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From the Examiner. There is a restlessness about the present gener

ation which makes long detention on any matter Our Sermons. An Attempt to Consider Famil- to be penitential. Men would open their eyes

iarly but Reverently the Preacher's Work with wonder if told that when Bishop Burnet in the Present Day. By Rev. R. Gee, preached and had exhausted the hour during M.A., Oxon, Vicar of Abbots Langley, which the sands had been running, he, by uniHerts, and Rural Dean ; Author of versal consent, reversed the hour-glass, and en. • From Sunday to Sunday.' Longmans. term! Short of this, men do not now publish

tered with a well-pleased auditory on a fresh

folio sermons, well aware that such huge to mes Having already written a wholesome lit- with their double columns, will find few readers ; tle volume of advice to young clergymen, as therefore they must not preach folio serm ons. to the way in which they should spend their They must be careful not to put a stumbling, week-days, Mr. Gee here supplements the block in the way of•the weak. They must find teaching by an exposition of his views on out what the average interest of the congregation the most important part of the clergyman's will bear. They will not give in to the flippant Sunday work. Even without agreeing with demands of sone whose real wish to get rid of him on many of the points on which he lays for shortening it to a mere handful of minutes ; most stress, every one must admire the good but, on the other hand, they will not be guided faith and excellent spirit in wbich he writes, solely by what the ripened faith of some adand recognize the good sense and healthy vanced Christian will bear in his love for medtemper of his remarks.

itating on these things. Much less will they Mr. Gee deprecates the statement of “a be guided by the flattery of partial friends who leading periodical” that "there is a gulf may tell them that they never found their serbetween the clerical mind and the ordinary mons too long or two dull! They will remem. male mind which is deep and daily deepen- ber that preaching even beyond other parts of ing," and to do his best towards lessening public worship is to those who are without.' the risk of such a separation, he shows how Calls to repentance, appeals to the careless and he thinks the preaching of the present day length by the attention of these very careless

the prayerless, must be measured as to their may be made as influential as the preaching and godiess men. How often when listening in former. times of the Apostles, the Friars, to a speech has one longed to stop the speaker the Puritans, and the Wesleyans. To do and get him to sit down directly he has made a this, or anything like this, says Mr. Gee, good point — has impressed or roused his authe modern preacher must in no way follow | dience. Instead of that he goes on for twenty the example of the Scotch minister, whose minutes longer, diluting all that he has said, and pride was that he propounded “every Sab- leaving his hearers forgetful of what at first had bath a haill system of divinity.” He must touched them. bring fresh thought into each fresh sermon, now and then discussing some special point Therefore, says Mr. Gee, let us have short of theological doctrine, but, as a rule, keep- pithy sermons. In this all laymen will agree ing clear of divinity, and aiming to improve with him ; but it needs much more than the daily " walk and conversation ” of his brevity and terseness much more, we hearers. Mr. Gee offers numerous sugges- think, than all that Mr. Gee advises – to tions as to the choice and treatment of sub- make preaching once again“ a power among jects, the style and temper of sermons, and the like. This is from a section about the length of sermons :



From the Examiner. tion of the processes of arithmetic was always

remarkable ; but he was never distinguished Life and Correspondence of Richard Whate- as a mathematician at college.” Another ly, D.D., late Archbishop of Dublin. By main occupation of Whately's mind as a Ë. Jane Whately, Author of • English child was what he called “ castle-building." Synonyms.' In Two Volumes. Long- He was busy in speculation over questions

that one might think set apart to mature

philosophic theorists, problems of instinct Miss WHATELY's Memoir of her father, and reason, government, civilization, &c. the late Archbishop of Dublin, modestly in- At nine years old he was sent to the school troduced, is really all that one could wish. of a Mr. Philips, near Bristol, and formed a Dr. Whately speaks for himself through a friendship with a schoolfellow that only well-arranged sequence of letters, with con- death interrupted, but he was too meditanecting farts simply narrated, and the vigor- tive for a schoolboy. One of his delights ous honesty with which his healthy and was to stray over a common near the playkindly mind worked becomes unmistakable ground, watching the habits of the sheep, even by the worst bigot whom his liberality and trying to tame them. of thought offended.

