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experienced, gifted, landed property (estates, &c.), leisured persons, moneyed, murrained cattle (Shelley), nectared sweets (Symonds), patterned, sainted (compare ' saintly'), salaried members, skilled, spirited, storied urn (Gray), tolled roads, unexampled, unfriended (Goldsmith), unidea-ed, wooded'. There seems to be a decided tendency to accept this formation in practice. Compare also, under t (p. 269), 'cornute', &c. (See also Latham's Johnson's Dictionary, under gifted '.)

When an adjective is linked to the noun, the noun takes on 'ed' with the utmost readiness. 'Hundred-handed', 'longlegged', 'middle-aged', 'old-fashioned', 'thick-headed', and similar cases, occur with extraordinary frequency.

Another form of 'd' is th, t. We need not concern ourselves with concrete derivatives, like 'dart, earth, heath, knight'; nor delay over the adjective use of the participle in the form 't', 'a snapt ring'. The main importance attaches to the abstract nouns, which are formed partly from verbs, partly from adjectives. Birth, death, growth, mirth, ruth, spilth, stealth, tilth, draught, drought, flight, gift, might, sight, thought, weight. Breadth, dearth, depth, height (formerly also ‘heighth', in Milton 'highth'), length, truth, warmth, wealth, width.

En, n, is the ending of the perfect participle of the strong verbs. This participle also is used as an adjective: 'a beaten army', 'Iroken vows’; ‘open, drunken, own', and one or two other regular adjectives were originally participles. Here again we may pass over a number of nouns, inostly concrete, formed in this ending, but very seldom with a felt meaning.

By means of 'en', adjectives are freely formed, for the most part, from nouns of material. aspen,

beechen, birchen, brazen, cedarn, flaxen, golden, hempen, leaden, oaken, silken, twiggen, wheaten, wooden. Compare with these adjectives the substitution of the bare noun- - silk dress'; and also the forms in 'y' (when they exist)-brassy, silky, woody.

Er-n appears in 'eastern, northern, southern, western '.


And along with 'ern’ may be mentioned er-ly: easterly, &c.

In causative verbs, en is an important suffix to adjectives, and occasionally to nouns. Chasten, deepen, broaden, fatten, gladden, shorten, sicken, slacken, sweeten, widen. Hasten, heighten, lengthen, strengthen.

Of the adjectives, nouns, and verbs, forming in 1, el, le, we notice only the verbs. These have a diminutive and frequentative sense: dibble, drizzle, dwindle, fribble, frizzle, giggle, sprinkle; which easily passes over to depreciation: babble, cackle, dabble, dangle, wrangle. (Compare 'r', er', immediately following.)

Of words ending in r, er, we again pass over those where the suffix is no longer more than a dead termination ; &

1 very few adjectives, a few frequentative or intensive verbs, a considerable list of nouns. The living interest attaches mainly to names of personal agents derived from verbs : baker, builder, driver, fisher, leader, lover, player, speaker. A smaller, but increasing, number come from nouns : forester, glover, hatter, hedger, miller, outfitter, waggoner. We cannot in every case assert decisively whether the root is verb or noun: ditcher, gardener. There are also many names of things (some of which are used also for persons), both from verbs and from nouns : bruiser, chopper, cleaver, cooler, cracker, cutter, grinder, layer, (twelve)-pounder, refresher, slaver, steamer, streamer, sucker, weeper. This is one of our most active endings, attaching itself to classical as well as to native roots.

Naturally the Saxon er gets confused with another 'er or ‘ier' from classical sources. Hence-brazier, clotbier, collier, glazier, sawyer. We find also— liar, beggar, sailor (O. E. sailer), &c. But the most noticeable cases are nouns that appear to be formed by adding 'er'to verbs or to other nouns: archer, barber, cellarer, draper, falconer, mariner, officer, palmer, prisoner, treasurer.

Yet these, and many others, are really from a Latin termination, -arius, -erius, modified into French, -aire, ier. Perhaps the formation of names of personal agents from nouns in 'er' received an impulse from the similarity of such examples.


Er and est, the comparative and superlative suffixes, are explained under the Inflection of Adjectives. With these is to be classed the double superlative ending'-most' (O. E. mest) in-hindmost, lowermost, utmost, westmost, &c.

Fold is used freely to form adjectives of number: threefold, sevenfold, sixtyfold, manifold. These are useful in carrying on the multiplicative series-single, double, triple (treble), &c.

Ful is of great account as an adjective suffix, joined to nouns native and classical alike: artful, baleful, careful, dutiful, fruitful, manful, powerful, reproachful, sinful, thankful, useful, wasteful, woeful. We can seldom be sure that it unites with a verb : forgetful, wakeful, (perhaps) fretful.

*Ful' is also joined to nouns to form other nouns expressing a measure or quantity: bellyful, capful, handful, houseful, kettleful, toothful.

