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cHAPTER cIII.--THE PARISIANs PRopose whatever MEASUREs THEY PLEASE, IN THE PRESENCE OF THE DUKE OF AQUITAINE AND THE OTHER PRINCES.–CRUELTIES COMMITTED BY THEM.
ON Thursday the 11th of May, the Parisians held a great assembly, and made various propositions, in the presence of the dukes of Aquitaine, Berry, Burgundy, and Lorrain, the counts of Nevers, Charolois, and many nobles and prelates, with others, wearing white hoods by way of uniform, who were said to exceed twelve thousand in number. Towards the conclusion, they presented a roll to the duke of Aquitaine, which he would have refused to accept; but they constrained him not only to take it, but to read its contents publicly. Sixty persons, as well absent as present, were charged in this roll as traitors: twenty of whom were instantly arrested and confined in prison. In this number were the lord de Boissay, master of the household to the king, Michel Lallier, and others to the number above mentioned. The absent that had been thus accused were summoned, by sound of trumpet, in all the squares of Paris, to appear within a few days, under penalty, in case of disobedience, of having their properties confiscated to the king's use.
On the 18th day of this same month, the king recovered his health, and went from his hôtel of St. Pol to the church of Nôtre Dame, wearing a white hood like the other princes.
When he had finished his prayers, he returned home accompanied by a vast multitude of people. On the Monday following, the Parisians had their city surrounded by numbers of men-at-arms, so that no person might leave it without permission: the gates were closely shut, and the bridges drawn up and watched by a numerous guard at each, armed with all sorts of weapons. They also appointed armed divisions of tens in all the streets; and when this was done, the provost of the merchants, the sheriffs, and other leaders, marched a large body of armed men to the hôtel of St. Pol, which they surrounded with a line three deep ;
and having given their orders how they were to act, they waited on the king, the queen, and the dauphin, who were perfectly ignorant of their proceedings. There was at this time a grand assembly of nobles in Paris, namely, the dukes of Berry, Burgundy, Lorrain, and duke Louis of Bavaria, brother to the queen, who was on the morrow to marry, at the hôtel de St. Pol, the sister of the count d'Alençon, the widow of the lord Peter de Navarre, count de Mortain. The counts de Nevers, de Charolois, de St. Pol, constable of France, and many more great barons and prelates, were likewise present. They there ordered a carmelite friar, call friar Eustache, to harangue the king, who, having taken for his text “Nisi Dominus custoderit civitatem suam, frustra vigilat qui custodit eam," discoursed well and long upon it, and made some mention of the prisoners, of the bad state of the government of the kingdom, and of the crimes that were committed. When he had ended his speech, the chancellor of France bade him say who were his protectors, when instantly the provost of the merchants and the sheriffs acknowledged him. But as there were but few people present, and as they did not speak loud enough, according to the will of the chancellor, some of them descended to the court to call those of the greatest birth and weight that had remained armed below. The principal leaders returned with them to the king's apartment, and with bended knees avowed that what father Eustache had said was conformable to their sentiments; that they had the sincerest love for him and for his family, and that their sole wish was to serve his royal majesty with clean and pure hearts; that everything they had done had been for the welfare of himself and his kingdom, as well as for the preservation of his person and family. While this was passing, the duke of Burgundy, noticing the line of armed men that were drawn up three deep, and surrounding the king's hotel, went down and earnestly entreated of them to retire, demanding of them what they wanted, and why they were thus come armed; for that it was neither decent nor expedient that the king, who was so lately recovered from his illness, should thus see them drawn up, as it were, in battle array. They replied, they were not assembled with an ill intent, but for the good of the king and his kingdom: they concluded by giving him a roll, and said, they were on no account to depart thence until those whose names were therein inscribed should be delivered up to them, namely, Louis of Bavaria, brother to the queen, and the following knights: Charles de Villers, Courard Bayer, Jean de Neelle lord d'Ollehaing, the archbishop of Bourges, master William Boisratier, confessor