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this little saloon ; but I hope that will tion to tind we had screamed till we not be necessary.”
were hoarse, for neither he nor his comOn one of the bunks lay a sleeping- panions had ever heard a sound ! pocket - not that the sleeping-pockets There had been a small leak in the will be required in the ship; but if the ship, and to find out its locality the hold ship has to be abandoned, they will be- had been filled with water. We went come absolutely necessary. It is made down aft to see the petroleum tanks, to hold three men, and a very curious the plans of the beams and stanchions, thing it looks. It is long enough to the cavities for the cargo, etc. And we allow the men to lie full length, and walked over the three feet of water, once they are all inside, packed like which, although in the interior of the sardines, a large hood-like end comes ship, had frozen quite solid, but not down over the face, and, well lapping before it had made known the position over the underpart, is strapped down. of the leak. The water had dripped Now this pocket was made of reindeer through the leak and formed itself into skin, the fur, of course, inside, and, to an icy stalactite, by means of which its look at it, one marvelled how three men locality was soon discovered. The ship with their clothes on could sleep all bas, of course, been in the water. She night in such a thing, buttoned down, was built nearly sixty miles from Chriswithout suffocating altogether. But tiania, where she is now in dock; but the cold of an Arctic night requires before she really starts on her voyage such arrangements, and Dr. Nansen's she is going to sea for a week's trialonly fear is they may not be warm trip, with all her equipments, to make enough.
quite sure that she comes up to the exHaving carefully investigated the pectations of her designers. ventilation, lamps, beds, etc., we left She may be a wonderful ship ; she the saloon to go and see the means by may answer all that is required of her. which a leak had been discovered in But, oh! what a contrast the contined the ship. Up the companion we went, space, the absolute severity of everywhen, lo and behold ! we found we thing, to Nansen's charming and arwere shut in.
tistic home, wherein he is surrounded Nansen knocked loudly at the door, by every comfort and every luxury. knowing that men were clearing the Yet is he willing w leave everything snow off the deck with wooden spades ; behind, rushing into unknown dangers but no one heard. He called and called and terrible hardships, firmly believing again, and yet no one heard. He his theories of the polar current are rapped at the many-paned windows, correct, and that he will shortly return through which we saw the men at with the proof and the satisfaction of work, and still no one hceded. Here haviny added a boundless store of inwe were imprisoned within a few feet formation to that insatiable goddess, of several men who could not hear our science. Ilow many good lives have efforts to get out. At last we really be- been sacrificed in her cause ! and yet it gan to think we should have to stay is due to the dauntless daring of generthere all day, so we all shouted together, ations in every branch of science that and yet with no avail. The Fram is so we are what we are to-day. Without securely built, her walls are so thick scientific knowledge, what should we and so deadened with felt, and her win- now be ? dows so secured, we were literally im- As we bade Dr. Nansen good-bye on prisoned, and no one heard any of our leaving Christiania, he said, “Not efforts for liberation. Some twenty good-bye, please — only au revoir for a minutes had gone by before one of the couple of years or so. I shall be in men chanced to remember a coat he London as soon as I come back.” And had left in the cabin below, and leis- he added, “ As you've eaten our foods, urely strolled across and opened the tried on our clothes, and seen every outer door. Great was his consterna. I beam of our ship covered in snow and
ice in Arctic cold, you may almost feel dred and ninety-seven feet, and at the you have been to the North Pole too. bottom, at the toe of the slopes, sevAu revoir ! Mind, only au revoir !” enty-two feet ; the total depth is nearly
twenty-eight feet. It is shown by means of a diagram that not only will two of the largest Baltic merchant ves
sels pass one another without difficulty, THE BALTIC SHIP-CANAL.
but also that there is room for a vessel FOREMOST among the engineering of this type to give way to one of the works of the latter part of the nine- finest ironclads of the German navy, teenth century must assuredly be placed such as the König Wilhelm, with a disthe magnificent maritime canals, which placement of 9,757 tons. Special passafford such conspicuous evidence of ing stations have, however, also been industrial skill and enterprise ; and of arranged at intervals, similar to those these great works few will yield in on the Suez Canal. point of size and importance to the new The cost of the works was originally sea-way between the North Sea and the estimated at £7,800,000, which proBaltic, the history and progress of vides for 77,400,000 cubic metres of exwhich is so ably described by Herr cavation, and all requisite contractors' Beseke in the present volume.
plant and materials, entrance locks, The idea of such a canal has been bridges, and harbor works, as also for under consideration for five centuries, the forts needed to protect the western and one of the most interesting chap- approach to the caval. ters in the book is that which enumer- A most curious chapter is that which ates no less than sixteen schemes which deals with the provision made for the have from time to time been pro- conduct of the enterprise, and for the pounded for the accomplishment of housing and accommodation of the large this difficult problem. These different staff of work-people engayed therein. projects are rendered all the more in- The sub-contractors for the various telligible by means of a sketch-map, sections into which the works were indicating the various lines proposed, divided — fifteen in number — had, unthe majority of which, having their der conditions carefully specified, to origin in the estuary of the Elbe, passed construct barracks for the staff of worktransversely across the Schleswig-Hol-crs. The canteen arrangements were stein peninsula to points in the vicinity all carefully thought out, and the prices of Kiel or Lübeck.
