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my of the Moor scorned to believe by halves, I ra, and many others almost unknown beand embraced, with the same fervor of fore. The due amount of technical cant exalted faith, the Athanasian creed and the has been expended to illustrate their metraditionary legends, the divine mission and rits. And for a straight-forward, scholarthe story of the portrait which Christ sent like account of some of the chief monuto King Abgarus, the mysterious atonement ments of Spanish art, we unhesitatingly on the Cross, and the genuineness of the refer the reader to the work whose title letter of Proconsul Lentulus to the Roman
stands at the head of this paper. Senate, containing a description of the But it is in the literature, and even in personal appearance of the Saviour. the very essence of the language of Spain,
Hence, the fine arts in Spain took a tone that the influence of the circumstances atof intense fervor and severe simplicity, tending their growth can more obviously carried, as every thing else in that land of and curiously be traced. An undertone ultraism, to extreme exaggeration. Cer- of heroic pomp may be distinctly felt in tain types obtained, by universal consent, both, and though less consonant with the the authority of law, and woe to the rebel present condition of the country than it was whom the Inquisition caught departing with the splendors of Charles V., it harfrom precedent. The canonized lived again monizes gracefully enough with “ that allon canvas or in marble, in their own true respecting self-respect which it is a miracle repulsiveness of penitential sanctity, with not to find in the bearing of a Spaniard, profuse and heavy drapery, with features be he high or low,”—to quote a judicious emaciated by privations and composed in remark of Mr. Wallis. the rigid callousness of devotional contem- The name of that elegant writer reminds plation. But never was the heaven-born us that we have been digressing over much inspiration of beauty admitted to gild the from the consideration of his work. Driven dreams of the Spanish artist, or to animate to travel by the delicate state of his health, his creations. Never did the chisel or the he resolved to visit Spain. A short stay brush, in that land of formal decorousness, in Barcelona furnished him with materials disrobe the human form, that embodiment for several very interesting chapters. From of the divine essence, to show the admira- one of these we will make free to offer a ble symmetry of its proportions. Seldom few extracts, partly because we feel a prewas the fair face of nature found sitting sentiment that from Catalonia will rise the for her portrait to a genuine son of Castile; spirit which is destined to regenerate Spain, so that Spanish art, with all its warmth of but chiefly because we think that, while feeling and its ardent temperament, be- but little is known in regard to the rest of came confined to the narrowest channel, the Peninsula, nothing at all is known conand preying upon itself, fell, as it were, cerning this particular section of it. “The into a monomania. Portraits of solemn Catalans, as all the world knows, have been friars, grim warriors, and stiff, haughty famous, from their earliest history, for incourtiers, legends of impossible miracles, dustry, intelligence, energy, obstinacy and formed, together with the more impressive combativeness ; fond alike of freedom and episodes of the history of Christianity, the money, they have seldom lost an opporentire staple of painting and sculpture in tunity of asserting the one, or scraping up the Peninsula. It was not uncommon for the other. They were always among the the Church,—the most liberal patron of foremost to bully or rebel against an unruly arts at one time,-in her contracts with king, in the times when such performances artists, to impose upon them, as on one were more perilous than at present; and in occasion was the case with Navarette, the these days of pronunciamientos, they will condition “ that they should adhere strictly get you up a civil war, or regale themselves to Spanish orthodoxy and avoid the intro- with a bombardment, upon as short notice duction of any Italian accessories or theo- as the gamins of Paris require to break logical improprieties."
