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ress in the subject. This he nowhere be- from the monarchy, by beheading one and trays more signally than in the tenet just banishing another of the Stewart dynasty ? described of the famous “ balance of pow. And is not the contest with the aristocracy ers.” For is not the “order,” which in progress, accordingly, at the present Guizot makes the prime end of all govern hour, while the crown is but a cypher signiment, precluded, in the very terms, by this fying nothing by itself? If these strictures co-equality and contention of powers ? be just, it will be seen that the powers in How, moreover, can the same strife be question, instead of presenting a “balnow so salutary among the branches of the ance" or equipoise, have always, in fact, government, which was a while ago pro- alternated in a transitive subordination. nounced so fatal among the classes of the Thus much for the doctrine of this balcitizens? But the “order” which Guizot ance of the three powers as accounting for contemplates is not the order of science the duration of the English monarchy. which implies subordination and harmony, But the inconsistency of the doctor is still but the order of equipoise, which asks only a grosser oversight. How, it is obvious to brute force. Accordingly, he goes on to ask, did the Commons conquer their power tell us, that the practice of seeking guar- by“ degrees,” and from weak beginnings, antees against the abuse of power, by in the face of the dogma just laid down, making it weak, is an enormous error. that “every weak power is a power doomed For every weak power is a power condemn- to annihilation or usurpation ?” Again, ed to death or to usurpation. What,” he ought not this single fact of the rise to asks, “ has made the force and the fortune power of the “poor Commons,” (as they of the constitutional monarchy of Eng- whiningly styled themselves) have shown land ?”. Aye, there the idol of Guizot is him the futility in practice, as well as the unveiled half-covertly at last! It is the falsehood in history, of this pretended balempirical example of England; not the in- ance? Ought it not to have suggested ductions of general history ; not the laws that there must be some great natural and of social science. Let us hear, however, expansive energy at will in society itself, from this fifteenth successor of Fortesque which could thus at once supply and suand Blackstone, what it is that constitutes persede its protection ? Especially ought the pretended preëminence of the British it to have done so, in fact, with a man, who constitution, and how far it confirms the not only recognizes the conquered aggrancondemnation just denounced. The secret dizement, still incomplete, of the English so often said and sung, is this :-" The Commons, but who saw the principle carEnglish crown and aristocracy were power- ried much farther by the fiercer democracy ful from the first, and the Commons are of his own country. He could not have become powerful by conquering successive-forgotten that the tiers etats, who were ly from the aristocracy and the crown, the dug, so to say, out of the earth by the rights which they at present enjoy. Of pamphlet of Sieyés, in a few years swept these three constitutional powers two con- away successively the monarchy and the tinue strong and rest upon deep lying roots; aristocracy of privilege, and are battering the third has become strong and taken now, with vigor unabated, the kitchen deep root by degrees. All are capable of aristocracy of wealth. Or is it only the defending themselves from the encroach- crown and the aristocracy that nature may ments of the others, and of fulfilling each its have left in want of this political “balown mission."

ance” to uphold them ? Very possibly. Now, potent upon the face of this oft- In any other sense than this, in fine, we told tale, there lie many things to tempt must conclude it no better than a chimera remark. For example, was the English begot by politics upon pedantry. No such erown powerful in the days of King John balance ever really existed in England or and Magna Charta, when it succumbed to elsewhere. And for the conclusive reason, the aristocracy? Was the aristocracy pow- that the thing is as incompatible with the erful, in turn, under Henry Vlił. and Êliz- idea of organization in the social body, as abeth ? Did the Commons commence the would the severance of the nervous, the conquest of their present rights “from the muscular, and the alimentary systems be aristocracy,” and not, on the contrary, with the continued subsistence of the indi

vidual. This organic unity must have al- | and commons, in every act of legislation, ways and every, then existed, either vir- and the theory is that they are represented tually or institutionally. In England and also in the judicial and executive functions. wherever, there is no written constitution, Moral Conditions of social quiet in it appears in the predominance of one or France.-But were his political organiother of the powers for the time; a pre- zation” of powers, all the author mistakes dominance which we have just exemplified it for, there would still, he says, be necesin the remarks upon the last citation from sary, certain other conditions of a moral the author. In our government, and the nature. These are the family spirit, the French, for example, this principle of uni- political spirit, and the religious spity is the constitution, because it is presum- rit. The family is undoubtedly not ed a transcript, more or less imperfect, of only the premordial unit, but the perpetual the natural laws of the social system. primary school of the State. It is the pro

