predicat, et observat : nec non contra veram catholicam, et apostolicam fidem multa et diversa perniciosa dogmata, libros, codices, opuscula et scripta, hereses et errores fidei catholice et bonis moribus contrarias in se continentia feci, scripsi, edidi, et publicavi: et specialiter hereses et errores infrà scriptas, videlicet: I. Quod non est de necessitate salutis credere, quod Dominus noster Jesus Christus post mortem descendit ad inferos. II. Item, Quod non est de necessitate salutis credere in Spiritum Sanctum. III. Item, Quod non est de necessitate salutis credere in sanctam Ecclesiam catholicam. IV. Item, Quod non est de necessitate salutis credere in sanctorum communionem. V. Item, Quod Ecclesia universalis potest errare in his que sunt fidei. VI. Item, Quod non est de necessitate salutis, credere et tenere, quod illud quod concilium generale et universalis Ecclesia statuit, approbat, seu determinat in favorem fidei, et ad salutem animarum, est ab universis Christi fidelibus approbandum et tenendum: etiam, quod reprobat, determinat seu condemnat esse fidei catholice vel bonis moribus contrarium, hoc ab eisdem pro reprobato et condemnato esse credendum et tenendum. Unde ego idem Reginaldus miserabilis peccator, qui diu in tenebris ambulavi, nunc ad lucem et semitam veritatis, Deo misericorditer disponente, reductus, et ad unitatem sancte matris Ecclesie rediens, hereses, et errores supradictos, et alios quoscunque in libris, codicibus, opusculis seu scriptis meis contentos solenniter et publice revocò, atque eosdem, ac omnem aliam speciem heresis detestor, anathematizo, et per sanctam et homousiam Trinitatem, et per hec sacrosancta Dei Evangelia abjuro: ac etiam simpliciter juro, quod penitentiam condignam, mihi, occasione premissorum injungendam, humiliter subibo. Nec non, quod errores et hereses hujusmodi, cujuscunque generis seu speciei censeantur, de cetero, verbo, nutu, vel facto non fovebo, seu alios vel alium ad credendum illis, verbo vel facto publice vel occulte, directe vel indirecte vel alias quovis modo inducam. Atque omnes et singulos qui contra veram catholicam et apostolicam fidem venerunt cum dogmatibus et consectatoribus suis eterno anathemate dignos esse pronuntio. Quod si ego ipse aliquem contra eandem fidem aliquid sentire, tenere, docere aut predicare presumpsero, canonum severitati subjaceam. Et huic scripto, per me lecto et perlecto, sponte subscripsi manu propria in fidem et testimonium premis

sorum.

DR. REYNOLD PECOCK.

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IV.

styles himself “the unworthy Bishop of Chichester, and CHAP.

positively confesses and owns, and, as he is made to say, purely and of his own accord, that for above twenty

years last past he had taught, written, and dogmatized “ concerning the Sacraments of the Church and the arti“ cles of the faith, otherwise than was held and taught by “ the Church of Rome; that he had maintained many and “ diverse pernicious opinions, contrary to the true catho« lic and apostolic faith, and had made, written, set forth, “and published books and writings containing in them “ heresies and errors, contrary to the catholic faith and

good manners;” particularly the heresies and errors contained in the six articles above mentioned : “ where“ fore he the said Reynald, a miserable sinner, who had “ long walked in darkness, and was now by the mercy of “ God brought back to the light and path of truth, and “ was returning to the unity of holy mother Church, did

solemnly and publicly revoke the abovesaid heresies and “ errors, and all others whatsoever contained in his books, “ works, or writings, and did detest, anathematize, and by " the holy and consubstantial Trinity, and those holy Gos“pels which he then handled, abjure them and every other “ species of heresy; and did also positively swear, that he “ would humbly submit to the penance canonically to be

The Roman Creed in Greek in old English Writing and Translation. Pasteuo eis theon patera pantokratora, cai eis criston ihu ģion autou ton monozenee 'con curion mou, ton genneženta ec pneumatos agiou cai marias parčenou, ton epi pontiou pilatou stauročenta, tapınta, te trite imera anastanta eis tous oupanous, cað imepon indexia tou patros oden erchetai crinai zonetas te nicpouo. cai eis pneuma agion, agian ecclesian, apısın amaptione, sarcos anastasin. amin.

N. B. Literæ e, i, y, ejusdem sunt potestatis apud Anglo-Saxones. By this form of the Creed it appears, that in the old English Church the article of Christ's descent into hell was not in the common Creed, nor did they profess to believe in the holy Church.

Quod Symbolo Apostolico interseritur de descensu Christi ad inferos, de Ec. clesia catholica, et communione sanctorum, sequioris est ævi, et explicationis magis dubiæ. Thom. Burnet de Fide, &c. Christianorum.

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