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enjoined him on account of the premises; and that for “ the future he would not, by word, signs, or deed, encou

rage such errors and heresies, of whatsoever kind or sort “they be, or directly or indirectly, by word or deed, pub“ licly or secretly, or otherwise by any means, induce others “ to believe them; and that he pronounced all and singu“ lar who went against or contrary to the true catholic “ and apostolic faith, together with their opinions and fol“ lowers, to be worthy of being eternally anathematized; “ that he himself, if he should discover any one to think, “ hold, teach, or preach, any thing contrary to the same

faith, would execute on him the severity of the canons ; " and that he did of his own accord subscribe with his

own hand, in testimony of the premises, this writing by “ him now read, and read through."

36. The teaching or holding concerning the Sacraments of the Church otherwise than was held and taught by the Church of Rome, was at this time a common note of heresy, and sufficient of itself to denominate a man an heretic, though he wa never so sound in the faith. Thus when some of the Waldenses came over hither in the reign of King Henry II. the historian tells us, that “ they

being examined f in order concerning the articles of the

holy faith, answered right as touching the substance of “ the supreme Physician; but as for his remedies, by “ which he vouchsafes to heal human infirmities, that is, " the divine Sacraments, they spoke perversely of them, de“ testing holy Baptism, the Eucharist, Matrimony, &c.". Thus we are told of our Bishop, that he affirmed that

Pope Gregory's saying 8, Hom. 26, that the faith has no

* Interrogati per ordinem de sacræ fidei articulis, de substantia quidem su-. perni Medici recta, de ejus vero remediis, quibus humanæ infirmitati mederi dignatur, id est, divinis sacramentis, perversa dixerunt. Gul. Neubrigensis Historia, lib. ii. c. 13.

8 Scribitur etiam de eodem Reginaldo Episcopo, quod in libro suo, quem ipse intitulat de Fide, dicit et scribit, quod hoc dictum B. Gregorii (Hom. 26.) fides non habet meritum, cui humana ratio præbet experimentum, est falsum. Gascoigne, Dict. Theol. p. 502. v. Fides.


words are,

merit which is proved by man's reason, is false." By CHAP. which is insinuated, that our Bishop thought very perversely of the Sacrament of the Eucharist, or did not believe the legend of transubstantiation. Pope Gregory's

“ How was the Lord's body after the resur“rection a true body, that could enter the house when the “ doors were shut ? But we must know, that a divine “ operation is not wonderful, if it may be comprehended;

nor has faith any merit to which human reason gives “ experiment," or which can be proved to be agreeable to man's reason. Of this foolish saying of this Pope's the Papists are grown very fond, since the invention of that absurd and nonsensical doctrine of transubstantiation: as if because that fancy is a direct contradiction to not only our reason, but our senses; therefore faith must oblige us to believe things contrary to all sense and reason, and there is no faith so meritorious as a nonsensical and irrational one. Hence that fanatic prayer in the Hours of the Blessed Virgin: Peto, Domine Jesu Christe, largire michi in amore In usum

Sarum, fol. tuo modum sine mensura, effectum sine modo, languorem 124, edit. sine ordine, ardorem sine discretione. Amen. A nonsensi- Paris, 1519. cal faith and indiscreet devotion, or an ardour without discretion, are very fit to accompany one another. Akin to this are the raptures of a more modern devotionist of theirs in our own language: Down busy sense, discourses dy,


in the anAnd all adore faith's mystery:

cient way of Faith is my skill, faith can believe,

Offices, p.

Rouen, Faith is my eye,

London, 37. Such rants as these could be no way agreeable to 1701. our Bishop, who had so often declared for the obedience of all God's creatures by the judgment of reason; and affirmed, that neither the determinations of the Angels in heaven, or of the Clergy on earth, against or contrary to it, are to be assented to. However, from hence the Bishop's adversaries seem to have taken occasion to repre

185, ed.

1684, p.

209, ed.


CHAP. sent his Lordship as teaching concerning the Sacraments

of the Church otherwise than it was taught by the Church of Rome.

38. It is further insinuated in this abjuration of the Bishop's, that he had published in his books other heresies and errors, besides those contained in the six Conclusions now condemned. What these were is not here particularly specified, but it is not improbable they were the Conclusions mentioned by Gascoigne, and those which Bury opposed, at the command of the Archbishop, as has been said before. But however this be, this abjuration of the Bishop was made by him at Lambeth, November 28, 1457, as was before hinted.

39. These matters being thus transacted, our Bishop, we are told, was sent down to Canterbury, to do penance

for his offences; where, it is said, he used to repeat the folHistoria, lowing verses to those who visited him during his short &c. Univ.

stay there:

h Wit hath wonder that reason cannot skann,
How a moder is maid, and God is man.


This, I suppose, was intended as a reflection on what the
Bishop had writ of the force and obligation of reason.
And therefore Gascoigne, who tells us this of him, imme-
diately subjoins k:

Leve reason, beleve the wonder,
Belef hath mastry, and reason is under.