We feel a clinging necessity of justify- per nursery of those sentiments of affecing over and over our imputations of sci- tion, disinterestedness, self-denial and deentific ignorance against a man of the real votedness, which, shaped by education and ability and reputed eminence of Guizot. solidified by principle, form the virtues that The fact, however, has been submitted to support and adorn the edifice of public the reader in numerous instances, and last | life. Where the former is neglected, the of all the monster one of the “ balance of latter can scarce exist; at least as the vigpower,” which he would have his country- orous growth of a lofty morality, and not men substitute for the organic unity of their the sickly exotics of an interested calculapresent constitution. But what is perhaps tion. That there is much to mend in this still more decisive of this singular perverse- particular in France, we have no doubt; ness is, that he now turns round and taunts but we are quite sure there is still more to them with having introduced in another mend in the same quarter elsewhere. form the very principle of distribution In the beneficial effects of the political which they repudiate in this. For “they spirit, we cannot so freely assent with the have been careful, says he, to separate the author. In the first place this spirit must legislative, the judicial and the executive prevail to some extent at the expense of powers. How, he exclaims, do they not the family virtues. And if the latter be, see that the necessity mounts much higher, as they assuredly are, a preëminent good, and that the diversity of the general inter- the influence that should counteract them ests of society and of the duties of the could hardly be classed in the same comsovereign, demands imperatively a diversi- mendable category. Besides it is matter ty of powers at the summit of the State, of every-day observation that the habits of as a division of powers in the secondary political life tend to blunt the moral sensiregions of the government?” Here are bilities, and even to deprave the character. manifestly confounded the synergic princi- Look at the more thorough-paced of the ple of Organization, and the energic prin-class in our own country. Who is there ciple of Function. It is overlooked that simple enough to expect from what is termthere is a natural and necessary series in ed a “trading politician,” the observance the State as in the individual, between the of a single article of the decalogue, where operations of ordaining, of interpreting, he was not influenced by the hope of ofand of executing. No two of these ac- fice, or the fear of exposure? We speak tions can be performed by the same agent not of the drudges only. Turn to many

of at the same time, nor in the same import those who put up for being leaders, and are at different times. Here, therefore, the persons of ordinary integrity in the relaseveralty and separation are essential, in- tions of civil life. Yet look into that dispensable. Of the functions, on the parchment, callous, cadaverous face; the contrary, there is no one that does not im- indecision alike of attitude, of opinion, ply, successively, the concurrence of the and of language ; and above all

, the entire organic system, whether in an indi- vague, winking, wall-eyed expression of vidual or government. Even the mis- the gaze. There is not a man with a soul shapen system of the British Constitution in his bosom that does not meet that requires this co-operation of king, lords reptile countenance with something of the strange commingling of the curious and the zot. And in this assent is included the hideous, inspired by the contemplation of a following pregnant antithesis : “ If Comliving viper, or a human corpse. The expla- munism and Socialism were to prevail, the nation probably is, that the man, or rather Christian creed would perish. If the belief the “politician” is in fact a moral corpse. in Christianity were more genuine, ComThis is not a training therefore, to be great- munism and Socialism would be soon but ly coveted in itself. Nor is it possible to obscene follies.” (p. 132). combine it, as Guizot imagines, with the The author concludes a respectable, becultivation of the family spirit. On the con- cause sincere, however erroneous exhortatrary we should think that this cultivation tion to his countrymen to forsake the idol is principally demanded and providentially of democracy, and combine all that remains destined to prepare against the demoraliz- sound of interest and opinion in the state ing effects of the political spirit.

in formation of a government after the It is only in the region of the under- fashion he has thus delineated. The postanding that this spirit may possibly be litical philosophy of his plan, which we beneficial. Here alone it is, accordingly, have endeavored to present in its true light that the author, without noting this essen- to the reader, is maintained to the last, and tial distinction, proceeds to a specification quite qualis ab incepto. “We have,” of its civic consequences.

