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Svo, at is, with biom controve,

Flemish, en in 1614 preniotos with Sup

which subject he had a very warm controversy with Swamierdam. His works, with his life prefixed, were pube lished in 8vo, at Leyden, in 1677 and 1705; and were translated into Flemish, and published at Amsterdam in 1686.1

GRAAT, or GRAET BARENT, was an historical painter, · whose name is remembered principally upon account of his close imitation of the works of Bamboccio, and of his having founded an academy at Amsterdam, where he was born. The best artists of his time resorted here to study after living models; by which means much improvement was obtained by those who cultivated taste and science in the arts. He died in 1709, aged eighty-one.

GRABE (JOHN ERNEST), the learned editor of the “ Septuagint," from the Alexandrian MS. in the royal library at Buckingham-house, was the son of Martyn Sylveșter Grabe, professor of divinity and history in the university of Koningsberg, in Prussia, where his son Ernest was born Jan. 10, 1666. He had his education there, and took the degree of M. A. in that university ; after which, devoting himself to the study of divinity, he read the works of the fathers with the utmost attention. These he took as the best masters and instructors upon the important subject of religion. He was fond of their principles and customs, and that fondness grew into a kind of unreserved veneration for their authority.' Among these he observed the uninterrupted succession of the sacred ministry to be universally laid down as essential to the being of a true church: and this discovery so powerfully impressed his mind, that at length he thought himself obliged, in conscience, to quit Lutheranism, the established religion of his country, in which he had been bred, and enter within the pale of the Roman church, where that succession was preserved. In this temper he saw likewise many other particulars in the Lutheran faith and practice, not agree able to that of the fathers, and consequently absolutely erroneous, if not heretical.

Being confirmed in this resolution, he gave in to the electoral college at Sambia in Prussia, a memorial, containing the reasons for his change, in 1695; and, leaving Koningsberg, set out in order to put it in execution in

Yor in which shanism, the imself obligpressed his

1 Niceron, vol. XXXIV.Foppen, Bibl. Bel.

Pilkington.-- Rees's Cyclopædia.

some catholic country. He was in the road to Erfurt in this design, when there were presented to him three tracts in answer to his memorial, from the elector of Branden. burgh, who had given immediate orders to three Prussian divines to write them for the purpose. The names of these divines were Philip James Spener, Bernard Van Sanden, and John William Baier. The first was ecclesiastical counsellor to the elector, and principal minister at Berlin ; and the second principal professor at Koningsberg. The three answers were printed the same year: the first at Berlin, the second at Koningsberg, both in 4to, and the third at Jana, in 8vo. Grabe was entirely disposed to pay all due respect to this address from his sovereign; and, having perused the tracts with care, his resolution for embracing popery was so much weakened, that he wrote to one of the divines, Spener, to procure him a safe-conduct, that he might return to Berlin, to confer with him. This favour being easily obtained, he went to that city, where Spener prevailed upon him so far as to change his design of going among the papists, for another. In England, says this friend, you will meet with the outward and uninterrupted succession which you want: take then your route thither ; this step will give much less dissatisfaction to your friends, and at the same time equally satisfy your conscience. Our divine wielded to the advice ; and, arriving in England, wası received with all the respect due to his merit, and presently recommended to king William in such terms, that his majesty granted bim a pension of 100l. per annum, to enable him to pursue his studies.

With the warmest sense of those favours, he presently shewed himself not unworthy of the royal bounty, by the many valuable books which he published in England; which, from this time, he adopted for his own country; and finding the ecclesiastical constitution so much to his mind, he entered into priest's orders in that church, and became a zealous advocate for it, as conting nearer in his opinion to the primitive pattern than any other. In this spirit he published, in 1698, and the following year, “Spieilegium SS. Patrum, &c.”? or a collection of the lesser works and fragments, rarely to be met with, of the fathers and heretics of the three first centuries; induced to this compilation, as he expressly declared, by the consideration, that there could be no better expedient for healing the divisions of the Christian church, than to refiect on

the practice and opinions of the primitive fathers. Both these volumes were reprinted at Oxford in 1700, 8vo, and some remarks were made upon the first in a piece entitled A new and full method of settling the Canonical Authority of the New Testament, by Jer. Joues, 1726,” 8vo. From the same motive he printed also Justin Martyr's “ First Apology” in 1700; and the works of Irenæus in 1702; both which were animadverted upon by Thirlby, the editor of Justin Martyr, and Massuet, the editor of Irenæus. Upon the accession of queen Anne to the throne this year, besides continuing his pension, her majesty sought an occasion of giving some farther proofs of her special regard for him ; and she was not long in finding one.

