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every age of the Christian Church, and thereby charging on their opponents consequences and inferences which they utterly disclaim, and making the Church responsible for a system of doctrine which was unheard of till modern times? Those who deny Baptismal Regeneration, virtually deny Baptism to be a Sacrament; and it will usually be found that such ultra-Protestants have the most crude and dubious notions about the ordinance itself, and especially as to its use in the case of infants; and that it is an anomaly in their system, a difficulty to be removed, a discrepance to be reconciled, before that system can be at harmony with itself.

BIDDING OF PRAYER. The following ancient Bidding Prayer is reported in L'Estrange to have been transcribed from a MS, in the University Library of Cambridge :

“Ye shulle stonde up & bydde your bedys in the worshepe of our Lord Jhesu Christ, and his moder Saint Marye, and of all the holy Company of Heaven, ye shulle also bydde for the Stat of Holy Cherche, for the Pope of Rome and his Cardinalis ; For the Patriarch of Jerusalem, for the holy Lond, and for the holy Croys, that Jhesu Crist sendeth it out of hednemennys honde into Cristinmennys hond. Ye shulle bydde for the Erche-Byscop of Canturbury, for the Byscop of Worssetre our ghostly fader and all oder Biscopis. Ye shall bydde for Abbotis, for Prioris, for Moonks, for Chanouns, for Freris, for Ancris, for Heremytis, and for all Religiouus. Ye shulle bydde for all the Prestys and Cleerks that heerinne servit and havyty servit. Ye shulle bydde for the pees of the Lond that Jhesu Crist holdit that it is, and send it there it nys. Ye shulle bydde for the King of Engelaud, for the Quene, and for all here childryne, for the Prince, for Dukes, for Yerles, for Baronnis, and for the Knycts of this Lond, and for all her good consaile, and her tru servantis. Ye shulle bydde for tham that the Stat of Holy Cherche and of this Lond [be] well mentanid. Ye shulle bydd for the wedering and the cornis, and for the frutys that beet icast on herde and on erthe growing, and for alle the trewe erthe tylyaris, that God send swic wedering fro hevene to erthe that it be him to convening, and mankind to help of lif and sanation of howre sawlys, Ye shulle bydde for the persown of this Cherche, and for all his Parischoners that ben heer, other elles war in Lond, other in Water, that our Lord Jhesu Crist tham shilde and warde from alle migaventuris, and grant tham part of alle the bedys and good dedys that me deed in holy Cherche. Ye shulle bydde for them that in gwood wayes beetywent other wendyt, other thenkit to wenthe heer sennys to bote, that our Lord Jhesu Crist ward and shilde from all misaventryes, and gront them so go on and comen that it be hym to worship and ham in remission of here sinnys, for tham and for oos and alle Cristine folk. Pater noster. Deus misereatur nostri, fc. Kirie eleeson, Criste eleeson, Kirie eleeson. Pater noster, & ne nos. Ostende nobis Domine m. & sal. Sacerdotes tui induantur justitia & Sancti tui. Domine salvum fac regem & exaudi nos. Salvos fac seryos. Salvum fac per gratiam Sancti Spiritus tuorum populum, &c. Domine fiat pax in vert. t. Domine exaudi orationem meam & clamorem. Dominus vobiscum. Oremus. Domine qui charitatis dona cordibus fidelium infundis, da famulis & famulabus tuis pro quibus tuam deprecamur clementiam, salutem mentis & corporis ut te tota virtute diligant & quæ tibi placita sunt tota dilectione perficiant, & pacem tuam nostris concede temporibus per Christum Dominum nostrum.

Tunc conversus ad populum dicat sacerdos, ( sed quidam dicunt sic hic, Dominus vobiscum.) Oremus. Ecclesie tue quesumus Domine preces placatus admitte ut destituta adversitatibus & erroribus universis secure tibi serviat libera.