“The political says he, "tried all things, a republic, an spirit rises naturally, through wisdom, if empire, a constitutional monarchy. We not morality, to that which is its funda- recommence our experiments. What are mental law and essential merit, namely, to we to blame for their failure ? In our own respect for justice, the sole basis of social days, under our eyes, in three of the greatstability; for beyond justice there is but est nations of the world, these three same force, which is essentially variable and pre- governments, constitutional monarchy in carious. And respect for justice supposes England, the empire in Russia, the repubor generates respect for the laws, the ha- lic in North America, endure and prosper. bitual fountain of justice. And respect Aurions-nous le privilège de toutes les imfor the laws strengthens the respect for the possibilités ?” p. 154. Here is first the authorities, who make or who apply them." social anachronism of counting the present (p. 143.) And this little social writer French constitution a mere repetition of proceeds, in the first concoction, he tells those of '93. But this uniform inadverus, from the “ habit of seeing only what is tence to the social progression of civilizaand as it is ;'' which constitutes his prime tion and its constant correlation to the characteristic of the political spirit. We form of government is still more stolidly will only add that as M. Guizot may be declared in the concluding interrogatory. “guessed” to be his own exemplar of this M. Guizot seems to have no notion why faculty of attending to the actual, in dis- the institutions that suit England, or Amerregard of the future and the past, the doc- ica, or even Russia, should not be adapted trine here propounded would go far of it- to France as well. He does not dream self to reconcile to his high but perverted that freemen, or even the philosophers of intellectual powers the almost peurile tis- Paris ought not to be content to be govsue of error and inconsistency which we erned like the Cossacks of Siberia. have been unwinding through his book. We had intended to close with some

As to the third and religious spirit, we practical inferences from the preceding secan do no better, after the eloquent and even

ries of discussions. But want of space unctuous descant of our author, than to say compels us to leave the moral to the meas did his burgess colleague to the hustings ditation of the studious reader. speech of Burke: we say ditto to M. Gui



(Continued from page 609.)


Since his interview with the abomina- than himself, he adored his daughter, and ble Des Tournelles, the Marquis could he was pained at the prospect that that neither eat, drink, nor sleep, though up to beautiful creature, after having become acthis time, thanks to the natural heedless- customed to luxury and ease, must again ness of his character and his disposition to return to that cold and sombre atmosphere look only on the bright side of things, he which enveloped her cradle. He hesitated. had cherished some degree of hope and There is more than one, who, under like entertained some illusions. For some time, circumstances, would have looked twice indeed, previous to this interview, there before deciding, without the excuse of an had been a gradual falling off in his usual adored daughter, and the fear of the buoyancy of spirits. Those piquant sal- gout. Yet what was he to do? Whichlies, and crazy projects, which afforded so ever way he turned, M. de La Seigmuch entertainment, were gradually be- liére saw only ruin and disgrace. Madame coming less and less frequent; still he seem- de Vaubert, who now uniformly responded ed occasionally to recover his former vivaci- to all his questions in the same way-We ty, and would now and then return to the must wait and see—was far from affording whimsical petulance of his natural good na- him any assurance, and he secretly wished ture. He was a wounded butterfly, but still that his noble friend had given the same adfluttering, when, under pretext of helping vice six months before, as to the very ignoble him out of difficulty, the heartless juriscon- part which they had both been playing On sult, delicately seizing him between his fin- the other hand, the new attitude which Bergers, impaled him alive on the brazen rod of nard had recently assumed, filled the Marreality. Henceforward the martyrdom of quis with fear. Since Helen no longer lent the Marquis was altogether new in his ex- them the charm of her presence, the days perience. What would become of him? had drawn sadly and slowly, and the eveWhat should he do? If pride counselled ings more sadly still. him to retreat with a high head, selfishness In the morning, after breakfast, when was of a contrary opinion; and if pride Mille de La Seigliere had ceased to apbacked up its proposition with good rea- pear, Bernard, leaving the Marquis to his soas, selfishness had an abundance at hand reflections, mounted his horse and was not quite as good if not better. The Marquis seen again till evening, when he returned was getting old; the gout was slowly but more taciturn, cloudy, and forbidding, than surely creeping upon him ; five and twenty he had departed. In the evening, after years of exile and privation had cured him dinner, Helen almost immediately retired of the heroic escapades and chivalric dreams to her chamber, leaving Bernard alone in of his youth. His somewhat familiar ac- the salon with her father and Madame de quaintance with poverty had by no means Vaubert, who, having exhausted all the reincreased its attractions; he felt his blood sources of her mind, and utterly discourcurdle in his veins at the very thought of aged besides, knew not how to abridge the that pale and sorrowful countenance which silent course of the hours. Bernard had, had sat at his table and by his fireside for from time to time, a way of looking at twenty-five years. Moreover, although them, by turns, which made them shudder there was no one whom he loved better from head to foot. He who had been so


VOL. V. NO. I.