After he had been a twelvemonth at this Richard Whately was born in 1787, the school Whately's father died, and his mothyoungest of nine children of Dr. Joseph er removed to Bath. He was an active, Whately, of Nonsucb park, Surrey, Pre- concentrated thinker, and his few favourite bendary of Bristol, Vicar of Widford, and authors were those which most powerfully Lecturer at Gresham College. He was born suggested a particular kind of thought. He in Cavendish square, at the house of his cared very much for Aristotle, little for mother's brother, Mr. Plumer, then M.P. Plato. He would to the last revolve his for Herefordshire. The last of the other eight own thoughts in his mind much as he had children was then six years old, and this done in his days of castle-building, and inlate comer was not considered to be partic- tellectual strength came of this concentratularly wanted. He was a bad specimen of a ed attention to particular ideas. Mr. Herbaby too, slight and puny, with no healthy man Merivale, whom Miss Whately thanks appetite. Tall and vigorous as he grew to for having revised and prepared her work be, he said that the sensation of hunger was for the press, frequently, and always happisomething new and strange to him when he !y, interpolates a paragraph or two, such felt it for the first time as a boy of eleven interpolation being indicated by an asterisk. or twelve. He was very nervous and On this point he says: shy child, naturally more cared for by his sisters than by his brothers. He learned very early to read and write, read eagerly, which we are now writing, so down to his latest

As in the early school and Oxford days, of watched spiders, tamed ducklings, could dis- times, the daily occupation of his brain was to tinguish notes of birds, and had so strong a seize on some notion of what he considered a pracnatural turn for arithmetic that at six years rical order, belonging to any one of the various old he astonished a man past sixty by tell- subjects with which his mind occupied itself; to ing him, and rightly too, how many minutes follow it out to its minutest ramifications, and he was old. The calculation was made men- to bring it home with him, turned from the mere tally. For about the three years between germ into the complete production. And this the years of five or six and eight or nine perpetual “chopping logic with himself” he this passion lasted. The child was calculat- carried on not less copiously when his usually ing morning, noon, and night. Absorbed

solitary walks were enlivened by companion

ship. His talk was rather didactic than controin multiplication, division, and the Rule of versial ; which naturally rendered his company Three, he ran against people in the streets. unpopular with some, while it gave him the But none of the calculation was worked mastery over other spirits of a different mould. upon paper. The passion died out, and at “ His real object, or his original objects," writes school vanished so utterly that Whately one of his earliest and hest friends. was, he says of himself, a “perfect dunce at get up clearlv and beat this ideas for his own ciphering, and so continued ever since.” use. Thus he wrote his r nks. Mr. R., lately “But,” says his daughter now,

“ he always

dead, who was junior to V ately looked

Oriel, told me that, in one of his walks with him, himself as a dunce in that line; he was so overcome by Whately's recurrence, in

upon though the readiness with which he solved conversation, to topics which he had alreadly on curious problems and arithmetical puzzles former occasions insisted on, that he stopped would often surprise and baffle first-class ma- short, and said, “Why, Whately, you said all thematicians. The clearness of his explana- l this to me the other day: ' to which Whately

was to

replied to the effect that he would not be the An old and valued friend of his, the late Mr. worse for hearing it many times over.”