of food were regulated by fixed tariffs. The inception of the present under- | The sizes of dormitories were pretaking dates from October 19, 1883, scribed; hospitals and laundries have when the chancellor of state was di- to be provided, and all the sanitary rected by imperial rescript to report arrangements appear to be most comupon the execution of a canal from plete. Kiel to the mouth of the Elbe. The It was a condition of their engageplans, prepared in conformity with this ment that the work-people should be at decree, were adopted, with trifliny mod- least seventeen years of age, no Soifications, on March 16, 1886, the exe- cialists or Anarchists might be emcution of the works being entrusted to ployed, and all drunken and dissolute a State commission in July of the same persons were liable to instant dismissal. year, and the first stone was laid by the Some of the regulations appear slightly emperor William I. with an imposing autocratic, but doubtless with a popuceremony on June 3, 1887.
lation of from six thousand to eight The total length of the projected thousand persons brought together canal is about sixty-one English miles, from all parts of Germany, such as was the width at the water-line is one hun- to be found on certain of the sections, 1 Der Nord-Ostsee-Kanal. Von C. Beseke.
it was necessary to insist upon a very ad Leipsic: Lipsius and Tischer, 1893.
severe discipline. We are assured by
the author that hitherto these rules in time caused by the use of the canal have worked satisfactorily. A detailed as contrasted with the dangerous pasaccount is given of the four bridges sage round the coast of Denmark, and required for the railway crossings, also a wreck chart of the entrance of the of the numerous ferries and of the mas- Baltic serves as an effective objectsive constructions needed to form the lesson of the value to navigation of this entrance-locks of the canal at either new sea-way. end. The water-level of the canal is In the concluding chapters we find almost coincident with that of the Bal- most ample details of the volume of tic. So that on three hundred and forty Baltic commerce and of the tonnage days in the year the sluices can remain engaged therein, both in the form of open, and the lock-gates into the Elbe steamers and sailing vessels, and excelcan be opened daily at certain states of lent diagrams and charts have been the tide ; the water in the canal is to specially prepared by the author to renbe at one uniform level throughout. der these facts readily intelligible to the
In consequence of the advanced state public. Nor does Herr Beseke omit to of the works it seems probable that the treat of the industrial value of these undertaking may be formally opened works and of their importance to the for traffic at the period originally con- Fatherland, both from the military and templated, in the summer of 1895. naval aspects; in fact their political Steamers will be permitted to propel significance is shown to be enormous. themselves at a mean speed of about The volume contains a mass of wellsix miles an hour, and sailing vessels digested information upon an undertakand barges will be towed in train through ing concerning which but little has the canal by steam-tugs provided for hitherto been heard in this country, this purpose.
but which is destined to exert a powerHerr Beseke presents us with most ful influence upon the commerce of the exhaustive statistics showing the saving states bordering upon the Baltic.
Ir sometimes happens that peat bogs layer not yet turned into peat and the cover swell and burst, giving out a stream of of live vegetation, which get saturated like dark mud. Herr Klinge has made a study a sponge, after which the water collects in of this rare phenomenon (Bot. Jahrb.), of pools, and runs off in streams. The theory which he has found only nine instances, in of gas explosions is also rejected ; and the Europe, between 1745 and 1883 (seven of author considers the real cause to lie in these being in Ireland). Heavy rains gen- land-slips, collapses, etc., of ground under erally occur before the phenomenon, and the bog, permitting water or liquid mud to detonations and earth vibrations precede enter, This breaks up the bog mechanand accompany it. The muddy stream ically, mixes with it and fluidifies it, and which issues, of various fluidity, rolls along an outburst at the surface is the result. lumps of peat, and moves now more quickly, The limestone formations in Ireland, with now more slowly. After the outbreak, the their large caverns and masses of water, mud quickly hardens, and the bog sinks at are naturally subject to those collapses, the place it appeared, forming a funnel- which, with the vibrations they induce, are shaped pool. The bogs considered by Herr more frequent in wet years.
The heavy Klinge have been almost all on high ground, rains preceding the bog eruptions are thus not in valleys. He rejects the idea that the to be regarded as only an indirect cause of effects are due to excessive absorption of these. Herr Klinge supposes that similar water by the bog. The peat layers, which eruptions occurred in past geological perioften vary much in consistency, have each ods, e.g., the Carboniferous, in some cases a certain power of imbibition, and the where fossil tree-stems are found in upright water absorbed does not exceed this limit. position. Excessive rain affects chietly the upper
CONTENTS. 1. FONTAINEBLEAU,
Nineteenth Century, .
131 152 169
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Away, far down the future,- blindly caught
My hands in agony of prayer and fought The glad fire danced ; my lady sat and Against the dark soul-tempter, — cried for smiled,
light And, golden-brown-haired at her feet, our Amid the wild waste of my spirit's night, child,
Then weak in heart, and helpless, spiritOur only boy, leaned grave-faced on her
Cried to God's love for mercy ; I had loved And gazed as in the bright flames he could
and lost. Good Words.
ROBERT Baix. All that I told of done in by-gone days, How the grim Borderers rode down moon
By the song-haunted Yarrow; how Buc
cleugh Scaled with his troop the Carlisle walls and
TO THE BELOVED. blew Clear, loud the Border challenge ; how the Oh, not more subtly silence strays king
Amongst the winds, between the voices,
Hush back to rest the melody
Full, full is life in hidden places,
Thou art like silence all unvexed And how their lives were sorrowful with Though wild words part my soul from tears,
A secret and a mystery
Most dear pause in a mellow lay !
Thou art inwoven with every air, wept
With thee the wildest tempests play, With calm of wifely joy, — my dear boy And snatches of thee everywhere slept,
Make little heavens throughout a day.
Listens for thee, listens for thee.
O thought within all thought that is Of my dream-wife, dream-child, dream- Trance between laughters unawares ! home bereft,
Thou art the form of melodies, Bereft forever, — and I sank in tears And thou the ecstasy of prayers. Before the empty world that filled my years