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patient while Helen was there to restrain | D’Aguesseau, was crowded with sinsiste" or appease him with a smile, would now, predictions and ill-omened prophecies at a word of the Marquis or the baroness, Every day the liberal party was spoken of fly into a passion, which they dreaded as as a bomb which was about to blow up peccant children do the uplifted rod. He the hardly yet restored monarchy. Thus had substituted action for recital, and gave already begun to be confirmed the threatbattles instead of narrating them. When ening words of the counsellor. M. de he retired, usually pale and cold with wrath, La Seigliere was in constant terror, and he no longer, as he had been accustomed thought only of earthquakes and revoluto do, shook the hand of the Marquis, but tions. In the night he would start up in left without even a salutation, while they, his bed to listen to the fancied sound of the remaining alone, regarded each other in Marseillaise, and when, at length, oversilence. “Well! Madame la baronne ?" come by fatigue, he fell asleep, it was only “Oh! Monsieur le Marquis, we must wait to see the hideous visage of the old Des and see,” was still her reply; and the Mar- Tournelles from behind the half drawn quis, with feet on the fender and nose over curtains bawling-Marry your daughter the embers, abandoned himself to mute to Bernard. No the Marquis was not despair, from which the baroness no the man to remain, if he could avoid it, in longer even attempted to withdraw him. a position so frightful and so repugnant to He expected, from day to day, to receive all his feelings. He had neither the pahis notice to quit in due form of law. tience nor the perseverance which are the Nor was this all. M. de La Seigliere cement of energetic and bold spirits. knew, beyond a reasonable doubt, that Restless, irritated, humbled, exasperated, he was, for the country round about, tired of waiting and seeing nothing done, lost as M. Des Tournelles had told him, a in a swamp from which he saw no issue, the subject of derision and mockery, as well chances were a hundred to one that the as of hatred and execration. Anonymous Marquis would suddenly disappear by the letters—the diversion and pastime of the aid of a pistol. But no, not even Madprovince-completed the bitterness of his ame de Vaubert could 'conjecture what cup of life, already steeped in gall and bomb was to burst,—no one save M. Des wormwood. No day passed which did not Tournelles, who had kindled the match. bring to him some one of those venomous One evening in April, Madame de Vauflowers, which grow in the shade, and bert sat alone with the Marquis, silent, and abound in the departmental soil. Some gazing steadfastly at the flashing embers of them called him an aristocrat, and which were dying in the fire-place. It was threatened to "lantern him."* Others easy for the observer to see that deep anxaccused him of ingratitude towards his old iety brooded over her heart like a stormy servant, and of seeking to disinherit the atmosphere. Her eye was glassy, her brow son after having cheated and plundered heavy with care, her fingers clenched like the father. Most of these letters were one in extremity, and her mouth, usually enriched with pen and ink illustrations, cheerful and smiling, was contracted with little sketches full of grace and amenity, a feeling of selfish despair

. And she had, which advantageously supplied, or agreea- indeed, just cause of alarm. Her prosbly completed, the text. There was, for pects became day by day more desperate, instance, a gallows decorated with a poor and she began to ask herself if there was fellow pendant, doubtless intended to rep- not danger that she would be caught in her resent the Marquis; or, perhaps, the same

own snare?

Bernard had the advantage, personage was sketched in the act of try- very decidedly, and looked and acted very ing the virtues of another well known in- much as if he regarded the estate as unstrument of death at that time. To add doubtedly his own; and although she had still further to his anguish, the Gazette, not given up all hope, although she had which the Marquis had read assiduously not thrown the handle after the hatchet, since his consultation with the Poitevin yet, foreseeing that the time would per

haps come, when M. de La Seigliere would To lantern," was the republican phrase of be obliged to evacuate the premises, the the times for hanging to a lamp post.—TR. baroness had already begun to prepare the

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