to the queen, Jean Vincent, Colin de Pieul, Jeannet de Cousteville, Mainfroy, treasurer to the duke of Aquitaine, and a courier of the duke of Orleans, who happened accidentally to be in Paris, having brought letters from his master to the king; the lady Bona d'Armagnac, lady of Montauban", la dame du Quesnoy, la dame d'Avelays, la dame de Noyon, la dame du Chastel, and four other damsels. When the duke of Burgundy found that everything he could say was in vain, he went to the queen, and showed her the list they had given to him, telling her what they required. She was much troubled thereat, and, calling her son the dauphin, bade him return with the duke of Burgundy, and entreat them most affectionately in her name to desist for only eight days from their present demands, and that on the eighth day she would without fail deliver up her brother, or suffer them to arrest him, and carry him a prisoner to the Louvre, to the Palace, or whithersoever they should please. The duke of Aquitaine, hearing these words from his mother, retired to a private chamber and wept bitterly,–but was followed by the duke of Burgundy, who exhorted him not to weep, which he complied with, and wiped away his tears. They descended to the Parisians, and the duke of Burgundy explained in a few words the request of the queen; but they positively refused to grant it, and declared they would go up to the queen's apartment, and should those contained in the list be refused to be given up, they would take them by force, even in the king's presence, and carry them away prisoners. The two dukes, hearing this answer, went back to the queen, whom they found in conversation with her brother and the king. They reported their reception from the Parisians,when the duke of Bavaria, seeing he could not escape, full of bitterness and distress, descended down to them, and desired that he alone might be taken into custody; that if he were found * Bona, eldest daughter of the constable d'Armagnac, afterwards married to Charles duke of Orleans. .
guilty, he might be punished without mercy, otherwise that he might, instantly have his liberty, and go to Bavaria, never more to return to France. The others also, with the ladies and damsels, were forced to surrender themselves, but it was not without great lamentations and effusion of tears. They were directly put two and two on horseback, each horse escorted by four men-at-arms, and carried, some prisoners to the Louvre, and others to the Palace, followed by a large body of the Parisians under arms. When this was done, the king went to his dinner, and the queen with her son retired in great grief to their apartments. Within a short time, the courier was set at liberty, and so was the lord d'Ollehaing, who was reinstated in the office of chancellor of Aquitaine, from which he had been dismissed. The duke of Burgundy had under his guard his cousin-german the duke of Bar, sir Peter and sir Anthony des Essars, with other prisoners confined in the Louvre, whom he caused to be attended by his servants, and for whose security he had pledged himself. But he acted quite contrary, and returned them to the Parisians, who imprisoned them closely, and caused twelve knights to be nominated by the king as commissaries, and six examiners, to inquire into their offences, and to condemn and punish them according to the heinousness of their crimes and the exigence of the case. In consequence of this, a statement was drawn up by directions of the duke of Berry, uncle to the duke of Bar, the countess de St. Pol, and others his friends, and given to the Parisians, who sent it to the university of Paris for their advice and approbation of what they had done. The university replied, that they would no way intermeddle nor advise in the business; and they moreover declared, in full council before the king, that so far from having advised the arrest of the duke of Bar and the other prisoners, they were much displeased that it had taken place. The Parisians, therefore, seeing that the university was disunited from them, and fearing that their conduct would, in after-times, be examined into, obtained from the king and his council a royal edict, as an indemnity and excuse for their actions, the tenor of which was as follows. “Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to all to whom these presents shall come, greeting, on the part of our dear and well-beloved the provost, sheriffs, citizens, and inhabitants of this good town of Paris. “We make known, that for our urgent profit and welfare, also for that of our very dear son the duke of Aquitaine, dauphin of Viennois, and for the public welfare, for the security of our good town of Paris, and to obviate inconveniences that might have arisen