down an old dynasty or blow up a new one. Since Marshal Soult robbed Spain of Their physiognomy and general bearing her master-pieces, the world has learned show you, unequivocally and at once, that to appreciate and admire the works of they are a sturdy, manly, independent Murillo, Domenico el Greco, and Herra- people. They are quiet and grave, upon the promenades and in the public places, land is now the apostle to the custom-house but they have an air of doggedness about gentiles, and which, sooner or later, is to them which strikes you at first, as peculiar be rounded with some sort of a millenium. to individuals, but which you soon find to John Bull, therefore, denounces them, in be almost universal. The common people, all the terms, measured and unmeasured, in their provincial dress, look sullen and which such heterodoxy on their part defierce. Their sandals and girded loins serves, and when his wrath is especially give them a pilgrim air, as of men from kindled, as some pet Spanish scheme of his far countries, and their harsh, grating dia- falls through, he wreaks himself upon exlect seems no improper vehicle for the pression and calls them the “Yankees of expression of their habitual turbulence. Spain.” In all his endeavors to negotiate Nevertheless, you see few beggars and no commercial treaties, and break down the idlers among them. They are doing some restrictive system which the Catalans parthing always, and doing it in good earnest, ticularly affect, he is influenced, he gives as if they took pleasure as well as profit, you his honor, by none but the most beneto consist, chiefly, in occupation. The In- volent and unselfish considerations. France fante Don Gabriel (one of the few among may have some motive of her own in pullthe later Bourbons, who have had capacity ing down Espartero and putting up Narenough to say or do anything sensible) was vaez, but England looks only to the hapthe author of some clever verses, descrip- piness of Spain in keeping Narvaez down, tive of the several provincial characteristics or keeping up Espartero. What matter of his countrymen. Of the Catalans, he can such things be to England ? If she says, among other things, that they are cannot import through the custom-house, able “hacer, de las piedras, panes," to she can smuggle in spite of it, and thereconvert stones into bread; and, indeed, fore it is all the same to her in point of when we look into the rugged soil which fact, whether she has treaties or not. It they have subdued into fertility, and the is a mere question of morality,” (Blackconstancy and patient industry with which wood, vol. XXV., P: 723); but then John they give themselves to the severest labor Bull is a famous stickler for that, as every upon land and sea, we must concede that, body knows. even if they be, as their countrymen “The Catalans, upon their side, say that alledge, the most querulous and exacting the world is too old, for people with beards of the provincial family, it is from no re- on their chins to believe, that nations send luctance to put their own shoulders to the embassadors about the globe on crusades wheel, that they call so often upon Hercu- of disinterested benevolence. Bailan al les. Some travellers say that they are son que tocan, is an old Castilian proverb. uncivil to strangers, my experience was If people dance, it is because there is entirely to the contrary. Their courtesy, some music.'
Mr. Cobden had passed though not exuberant, I found both ready through Spain but a short time before my and cordial. True, as I have said, their visit, and the free-trade enthusiasm was in manners are, in general, reserved, and their full blast in consequence. The Propaspeech is laconic, but the ice is soon broken, gador, a newspaper in Cadiz, was espeand their intelligence and general clever- cially devoted to the dissemination of the ness repay the trouble amply.
anti-custom-house faith. Mr. Bulwer's “The Catalan is no favorite with his paper, the Espanol, of Madrid, was full brethren of the other provinces. They of most demonstrative articles, in which have sundry hard names for him, which are it was satisfactorily proven, by facts and more expressive than delicate, “ Cerrado figures, that free-trade would bring back, como pie de mula” (contracted, close, like permanently, to the Peninsula, days as & mule's hoof), is the proverbial phrase golden as when her western mines were into which they have compressed their idea fresh. The Catalans, and the protective of his character. John Bull, too, has his politicians generally, used to shrug their say in the premises. The Catalans, ac- shoulders, and wonder if the case would cording to his notion, are selfish, greedy of be made out half so clearly, if the Ingleses gain and monopoly, fierce foes to that glo- had not an interest in the market, as well rious system of free-trade, of which Eng-' as the logic. Free-trade, they said, was
a good text to preach from, after a nation, harbors are full of swift misticos and feluhad so perfected her manufactures, as to cas—the mountain-passes are full of hardy find her surest monopoly in freedom. They parties of muleteers, whose sole occupation thought it odd that Great Britain should is to defraud the revenue. never have proclaimed free-trade in the Departing from Barcelona, our enterproduce of her soil, till her own people taining traveller takes us southward, chatwere starving, or have encouraged it in her ting agreeably and describing picturesquely manufactures, till she was able to starve whatever occurs of sufficient note; yet, we other people.” (P. 36–8).
regret to say, dispelling the pre-conceived With all his keen perception of the romance of some of the most prevailing selfish and interested policy of Great Bri- notions concerning Spain. For instance, tain in seeking to propagate (late converts he is so unfortunate as not to meet a single are ever zealous) her doctrines of free- pretty woman in Valencia, although Gautrade abroad, Mr. Wallis is not blind to thier and Ford both certify that there are the evils the protective system entails when multitudes of beauties in that city; " and carried to an excess. " It is impossible,” what a Frenchman and an Englishman
“for any intelligent and disinter- agree on, must be as demonstrable as any ested man to doubt, that the present Spa- thing in Euclid.” At Alicante he scarcely nish system of tariffs on imports is absurd, meets with better luck, and although he in both its impositions and restrictions. is willing to endorse its reputation for feBad as it is, it is not half carried out, so male loveliness, he is denied the best opthat it does little else but thwart and nul-portunity, perhaps, for judging, i, e, a walk lify itself, which is pretty fair proof of through its famous cigar factory, where folly. I went into a shop on the Rambla three or four thousand women are said to at Barcelona, and asked the price of some be employed—“ a world of labor, sure, to French wares, the high charge for which end in smoke.” At Cartagena and Almeastonished me so much that I remonstrated. ria, he aves us provokingly in suspense The good woman told me that what I said on that interesting topic, and at Malaga was very true. Mas que quiere vmd ? he becomes decidedly ungallant, and gives What will your worship have us do? It the sanction of his authority to a verse is impossible to get prohibited goods into current in the country, the city, without paying at least seventy
Malaga tiene la fama per cent. on their value to the smuggler."