Hardcastle, requested him to undertake the

tuition of a young man of great promise, who The shyness of his childhood, long con

had come up to the University with every extinued, was overcome at last only by a strong question in his divinity examination in the

pectation of honours, but had failed to answer & effort, and out of this came an abruptness of

very words of the Catechism. The examiner manner which, as everybody knows, is of- remarked, "Why, sir, a child of ten years old tener based on a shy or sensitive nature could answer that !”. So could I, sir," rethan upon an overbearing one. “ He could plied the young student, “when I was ten years be most touchingly gentle in his manner old !” But the sharp repartee did not save him (says an old friend) to those whom he liked; from being plucked. Both he and his family but I récollect a lady saying she would not were naturally much mortified; but being of a for the world be his wife, from the way she nature not easily crushed, the disappointment, had seen him put Mrs. Whately (the object rather as a stimulus on him; he resolved he

which might have been hurtful to many, acted all his life of his strongest affections) into would retrieve his injured reputation, and for a carriage.”

this it was important to secure a first-rate priIn 1805 Richard Whately entered Oriel vate tutor. Through their common friend, Mr. College, Oxford, where Dr. Copleston Hardcastle, he was introduced to Mr. Whately, who died a bishop — was a College tutor and shortly after wrote home to his fatherand afterwards Provost. Under the influ- "I have got Whately for my private tutor, and

He sucence of Dr. Copleston's lectures and conver- I will have the first-class next term.” sations Whately's powers expanded.

We ceeded, and this was the commencement of a quote Mr. Merivale again :

friendship between Richard Whately and Nas. sau William Senior which lasted through their

lives. The younger friend survived his former The influence which these two men recipro- tutor but a few, months. cally exercised on each other was very great, and to a certain extent coloured the subsequent lives of both. Bishop Copleston was more the Whately who was a good shot and expert man of the world of the two. But in him, under angler, would go in the long vacation to a polished and somewhat artificial scholarlike some picturesque part of England with seexterior, and an appearance of even overstrained lect reading parties of his pupils

, who talked caution, there lurked not only much energy of Latin together to get familiarity with the mind and precision of judgment, but a strong tendency to liberalism in Church and State, and

language. superiority to ordinary fears and prejudices. It

Whately, was ordained deacon, and was in this direction that he especially trained preached his first sermon in 1814. In 1815 Whately's character; while he learnt to admire, he went to Oporto with a sister whose health if too staid to imitate, the uncompromising was in peril, thereby willingly risking the boldness and thorough freedom from partisan- loss of a year's college work. After his reship of the younger man.

turn to England in the autumn, the next

five or six years of his life were spent on the At the age of twenty-two Whately began business' of College teaching. As a preachthat habit of keeping a commonplace book er in the University, although his manner in which he persevered until within a few was not attractive, he always drew a full months of his death. It was begun and per- attendance. severed in as an aid to the improvement of Meanwhile Whately began to use his pen his mind. Its purpose was set forth by him as a contributor to the · Encyclopædia Meat the outset in a religious spirit, and on the tropolitana.' In 1819 he published the first Ay-leaf of the first notebook he wrote, “ Let and most popular of his writings, the little the words of my mouth, and the meditations pamphlet entitled · Historic Doubts relative of my heart, be acceptable in Thy sight, 0 to Napoleon Bonaparte.' In 1821 he edited Lord, my strength and my Redeemer?” Archbishop Wake's • Treatises on Predesti

In 1808 Whately took his degree, achiev- nation,' and in 1822 published his Bampton ing only a double second class in honours. Lectures · On the Use and Abuse of Party But he was encouraged by winning the Feeling in Matters of Religion,' committing prize for the English Essay, which was on himself strongly to his life-long battle against the comparative excellence of the Ancients the evil of religious party spirit. In the and Moderns. In 1811 he was elected Fel- same year he removed to Halesworth, in low of Oriel; in 1812 he took his M.A., Suffolk, his uncle, Mr. Plumer, having had and remained in residence at Oxford as a the presentation of the living. He had been private tutor. In this character he estab- married in the preceding year to a young lisbed what became a lifelong friendship: lady whose acquaintance he had made at


Cheltenham. The damp climate of Hales- of our clergymen take trouble to acquire, worth proved dangerous to his wife's con- it may be no small matter after all : stitution, but in 1825 Whately, aged thirtyeight, took his degree as D.D., and in the Being absolutely compelled, by the unwise same year was appointed by Lord Grenville solicitations of a clerical friend, to give his Principal of Alban Hall. He then removed opinion as to that friend's performance of the with his family to Oxford, intending to service, he told him — “Well, then, if you spend the vacation at Halesworth, but when really wish to know what I think of your readeven the occasional residences seemed to service you read well, and those you read un,

ing, I should say there are only two parts of the involve risk of his wife's life, he gave up

exceptionably.” “ And what are those ? dence, placed a curate in the rectory, and said the clergyman. • They are, ‘Here endeth and went alone to visit the parish three or the first lesson,' and · Here endeth the second four times a year.