However this be, our Bishop could not continue long at

Under a wooden cut of Joseph and Mary, and the infant Jesus lying in a manger, these rhymes are thus printed.

Reason doth wonder how faith tel can,
That a maid is a mother, and God a man;
Let reason go and believe a wonder,
Faith is above, and reason is under,

quoth antiquity.

i The editor of the History and Antiquities of the University of Oxford thus represents this ; Quibus in hunc modum pie subjecit Gascoignus noster.

Canterbury, since the day fixed for his more public abjura- CHAP. tion, which is said to be either Novem. 29, the day after his abjuring at Lambeth, or at farthest k Dec. 4, was but five days to come. This consideration is indeed enough to make us suspect the truth of his Lordship’s being sent down to Canterbury at all, for that the time was little more than enough for him, at that time of the year, to go from London to Canterbury, and from thence back again. However this be, when the day appointed for the Bishop's more public and solemn abjuration at Paul's Cross was come, he was brought thither, we are told, habited in his stole', or episcopal habit, and placed at the Archbishop's feet. Besides many thousands (Gascoigne says 20,000) of people, which were then got together on this occasion, there were present, it is said, as the Archbishop's assessors or auditors, Thomas Kempe Bishop of London, John Lowe Bishop of Rochesterm, and Lawrence Booth Bishop of Dunholm, before whom, as judges, were produced fourteen of the Bishop's books, of which three were in folio,


k Acta fuerunt ista et peracta in anno Domini 1457, mensis Decembris die 40, et regni Regis Henrici VI. anno 36. Joh. Whethamstede, Acta, &c. MS.

| The stole worn by the Bishops was a scarf of black silk, which was put about their necks, and hung down before them over their rochet. Stola autem propria est diaconorum vestis. Du Fresne, Glossar.

m Of this Prelate Bury takes particular notice in his dedication to the Archbishop, where he speaks of him in the following manner. Adest utique vobis ille reverendus in Christo dominus meus, dominus Roffensis, stabilis columpna in templo Domini, vir Benjamin, vir genuinus ab adolescentia sua utraque manu ut dextra utens ; qui nec sic institit Scripturis, ut humunitatis in se studia aliquando vacasse credantur ; nec sic humanas literas, amplexatus est, quin semper eas divinis exegerit subservire. His tomb of gray Sussex marble is still remaining on the north side of the choir of Rochester cathedral, with these inscriptions in old church text.

Round the edge of the top-stone west, south, and east •
Miserere Deus anime Fr. Joannis Lowe Episcopi. Credo videre bona Domini in

terra viventium. Sancte Andrea et Augustine, orate pro nobis.
On the middle of the south side of the tomb are cut seven escutcheons, in
five of which are these six words :

Jesus est amor meus, Deo gratias.
Round the edge of a verge at the bottom :
Quam breve spatium haec mundi gloria ? Ut umbra hominis sunt ejus gaudia.


E coll. R.

CHAP. and the rest in quarto, all which the Bishop was obliged

to deliver with his own hands, to a man provided for that purpose, to be thrown into a large fire n made at the Cross on this occasion. Which being done in the presence of the Bishop, he made the following abjuration in English at the same Cross.

40. In the name of the Holy Trinity, Father, Son, and R. White, Episc. Pe Holy Ghost, I, Reginald Pecock, Bishop of Chichester, trobur.

unworthy, of my own pure and free will, without any manner of coercion or dreado, confesse and acknowledge, that I have before time, presuming upon my own natural wit, and preferring P the natural judgment of reason before the Old Testament and the New, and also above the determination of our modre, the holy catholic Church, have holden, sealed, written, and taught otherwise than the holy 9 Roman and universal Church teacheth, preacheth, and observeth. And over this, against the true catholic and apostolic faith, I have made', written, taken out, and published, many and divers perillous and pernicious doctrines, books, works, and writings, containing in them heresies and errors contrary to the catholic faith, and determination of the holy Church; and especially these errors and heresies following, that is to say; Quod non est de necessitate salutis credere; Quod Dominus noster Jesus Christus descendit ad inferos. Item, Quod, &c. as before.

-Wherefore 1, miserable sinner, who heretofore have walked in darkness, and now by the mercy and infinite goodness of God am reduced into the right way, and light of truth, considering my self grevously to have synned,

* This seems inconsistent with a copy of the Bishop's book called the Repressour, &c. which is attested by the notary or actuary to be exhibited to the Archbishop in his chapel at Lambeth, Nov. 11, 1457, being still preserved. But the books which were burnt might be other copies.

o Or compulsion. p The judgment of my natural reason. a Holy Roman Church holdeth, teacheth, &c.

r Set forth, written, and taught, and also published many perilous and pernicious doctrines; and also books, containing in them heresies and errors, con. trary to the catholic faith, and the determination of the whole Church.

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