De las mujeres bonitas ; “ But is it possible,' I asked, that all
Mas no es tan fiero el leon these goods are prohibited ? Your window
Como las jentes lo pintan! is full of them, and the officers of the cus
which uncourteous stanza may be rendered toms pass here at all hours.'
(freely) as follows :“No hay duda, Senor-there's no doubt of that. Under the old system,
Here Fame invests each girl and dame they would perhaps have given me some
With every charm and grace
Who paints the Devil black? Why, Fame trouble, but now that we have a constitu
That never saw his face. tion, the house of the citizen is in violable. Once get your goods into the house, and Mr. Wallis' description of the luscious there is an end of the business. There is plenty that prevails in this part of Spain, scarcely a shop on the Rambla that is not would make Lord Guloseton's mouth full of prohibited goods.'”
fairly water--and, report to the contrary When will law - makers learn that in notwithstanding, would leave us to infer legislation, extreme measures defeat their that the bountiful presents of nature are own ends ? A question to be addressed to nowise rendered nugatory by unscholarother legislators as well as those of Spain. like cookery, garlic having lately grown as In that country, however, the blind policy unpopular in Spain as robbers and highof the government in this respect has waymen are scarce. For scarce they really developed to greater perfection than else- are, and our author deplores, with much where, a profession well suited to the feeling, that uninteresting safety of the adventurous and daring but desultory en- highways, which deprived him of his share terprise of its population. The rivers and of hair-breadth escapes.
Unable, unfortunately, to treat his read- does not look like one, it will be of no ers to glowing descriptions of the Spanish avail for me to say so.” banditti, who seem to have almost vanished “ In the use of leeches to reduce inflamfrom their classical home, Mr. Wallis, in mation of the brain, it is customary to apsheer despair, discusses another class who ply them, at the lower extremity of the sometimes take life in the pursuit of their spine ; the theory being, that the farther avocations. We will quote some of his you draw the blood from the diseased part concluding remarks concerning the medi- the better! Why, upon that principle, cal profession in Malaga.
they stop short of the soles of the feet, or “ As a matter of justice to the faculty of do not send the blood a league into the Malaga (though perhaps they have nothing country afterward, seems rather difficult to
understand. to do with it) I ought to mention, that in looking over the daily bills of mortality, as
“An English gentleman told me, that
in conversation with one of the most emipublished in the newspapers, I was constantly struck with the frequent instances nent of the faculty in Grenada, he alluded of longevity. Deaths of persons, over
to the recent discoveries in regard to sulninety years of
phuric ether. “You mistake," said Esoften
very during my first visit.' I remember that of culapius. “ It is not ether; it is carbonic one who had gone considerably over an
acid gas, and I tell you it is very dangerhundred, and the proportion of those who
ous. It asphyxiates the patient' immedidied at sixty, seventy, and eighty, was quite
We dare say that these playful flings at large. Captain Widdington notices this fact in his sketches, and it is entitled to
“the profession” in Spain must be merited. some consideration, on account of the para satire, except when he is dealing with some
For we find our author but little addicted to ticularity with which the parish records are kept, and the consequent improbability of French or English traveller in whose track mistake. I cannot account for the anom
he follows. Alexander Dumas, Theophile aly, in view of the medical habits alluded Gautier, Ford, and many others are treated to, unless it be, that the parties who had by him with unmerciful rigor. But to every lived so long had been too poor to employ thing Spanish, he is as gentle as if his jourphysicians, or that constitutions which could ney had been a pilgrimage of love. survive the Consultas of twenty years,
The character which he claims for Spanwere good for a century at least, in the ab- ish women stands in bold relief by the side sence of earthquakes and pronunciamentos. of the flippant descriptions which other tra
vellers have given us. Since Byron took “Whether the Spanish physicians are upon himself the ungenerous task of deresponsible for some very droll notions up- faming the fair sex of the Peninsula, it has on medical subjects, which prevail among become the fashion to follow his example. the people, I am not prepared to say; but, Not a French commis-voyageur, not a Briif they be, it is clear that their art needs tish graduate, who does not claim to have mending. Pulmonary consumption, for ex; been very generally an object of particular ample, is popularly deemed contagious, and solicitude and tender affection among the patients suffering from it are treated and beauties of Seville and Cadiz. To hear shunned accordingly. When death en- these self-sufficient travel-writers, chastity sues, the sick-chamber goes through a per- does not exist in Spain. We are tempted fect quarantine of disinfection; and beds, to think that they ignorantly judged of the clothing and furniture are consigned to the whole society of that country from the very flames. In Cadiz, it occurred to me to ex- limited and not very exalted part of it that change my travelling bag for one of a more admitted their visits. We will never forconvenient size. The tradesman expressed get the experience of the author of Miriam his regret that he could not find any use Coffin in that respect. He was once walkfor mine : “It is an excellent one" he said, ing in a Spanish city with a Caledonian “but it has been slightly used and nobody friend. A beautiful female passed them in the will buy it. My customers will think that street, and, turning back, smiled somewhat it has belonged to some consumptive person, significantly towards them. Mr. Hart ex(algun ético) and although your worship pressed his astonishment. “ Oh dom !”