“ Omnipotens sempiterne Deus qui facis mirabilia magna, pretende super famulos tuos pontifices nostros & super cunctas congregationes illis commissas spiritum gratie salutaris & ut in veritate tibi complaceant & perpetuum eis rorem tue benedictionis infunde. Deus a quo Sancta desideria & recta consilia justa sunt opera, da servis tuis illam quam mundus dare non potest pacem, ut & corda nostra & corpora mandatis tuis dedita & hostium sublata formidine tempora sint tua protectione tranquilla per Dominum nostrum Jesum Cristum.

“ Also ye shulle bydde for the gwode man and the good wife, that the charite hid brought to pay, and for tham that it first voonden and lengest holden. Ye shulle bydde for tham that this Cherche honour with book, with bell, with westiments, with twayte, oder with lyght, oder with eny oder ournaments to roof, oder to ground with londe, oder with rent wherethrough God and our Lady, and all halhen of hevene beth the fairer inservit her, oder elliswar. Ye shulle bydd for all thilk that bet in good lyve, that God therein tham holde long, and for thilk that bet in evele lyve oder in dedlicke senne ybound, that our Lord Jhesu Crist tham outbring and give tham sure grace here har sennes bote. Ye shulle bydde that for thilke that to God and holy Cherche trouly tethegenth that God ham wite and warde fro alle mis-auntre, and for alle thilk evil tethength that God ham give grace of amendment that hij ne falle not into the grete Sentence. Ye shulle bydde for alle the seake of this Parische that our Lord hem give swic heele that it be ham to convenient, and hem to help of body and of soul, for ham and for us and for alle Cristmen and wymen pour charite. Pater noster.

Deinde vertat se sacerdos & dicat Psalmum Levavi oculos m. Et ne nos. Salvos foc servos tuos & mitte Domine auxilium. Esto eis Domine turris. Domine exaudi Orat. Dominus vobiscum. Oremus. Deus qui charitatis dona per gratiam Sancti Spiritus tuorum cordibus fidelium infundis, da famulis & famulabus tuis pro quibus tuam deprecamur clementiam, salutem mentis & corporis, ut te tota virtute diligan: & que tibi placita sunt tota dilectione perfici.

" In lingua materna conversus ad populum dicat. Ye shulle kneelen down and bydde for fader sowle, for moder sawle, for God-fader sawle, for God-moder sawle, for children sawles, and for alle the sawlys of our bredryn and soosters sawles, and alle the sawles that we bet in dette for the bydde for, and for alle the sawles that beet in Purgatory, that God ham brenge the radyr out of har peynys there the byseechying of our bone. Ye shulle bydde for alle the sawlys hwos bonys rest in this place, oder eny oder holy place, for alle sawlys hwos mendedays beet yholde in this Cherche, oder eny oder by the yeare.

“ Deinde revertat se & dicat Psalmum. De Profundis. Kyrie Eleeson, Christe Eleeson. Kyrie Eleeson. Pater noster. Et ne nos. Requiem æternam. Apotta inferni. Credo videre. Dominus vobiscum. Oremus.

“ Absolve quesumus Domine animas famulorum famularumque tuarum fratrum nostrorum sororum parachianorum & omnium fidelium defunctorum ab omni vinculo delictorum ut in resurrexionis gloria inter Sanctos & electos tuos resuscitati respirent. 2. Misere quesumus Domine animabus famulorum famularumque tuarum pro quibus supplicandi debitores sumus & animalus omnium parentum nostrorum ac benefactorum ut pro beneficiis que nobis largiti sunt in terris, premia eterna consequantur in celis. Fidelium Deus omnium per benedicite Dominus Deus nos custodiat & ab omni malo defendat & ad vitam eternam perducat. Amen."

We subjoin one also of more recent date, as quoted by L'Estrange:

“ The agenda of Religion in our Church, before the Reformation, were performed, it is well known, in Latin, a language very inedifying to a non-intelligent people. That so many, so much interested and concerned in those sacred offices, should not be totally excluded, as idle spectators, or fit for nothing but now and then to return an Amen to they knew not what, this expedient was devised. The people were exhorted to joyn in prayers, according to certain heads dictated to them by the minister in the English tongue, observing the method and materials of the then prayer for all states, so that of all the service then used, this onely could properly be called Common Prayer, as being the onely form wherein the whole congregation did joyn in consort, and therefore the title of it in the Injunctions of Edw. VI. Anno 1547, is, The form of bidding the Common Prayers. Now because it was made by allocution, or speaking to the people, agreeing with what the primi. tive Church called a poopávnou, it was called Bidding of prayers. Thus, in short, as to the ground of this ancient form : will you now see the form itself? Behold it here :