Hood, head, passes through the meanings of person, character, office, condition, state. It forms abstract nouns, which not unfrequently take a collective sense : brotherhood, childhood, knighthood, manhood, neighbourhood, priesthood, widowhood, womanhood; godhead, maidenhead (as well as 'maidenhood '). These are from nouns; the adjective roots are few—falsehood, hardihood, likelihood.

• Livelihood' should mean liveliness'. It is, however, an assimilation of liflode' (Saxon 'lifladu', leading of life), ' means of living, maintenance'.

In the older stages of the language this suffix was in much niore extensive employment. A few examples may be quoted : 'prentishode' (apprenticeship), “ efenhâd' (evenness, equality), 'lowlihood' (lowliness), 'goodleyhede', 'bountihed' (bounty, bountifulness, bounteousness), 'dreryhedd', 'humblebede' (humility), 'yonghede’ (youth).

The corresponding form in German, -heit, is most abun. dantly used.

Ish, sh, ch, signifies in general ‘belonging to or appertaining to' the idea of the root, ‘resemblance' (after the manner of). Apish, babyish, bookish, churlish, foolish, monkish,


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roguish, swinish-are from nouns. So also national names (adjective): English, Babylonish, French, Scottish and Scotch, Swedish ; a form used much more freely by the Germans. Joined with adjectives, ‘ish' indicates approach to the quality expressed by the root, the root quality in a weak or inferior degree: brownish, greenish, longish, oldish, reddish, sweetish. Compare the more technical prefix 'sub '-'subacid', &c.

The sense of diminution or inferiority also runs through ock, (i)kin, ing, ling', which may be treated all together.

Ock is used mainly as diminutive: bullock, buttock, hillock, paddock, ruddock; and in some proper names: · Pollock' (Paul), Simcox' (Simon), · Wilcock, Wilcox', (William), &c. In some words the ‘ock'ending is probably an assimilation.

Scotch presents some varieties; as in lassock, lassick, lassickie, wifukie, mannikie. The ie in these last examples may be the separate ending 'y', 'ie', superadded to make a stronger double diminutive-Billy, Tommy; lassie, wifie, doggie, &c.

Kin appears in some words : bumpkin, buskin, daughterkin (Carlyle's Translation of Musaeus's Dumb Love), ladkin, lambkin, &c.

Ing is found in a small number of instances, chiefly in names of persons, animals, and coins. Lording (which had not originally the diminutive signification), hilding, nithing; gelding, herring, whiting; farthing, shilling. “Pending' was a prior form of 'penny'.

This '-ing' was the formative of the Saxon patronymic: as ' Ælfred Æthelwulfing', Alfred the son of Æthelwulf;

Æthelwulf wæs Ecgbryhting’, Æthelwulf was son of Ecgbryht. (Earle, Phil. of Engl. Tongue, p. 299.)

Here may be placed ' Ætheling' and 'King' (cyning).

Ling is the previous form with 'l'prefixed. It is a greater favourite than 'ing'. Joined to various parts of speech, chiefly nouns and verbs, it names for the most part persons and animais, rarely condescending to lower individuals. The sense of diminution' easily passed over to depreciation

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and contempt (as sometimes was the case with ‘ing'); still, in the names of animals especially, the suffix often indicates merely 'youth' or 'small size '. The following are examples of ‘ling' in combination with various roots : duckling, gosling, lordling, nestling, oakling, sapling, seedling, stripling, twinling, yearling; darling, firstling, weakling, youngling; changeling, fosterling, foundling, hireling, nursling, suckling, yeanling; underling (compare 0. E. 'overling' = ruler, master).

Ing, anciently ung, the native termination for verbal abstract nouns, is an ending of far greater consequence. Though marred by collision with so many other ‘ing' endings, it is nevertheless used most widely. It joins with the utmost freedom to classical as well as to native verbs. Beginning, binding, blessing, building, clothing, dying, ending, fighting, giving, shipping, wandering; acting, carrying, charging, diminishing, glorying, performing, praying, prophesying, refreshing, reviving.

This suffix is found in many common nouns, and not unfrequently with collective meaning, as ‘shipping’; but such cases are to be regarded as secondary applications.

Ling also turns up once more, this time as an adverbial termination, with a second form ‘long'. The roots are adjectives and nouns : darkling, flatling; headlong, sidelong. The examples were at one time more numerous --backling, noseling, &c. And they still flourish in Scotch and in German.

Less is an exceedingly useful suffix for the negative or privative signification. It forms adjectives, mostly from nouns, which are native or classical indiscriminately: beardless, bootless, endless, eyeless, fearless, headless, lifeless, homeless, pithless; artless, defenceless, flameless, measureless, noiseless, pitiless, powerless, senseless, useless. The suffix is freely applicable in similar new formations. The compounds with verbs are few: exhaustless, quenchless, reckless, relentless, resistless, and probably countless, corruptless, moveless, viewless. These should be compared with the equivalent meanings in inexhaustible, unquench

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