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8. The general assembly meets on the first monday in January. 9. Three cheers were given for the “champion of the south.” 10. The bible says, "children, obey your parents."

II. The wars of the roses desolated britain between the years 1455 and 1485.

12. He flattered himself that the tories might be induced to make some concessions to the dissenters, on condition that the whigs would be lenient to the jacobites.

13. The reign of queen Anne is generally admitted to have been the augustan age of English Literature.

14. The work is admirably adapted to the use of schools: (1) by thorough and varied exercises; (2) by frequent and complete reviews; (3) by simplicity of terms and arrangement.

15. Burke's philosophical inquiry into the origin of our ideas of the sublime and beautiful, and allison's essays on the nature and principles of taste, are works of permanent value.

16. The Guests were entertained by Senator gray at his Residence, no. 56 independence avenue.

17. He is also called the eternal, the almighty, the invisible, the infinite, the lord of Lords.

18. This, o king, is my plea for mercy.

19. The acts of the apostles and revelation were his favorite parts of the new testament.

20. Edward the elder succeeded his father, alfred the great.

21. The koran is the sacred book of the followers of mohammed.

22. We crossed the rocky mountains just about daybreak. 23. Resolved, that every citizen be allowed to exercise his rights as

a voter.

24. The City of galveston is on galveston Island.




DIRECTION.- Distinguish between the use of small letters and capitals in the following sentences:

The Devil and his angels.


The devils also believe and tremble.

The design of our infinite Creator.

Either the world has a creator, or it exists by chance.








He has many friends.

William Penn was accompanied by a few Friends.

He was educated in a university.

He was a student at the University.

You Moon! Have you done something wrong in Heaven that
God has hidden your face?

The moon climbs the high heavens.


Can a Roman senate long debate which of the two to choose, slavery or death?

He has been elected to the Senate.

Wave your boughs, ye oaks.

This struck the Oak with a thought of admiration.

He referred to the union of the States.

The Union, the Constitution, and the enforcement of the Laws.

They murmured, "The world is all a dream."

They murmured that "the world is all a dream."


The meaning of a sentence is made clear chiefly by a proper arrangement of its words; but sometimes, in written or printed discourse, by proper punctuation, which enables the eye to take in more readily the sense of a passage. The marks used for this purpose are called Punctuation Marks. These marks are:

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*NOTE.-The rules for the punctuation of the simple sentence apply equally well to the clauses of complex, and to the members of compound, sentences.


In the punctuation of simple sentences the only points used are the terminal marks, the apostrophe, and the


Terminal marks are the marks placed at the end of sentences. They are the period, the interrogation point, and the exclamation point.

RULE I.-Every sentence not interrogative or exclamatory must be followed by a period.

RULE II.-A period is used after every abbreviation; as, "Mr. Jas. Green"; "Y. M. C. A."

RULE III.-Roman numerals, headings, and signatures, must be followed by a period; as, " Chapter IV."; "Cowper's Task."; "H. M. Godwin."


DIRECTION. In the following examples make whatever abbreviations would be proper, and punctuate according to the rules:

1. President Elliott, Doctor of Divinity, Doctor of Laws.

2. Colonel Irving is the guest of Governor Gordon.

3. Gentlemen Bell, Dale, and Company, Saint Louis, Missouri.

4. Charles Pollard, Master of Arts.

5. Charles I., King of England, was beheaded.

6. The Right Reverend Henry Carrol Potter, Bishop of Chicago, is visiting relatives at 34 Jefferson Street.

7. Mister Lawrence Barrett, the American actor, was traveling in Europe.

8. The examination was held October the second, at two o'clock in the afternoon.

9. Farm Ballads By Will Carleton.

10. Baltimore, Maryland, November 8, 1886.


RULE I.—All nouns in the singular, and all plurals not ending in "s," form their possessives by the addition of the "apostrophe" and "s"; as, "The girl's cloak"; "The men's boots."

Plurals ending in "s" add the "apostrophe" only; as, "The girls' cloaks"; "The ladies' books."

RULE II.-The apostrophe is used to denote the elision of a letter or syllable; as, "O'er the wide plain"; "He'll ne'er come back."




RULE I.—Nouns in apposition, when accompanied by modifying words or phrases, are separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma, or by commas; as, Washington, the first President, was a Virginian"; "Collins the poet admired Fairfax, the translator of Dante."*


Punctuate the following examples, and give reasons:

1. Brabantio, a rich senator of Venice, had a fair daughter, the gentle Desdemona.

2. Lord Alfred Tennyson, the poet-laureate of England, wrote The Charge of the Light Brigade.

3. At Waterloo the allied armies defeated Napoleon, the greatest general of modern times.

4. See the beautiful flowers the attendants of Spring!

* NOTE.— If the appositional expression is restrictive, no commas are needed; thus, "The emperor Augustus was a patron of the fine arts"; "The apostle John"; "Alfred the Great."

5. Sir Walter Scott, the author of the Waverley Novels, possessed great legendary lore.

6. Shakespeare the bard of Avon,was born in 1564.

7. Webster, the orator and statesman, was a native of New Hampshire.

8. Diogenes, the Greek philosopher, was a cynic.

9. Much stress was laid by the greatest of the ancient orators, Demosthenes upon delivery.

10. Paul the apostle was a bitter persecutor of the faith he afterwards preached to the Greeks and Romans.

RULE II.-A noun independent by address must be set off by a comma, or by commas; as, "Why sleepest thou, Eve"; "Plato, thou reasonest well"; "Tell me, my friend, all the circumstances.”


DIRECTION. Punctuate the following examples, and give reasons:

1. My son give me thy heart.

2. Acquire my daughters the habit of doing everything well.
3. O tiny ant, you're a busy fellow!

4. O sleepless God, forever keep both living and dead.

5. Your son, my, Lord has paid a soldier's debt.

6. How could he mark thee for the tomb,my proud boy Absalom?

7. Master, I marvel at nothing.

8. Accept, my dear young friends this expression of my regard. 9. I rise Mr. President to a point of order.

Io. It was then good friends that your assistance was most needed.

RULE III.—A phrase formed by a noun used absolutely with a participle, must be set off by a comma, or by commas; as, "Shame being lost, all virtue is lost"; "Then came Jesus, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst."*

*NOTE. - The participle in an absolute phrase can always be converted into a verb having the noun for its subject. Thus, “Shame being lost" is equivalent to, "When shame is lost," which is a temporal adverbial clause.

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