from the malversation of some of our ministers, as well those of justice as others, and in order to prevent such malversations from increasing, certain arrests have lately taken place on divers men and women, as well of our blood and household as of those of our very well beloved consort the queen, of our son, and our very dear daughter the duchess of Aquitaine, and countess of Charolois, for the effecting of which arrests a large assemblage of men-at-arms was thought expedient, considering the rank and power of those to be arrested, who are now confined in our prisons of the Louvre, of our Palace, and in different prisons in our good town of Paris. The crimes alleged against them are for treasonable practices committed against us, our said son, the welfare of the kingdom and that of our good city of Paris, and also concerning the government of our person, of our son, and of the police of our said town and kingdom, for all of which sufficient judges have been appointed, who will examine into their various delinquencies, and punish in such wise as the public good may require, so that our good city of Paris, which is the head of our realm, may not again suffer any alarms through their fault, or that of their accomplices, who, fearing the consequences, have escaped out of the city. “For these causes, and from the great love and loyalty they bear to us, who are their sovereign and natural lord, as well as to our said eldest son, the aforesaid provost, sheriffs, and citizens of Paris, have requested these presents in order that good government may be restored, the security and welfare of our person and state be provided for, and that such arrests and imprisonments may be considered as solely done out of the purity of their loyal intentions towards us, our family, and the public good of the realm. We will, therefore, that such arrests and imprisonments be so considered, and that they be regarded as done for the true honour and profit of us and of our crown; and that all who have been abettors or aiding in the above arrests and imprisonments, noble or not noble, shall be deemed praiseworthy; and by the advice of some of our kindred, as well as by that of our great council, we do approve of and avow such acts. “By the tenor of these presents we acknowledge and hold them for agreeable, and forbid that for these causes, or for any others that may be connected with them, those who have thus acted be any way harassed or molested in body or estate, or any suit be preferred against them in our courts of justice, by any means or pretext whatever, but that they shall be held acquitted in perpetuity. We give this, therefore, in command to all our beloved and faithful counsellors, who now hold or shall hereafter hold our courts of parliament at Paris, all masters of requests in our household, and those holding similar situations in our royal palace, all officers in our exchequer, and all commissaries named to inspect our finances and domain, as well as those lately appointed to examine into the charges brought against the prisoners in our castle of the Louvre, and elsewhere in our prisons in Paris, to the provost of Paris, to all our seneschals, bailiffs, provosts, judges and other officers of justice at present and in times to come, and to each as in duty bound, that they do proclaim these presents in the accustomed public places, and that they do see that the commands herein contained be not infringed or disobeyed, so that the engagements we have entered into with the parties demanding these presents may be punctually observed. “And as the parties may wish hereafter to renew the publicity of these presents, we will that there be exact copies made of them under the seal of the Châtelet, or other royal seals, to make them as authentic as the original, and that they may be of equal efficacy. Given at Paris the 24th day of May, in the year of Grace 1413, and of our reign the 33d.” It was thus signed by the king in council; at which were present the dukes of Berry and Burgundy, the constable of France, the archbishop of Bourges, the bishop of Evreux, the bishop of Tournay, the grand-master of the household, the lord de la Tremouille governor to the dauphin, sir Anthony de Craon, sir Philip de Poitiers, the chancellor of Burgundy, the abbot of St. Jean, master Eustace de la Chere, the lords de Viefville, de Mont-Beron", and de la Rochefoucault t, the provost of Paris, sir Charles de Savoisy, the hermit de Faye, Jean de Courcelles, the lord d'Allegrezi, master Mille d'Orgemont, Raoul le Saige, Mille d'Angeul, Jean de Longneux, and many others.-" P. NAucRoN.”
CHAPTER CIV.-THE COUNT DE WERTUS AND SEVERAL OF THE NOBILITY LEAVE PARIS.OTHER REGULATIONS AND EDICTS OBTAINED FROM THE KING BY THE PARISIANS.