The “ Septuagint” had never been entirely printed from the Alexandrian MS. in St. James's library, partly owing to the great difficulty of performing it in a manner suitable to its real worth, and partly because that worth itself had been so much questioned by the advocates of the Roman copy, that it was even grown into some neglect. To perform this task, and to assert its superior merit, was an honour marked out for Grabe; and when her majesty acquainted him with it, she at the same time presented him with a purse of 60l. by the suggestion of her minister Harley, to enable him to go through with it. This was a most arduous undertaking, and he spared no pains to complete it. In the mean time he employed such hours as were necessary for refreshment, in other works of principal esteem. In 1705 he gave a beautiful edition of bishop Bull's works, in folio, with notes ; for which he received the author's particular thanks; and be bad also a hand in preparing for the press archdeacon Gregory's edition of the New Testament in Greek, which was printed the same year at Oxford, revising the scholia, which Gregory, then dead, had collected from various authors, and making the proper references.

From his first arrival he had resided a great part of his time in that university, with which he was exceedingly delighted. Besides the Bodleian library there, he met with several persons of the first class of learning in theologi. cal and sacred criticism, among whom he found that freedom of conversation and communication of studies which is inseparable from true scholars; but still the Alexandrian MS. was the chief object of his labour. He examined it with his usual diligence, and comparing it with a copy from that of the Vatican at Rome, he found it in so many places preferable to the other, that he resolved to print it as soon as possible. With this view, in 1704, he drew up a particular account of the preferences of this to the Vatican MS. especially in respect to the book of “ Judges," and published it, together with three specimens, contain: ing so many different methods of his intended edition, wishing to be determined in his choice by the learned. This came out in 1705, with proposals for printing it by subscription, in a letter addressed to Dr. Mill, principal of Edmund-hall, Oxford; and that nothing might be wanting which lay in the power of that learned body to promote the work, he was honoured with the degree of D. D. early the following year, upon which occasion Dr. Smalridge, who then officiated as regius professor, delivered two Latin speeches, containing the highest compliments to his merit. The success was abundantly answerable to his fondest wishes : besides the queen's bounty, he received another present from his own sovereign the king of Prussia ; and subscriptions from the principal nobility, clergy, and gentry, crowded daily upon bim froin all parts.

In the midst of these encouragements, the first volume of this important work came out in 1707, at Oxford, in folio and 8vo. This volume contained the Octateuch, and his design was to print the rest, according to the tenor of the MS. but, for want of some materials to complete the historical and prophetical books, he chose rather to change that order, and to expedite the work as much as possible. The chief materials for which he waited not yet coming to hand, he was sensible that the world might expect to see the reasons of the delay, and therefore published a disserțation the following year, giving a particular account of it, under the title of “Dissertatio de variis viljis LXX Interpretum ante B. Origenis ævum illatis, & remediis ab ipso Hexaplari ejusdem versionis additione adhibitis, deque hujus ediționis reliquiis tam manuscriptis tam prælo excusis." The helps he wanted, as above intimated, were a Syriac MS. of the historical books of the Old Testament, with Origen's marks upon them; besides two MSS. one belonging to cardinal Chigi, and the other to the college of Lewis le Grand. He received all afterwards, and made collations from them, as also for a volume of annotations upon the whole work, as well as for the prolegomena; all wbich requiring some time to digest into a proper method, the


second volume did not come out till 1719, when the fourth also appeared, and was followed by the third the ensuing year.

In the mean time, he fell into a dispute with Whiston, who had not only in private discourses, in order to support his own cause by the strength of our author's character, but also in public writings, plainly intimated, “ that the doctor was nearly of his mind about the Constitution of the Apostles, written by St. Clement, and that he owned in general the genuine truth and apostolical antiquity of that collection.” This calumny was neglected by our author for some time, till he understood that the story gained credit, and was actually believed by several persons who were acquainted with him. For that reason he thought it necessary to inform the public, that his opinion of the Apostolical Constitutions was quite different, if not opposite, to Mr. Whiston's sentiments about them; this he did in “ An Essay upon two Arabic Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, and that ancient book called the Doctrine of the Apostles, which is said to be extant in them, wherein Mr. Whiston's mistakes about both are plainly proved.”

This piece was printed at Oxford, 1711, 8vo. In the dedication, he observes, that it was the first piece which he published in the English tongue, for the service of the church. He was assisted in it by Gagnier, who, about ten years before, had come over to the church of England from that of France, and then taught Hebrew at Oxford; and, being well skilled in most of the Oriental languages, had been appointed the year before, by Sharp, archbishop of York, to assist Grabe in perusing these MSS. having engaged the doctor to write this treatise against Whiston's notion. But as the result of the inquiry was, that the Arabic “ Didascalia” were nothing else but a translation of the first six entire books of the “ Clementine Constitutions," with only the addition of five or six chapters not in the Greek, Whiston immediately sent out “ Remarks upon Grabe's Essay,” &c. 1711; in which, with his usual perti. nacity he claims this MS. for a principal support of his own opinions, and declares, the doctor could not have served him better than he had done in this essay. Nor has almost, says he, any discovery, I think, happened so fortunate to me, and to that sacred cause I am engaged in from the beginning, as this essay of his before us. However this may be, Grabe's essay was his last publication, being prevented in the design he had of publishing many

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