answered his matter-of-fact friend, “she is to join, in his quiet way, his own homage to nothing but a dom'd
that of all former tourists. We will not finish the sentence, since the
From Cadiz, however, we may be perauthor himself does not. Mr. Hart quotes
mitted to accompany our author on a flying this as the only instance of immodest con- trip to Xeres, and then, with the nectar of duct on the part of a Spanish female that its vintage still upon our lips, (at least in ever came under his observation. And we imagination) close the agreeable volume should not wonder if the only difference, in to which we have dedicated these remarks. that respect, between him and some more
A flying trip to Xeres did we say? No, cynical travellers, consisted in this : that Xeres is deserted. We will only take the the latter, in their excursions did not ferry-boat at Cadiz, and flying across the always chance to have a matter-of-fact bay on the wings of steam, land at Port Scotchman by their side.
Saint Mary, where Duff Gordon's famous cellars
where all the wine-merchants We have lingered too long, we find, in of Xeres keep their pleasant country-houses that part of Spain to which properly ap- and their still pleasanter vaults. At the plies the “ dura tellus Iberie.” Were we mouth of the Lethe-oh land of Hesperia, to follow Mr. Wallis, we must visit in turn what a host of classical recollections arise Seville, Cordova, Grenada, and what, with his pleasing narrative, the thousand recol- at the mention of that name, corrupted lections which these names awaken and which Arabic scholars teach us is com
though it be into the modern “Guadalete, genius of Irving that consecrates the Moor- pounded of the ancient word with the genius of Irving that consecrates the Moor Moorish prefix signifying water. These ish capital, this paper would stretch beyond abstemious Moslems, unacquainted with its allotted limits. Not only the poetry of the sweet forgetfulness of sack, how could Spain but even its utilitarian matter-offact statistics must we leave unnoticed in they couple the idea of water with that of
Lethe ? The true Lethe sleeps on the our haste. Surely we would greatly as
banks of that stream within the cool capatonish some of our readers if we were to cious cellars of Duff Gordon, where twelve copy from Mr. Wallis his account of some
tuns of immense size baptized (sans water) of the manufactures of Spain. But we
with the names of the apostles, contain obmay not pause. Embark we, therefore, with livion enough to have drowned all the sorhim on board the first steamer ; let us force
rows of that last Gothic army which poor the ne plus ultra of Hercules, and bestow- Roderick arrayed against the Paynim on ing a passing glance upon Gibraltar, rejoice this very spot. In praise of genuine Sherry that we are once more upon our own Atlantic. Nor dare we tarry with him at
(Xeres) we need not speak. Cadiz, although an English traveller says invoke the genius of Falstaff to our aid.
peal to the recollection of our readers, and that it may be seen in one day.” Here
“ A good Sherris sack hath a twofold we might be forcibly detained by attractions far superior to those of Moorish remains, brain, dries me there all the foolish and
operation in it. It ascends me into the galleries of paintings or vasty gothic ca- dull and crudy vapors which environ it; thedrals, haunted with feudal reminiscen- makes it apprehensive, quick, forgetive,
The “ Girl of Cadiz,” as sung by full of nimble, fiery, and delectable shapes ; Byron, remains in the imagination as a
which delivered o'er to the voice which is choice type of female lovliness ; and strange the birth, becometh excellent wit. The to say, not a dissenting voice has been raised against her claim. Mr. Hart, in bis Ro- is, the warming of the blood ; which, before
second property of your excellent Sherris mance of Yachting,”* has enthusiastically cold and settled, left the liver white and endorsed the world-wide reputation of the pale, which is the badge of pusillanimity ladies of Cadiz for beauty, and even our and cowardice; but the Sherris warms it, fastidious travaller, Mr. Wallis, is content and makes it course from the inwards to
the parts extreme.”
Most fully will we endorse the comTHE ROMANCE OF YACHTING. Voyage the First. By Joseph C. Hart, Author of Miriam mendation of the critical Sir John, provided Coffin. New York, Harper & Brothers. that it be applied exclusively to pure Xeres
We will ap