DURING these melancholy times, the count de Vertus, indignant at the arrest of the duke of Bar and other nobles, secretly left Paris, attended by two persons only, without the knowledge of the king or the duke of Burgundy, and hastened to his brother the duke of Orleans, at Blois, to whom he related all the extraordinary events that had passed in Paris, as well in the hotel of the king as in that of the dauphin, and elsewhere, to the great displeasure of the duke of Orleans. The duke of Burgundy was much vexed at the departure of the count de Vertus, for he had hopes to accomplish the marriage that had been for some time agreed on between him and his daughter. Many other noblemen quitted Paris from fear of the changes that were taking place, namely, sir James de Chastillon, eldest son to the lord de Dampierre, the lords de Croy and de Roubaix, Coppin de la Viefville, master Raoul, head provost of St. Donas at Bruges, Pierre Genstiere, who had lately been provost of merchants, and many more. Several were particularly remanded by the duke of Burgundy, who returned in great alarm, and not without cause; for of those who had been imprisoned, many were daily, without regard to sex, drowned in the Seine, or miserably put to death, without any form of law or justice. On the 26th day of May, the king went to the parliament, and, at the instance of the duke of Burgundy and the Parisians, held a royal sitting, and caused several edicts to be published respecting the reformation of abuses. These, and other regulations for the government of the kingdom, were sent to the different bailiwicks, and other usual places, for proclamation. One of them was directed against sir Clugnet de Brabant, who in company with other captains had assembled in great force on the river Loire, to be ready to march to Paris,— the tenor of which was as follows. “Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.—Whereas it has come to our knowledge, that notwithstanding the very great oppressions which our subjects have suffered in various parts of our realm from the assembling of large bodies of men-at-arms, which the princes of our blood, and other barons, have thought proper, at different periods, to raise on their own authority,+ there are still several who now continue such practices, to the great grievance of our faithful subjects. We have caused to be published and proclaimed throughout our realm, as well by messages as by sealed letters, our strict prohibition of such acts, under very heavy penalties; and we have ordered, that none, of whatever rank he may be, subject or foreigner, shall have the boldness to raise any men in future on their own sole authority, whether by way of companies or otherwise, without our special orders, or in obedience to our summons to come to serve us. “Several of our kindred, however, contrary to these our orders, and in opposition to the treaty of peace lately concluded at Auxerre by us, to put an end to dissentions which had arisen in our family, and which they solemnly swore to observe, are now preparing to assemble large bodies of men-at-arms without any authority or licence from us, and to unite them with a numerous army of English and foreigners, to carry into effect their damnable purposes, which they have plotted against us and our government, according to the information we have received. “We have been repeatedly assured that they are favoured and supported by many in an underhand manner; and to force others to join them, they harass and despoil all who have served us, more especially those who assisted us in our late expedition to Bourges, when we considered them as enemies of the state, and marched thither with the intent of correcting them sufficiently for their outrageous conduct. They at this moment, as we have had sufficient information, commit every sort of violence, by killing our subjects, violating damsels, setting fire to houses and villages, and despoiling churches, and many other atrocious crimes, such as the bitterest enemies of the country would commit, and which are such bad examples that they must not longer be suffered. “In consequence, therefore, of the lamentations and heavy complaints that have been made to us, we are resolved to remedy these grievances, which are so highly displeasing to us, in the most effectual manner: we therefore most expressly enjoin and command you, by these presents, that you instantly make public proclamation, by sound of trumpet, of this our prohibition, for any knight, esquire, or others accustomed to bear arms, of whatever rank they may be, Land we order them, on pain of our severest anger, and on the loyalty they owe us, not to arm themselves, nor to join any bodies that may have assembled in arms within our kingdom without our special authority, nor to obey the summons of any one related to our person or not, on any occasion whatever, unless they be particularly ordered by us to join them for the good of our service. “All whom you shall hear of having such intentions, you will command, in our name, to desist, and peaceably to return to their dwellings, or whither else they may please, without doing any harm to our subjects. Should they refuse to obey your orders, and persist in their wicked intentions, you will instantly take possession, in our name, of all their castles, dwellings, and possessions, causing an exact inventory to be made out, of the real and annual value, which you will place in the hands of safe persons to administer such estates, to render us an exact account of their amount, and to relinquish them whenever we may see good. You will also proceed against them as rebels; for we abandon them to you to imprison and punish according as you shall judge expedient. You will likewise, should they have quitted
* Called before “Mouberon;" but Montberon is right. James, son of Imbert, lord of Montberon, in Angoumois, was made mareschal of France in 1422, in the place of John de Williers de l'Isle-Adam.
t Guy, eighth lord of la Rochefoucault, was one of the first lords of Guienne, who did homage to the crown of France after the peace of Bretigny. Froissart mentions a duel which took place, in 1380, between this nobleman and
William lord of Montferrand, at which he was attended by