lesson.'" Alban Hall had become“ a kind of Bot- “What do you mean, Whately ?any Bay to the University - a place to

" I mean," he replied, “that these parts you which students were sent who were too idle read in your own natural voice and manner, and dissipated to be received elsewhere.” which are very good: the rest is all artificial This he reformed. In 1826, the year after took the hint, altered his style, and becaine a

and assumed.'* It may be added that his friend his appointment to Alban Hall, Whately's

very good reader. • Logic' appeared as a distinct volume,

He often related another incident, illustrating formed of articles which had been written his strongly expressed opinion (see his ‘Rhetofor the Encyclopædia Metropolitana.' Two ric') that the natural voice and manner are the years afterwards followed the · Rhetoric,' best adapted to public speaking and reading, also originally written for the Encyclopæ- and also less trying to the voice than the artifidia.

cial tone so generally preferred. A clerical Among the

friendships formed by Whately friend of his, who had been accustomed to make in the Oriel Common Room was one with use of this artificial tone, complained to him Dr. Arnold, which continued to be close the throat, he feared he must resign his post.

that he was suffering so much from weakness of and familiar till Arnold's death. Mr. Keble Dr. Whately told him that he believed, if he visited Whately at Halesworth, and there would change his style of reading, and deliver read to him the MS. of the Christian Year.' the service in his natural voice, he would find Dr. Newman writes in his “ Apologia’ of it much less fatiguing. “Oh,” said his friend, Whately:

“that is all very well for you, who have a pow

erful voice; but mine is so feeble that it would While I was still awkward and timid, in be impossible to make myself heard in'a church 1822, he took me by the hand, and acted the if I did not speak in an artificial tone." part to me of a gentle and encouraging instruc- “I believe you are mistaken,” replied the tor. He, emphatically, opened my mind, and former; you would find that even a weak taught me to think and to use my reason.

voice would be better heard, and at the expense He had done his work towards me, or nearly of less fatigue, if the tone were a natural one.” 80, when he had taught me to see with mine

The other appeared unconvinced; but meetown eyes, and to walk with my own feet. Not ing his adviser some time after, he told him he that I had not a good deal to learn from others had at last come round to his view. The weakstill, but I influenced them as well as they me, ness in his throat had so increased that he was and co-operated rather than merely concurred on the point of retiring from active duty, but with them. As to Dr. Whately, his mind was resolved, as a desperate final effort, to try the too different from mine for us to remain long on experiment of altering his manner of reading one line. I recollect how dissatisfied he was with and speaking. He did so, and not only sucan article of mine in the London Review,' ceeded beyond his hopes in making himself which Blanco White good-humouredly only call. heard, but found his voice so much less fatigued ed Platonic. When I was diverging from him by the effort, that he was able to continue his (which he did not like), I thought of dedicating employment. my first book to him, in words to the effect that he had not only taught me to think, but to He had the same wise faith in free growth think for myself.

as a principle of education. Thus he writes

of a daughter at the close of a letter to his Whately's influence was always on the old tutor and friend, Dr. Copleston, newly side of that honest naturalness which is at appointed Bishop of Llandaff, and we add the bottom of all good work as of all good to the extract from the letter Miss Whately's art. Take an example in a small way, own further illustration of it: though, considering how many thousands of people suffer every Sunday from the ridicu- Your goddaughter threatens to outgrow her lously artificial pulpit voice which so many strength; she requires constant care to support

her under such a prodigious shoot. She is very Lord Grey's letter, Dr. Hinds writes: "A visiforward in understanding, but not alarmingly tor arrived who was a stranger to him, and was 80. My plans of education fully answer my asked out to see the feats of his climbing dog. expectations : she has never yet learned any. The animal performed as usual, and when he thing as a task, and that, considering she has had reached his highest point of ascent, and was learned more than most, will make tasks far beginning his yell of wailing, Whately turned lighter when they do come; and she has never to the stranger and said, "What do you think yet learned anything by rote, and I trust never of that? Visitor : 'I think that some besides will, till slie turns Papist.

the dog, when they find themselves at the top They say a letter should be a picture of of the tree, would give the world they could get the writer ; if so, this ought to have been on down again. Whately: 'Arnold bas told you.' yellow paper.

Visitor : * Has told me what ?' Whately: That The allusion to his children's education is I have been offered the Archbishopric of Dubvery characteristic. He greatly objected to lin.' Visitor : 'I am very happy to hear it, but teaching children to learn by rote what they did this, I assure you, is the first intimation I have not understand. He used to say, that to teach had of it, and when my remark was made I had thus mechanically, in the hope that the children not the remotest idea that the thing was likely would afterwards find out the meaning of what to take place.' they had learned, was to make them “swallow The words of his old friend the Bishop of their food first, and chew it afterwards." Llandaff will further illustrate the spirit in which

“ When Mrs. Whately and I first married,” he entered on his new office. “Dr. Whately," he observed, many years later, “one of the first writes the Bishop,“ accepted the arduous stathings we agreed upon was, that should Provi tion proposed to him, purely, I believe, from dence send us children, we would never teach public spirit and a sense of duty. Wealth, them anything that they did not understand.” honour, and power, and title have no charms “Not even their prayers, my Lord ?” asked the for him. He has great energy and intrepidity person addressed. “No, not even their pray- a hardihood which sustains him against ers,” he replied. To the custom of teaching obloqay, when he knows he is discharging a children of tender age to repeat prayers by rote, duty, and he is generous and disinterested alwithout attending to their sense, he objected most to a fault. His enlarged views, his sincer. even more strongly than to any other kind of me ity, and his freedom from prejudice, are more chanical teaching; as he considered it inculcated than a compensation for his want of conciliating the idea, that a person is praying when merely manners. When his character is understood, repeating a form of words in which the mind he will, I think, acquire more influence with the and feelings have no part, which is destructive Irish than he would with the English." of the very essence of devotion.

A similar tribute was given to his character

by his friend Dr. Arnold, some time later: In 1829 Dr. Whately was elected Pro- “Now, I am sure that, in point of real essenfessor of Political Economy at Oxford in suc- tial boliness, as far as man can judge, there cession to his own old pupil and friend Nassau

does not live a truer Christian than Whately; Senior, and published in 1831 an introducto- and it does grieve me most deeply to hear peo? ry course of lectures. It was in 1829 that the rian character, because in him the intellectual

ple speak of him as a dangerous and latitudina. Roman Catholic Emancipation Bill passed, part of his nature keeps pace with the spiritand Sir Robert Peel was rejected as the ual." representative of Oxford, Whately being And again : "In Church matters they (the one of the very few heads of houses who Government) have got Whately, and a signal gave him his vote. It was in 1831 that, blessing it is that they have him and listen partly in the belief that his tolerant spirit to him; a man so good and so great that no would introduce a conciliating element into folly or wickedness of the most vile of facthe Irish Church, Dr. Whately was appoint- tions will move him from his own purposes, ed by Lord Grey to the then vacant Arch or provoke him in disgust to forsake the defeace

of the Temple.” bishopric of Dublin. No family or personal interest led to this appointment. Lord Grey had never seen or spoken to Whately, The career of Whately as Archbishop is nor was there any party that looked upon fresh in men's minds, and we will not fol. Whately's promotion as its own advantage. low beyond this point his daughter's MeHis independence of character made him, moir, though it will be found peculiarly indeed, in the eyes of party men unsafe :

rich in material for the right study and ap

preciation of his character and of the moveOn the morning in which he had received inent of his thoughts.

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