"• After a laudable custom of our mother holy Church, ye shall kneel down, moving your hearts unto Almighty God, and making your special prayers for the three estates, concerning all Christian people, i. e. for the spiritualty, the temporalty, and the soules being in the paines of purgatory. First, for our holy Father the Pope, with all his Cardinals ; for all archbishops and bishops, and in special for my Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, your metropolitan, and also for my lord bishop of this diocesse; and in general for all parsons, vicars, and parish priests having cure of souls, with the ministers of Christ's Church, as well religious as not religious. Secondly, ye shall pray for the unity and peace of all Christian realms, and especially for the noble realm of England, for our Sovereign Lord the King, &c. and for all the Lords of the Councel, and all other of the nobility which dwell in the countries, having protection and governance of the same. That Almighty God may send them grace, so to govern and rule the land, that it may be pleasing unto Almighty God, wealth and profit to the land, and salvation to their souls. Also ye shall pray for all those that have honoured the Church with light, lamp, vestment, or bell, or with any other ornaments, by which the service of Almighty God is the better maintained and kept.

vol. XX. NO. VII.



Furthermore ye shall pray for all true travellers and tillers of the earth, that truely and duely done their duty to God and holy Church, as they be bound to do. Also ye shall pray for all manner of fruits that be done upon the ground, or shall be, that Almighty God of his great pitty and mercy may send such wedderings, that they may come to the sustenance of man. Ye shall pray also for all those that be in debt or deadly sin, that Almighty God may give them grace to come out thereof, and the sooner by our prayer. Also ye shall pray for all those that be sick or diseased, either in body or in soul, that the Almighty would send them the thing that is most profitable as well bodily as ghostly. Also ye shall pray for all pilgrims and palmers, that have taken the way to Rome, to Saint James of Jerusalem, or to any other place; that Almighty God may give them grace to go safe, and to come safe, and give us grace to have part of their prayers, and they part of ours. Also ye shall pray for the holy Crosse, that is in possession and hands of unrightful people; that God Almighty may send it into the hands of Christian people, when it pleaseth him. Furthermore I commit unto your devout prayers all women that be in our Ladies bonds; that Almighty God may send them grace, the child to receive the Sacrament of baptisme, and the mother purification. Also ye shall pray for the good man and woman, that this day giveth bread to make the holy-loaf, and for all those that first began it, and them that longest continue. For these, and for all true christian people, every man and woman say a Pater noster and an Ave, &c.'"

INJUNCTIONS OF QUEEN ELIZABETH, A. D. 1559. 5. The Pater noster-Creed and Ten Commandments." Item, That every holy-day through the year, when they have no Sermon, they shall, immediately after the Gospel, openly and plainly recite to their parishioners, in the pulpit, the Pater noster, the Creed, and the Ten Commandments, in English, to the intent the people may learn the same by heart, exhorting all parents and householders to teach their children and servants the same as they are bound by the law of God and conscience to do."

18. Procession to be leftThe LetanyLet of hearing of Divine Service." Also, to avoid all contention and strife, which heretofore hath risen among the Queen's Majesty's subjects in sundry places of her realms and dominions, by reason of fond courtesy, and challenging of places in the procession, and also that they may the more quietly bear that which is said or sung to their edifying, they shall not from henceforth in any parish church, at any time use any procession about the church or churchyard, or at any place, but immediately before the time of Communion of the Sacrament, the priests, with others of the choir, shall kneel in the midst of the church, and sing or say plainly and distinctly the Letany which is set forth in English, with all the suffrages following, to the intent the people may hear and answer; and none other procession or Letany to be had or used, but the said Letany in English, adding nothing thereto, but as it is now appointed. And in

cathedral or collegiate churches, the same shall be done in such places and in such sort as our Commissioners in our Visitation shall appoint. And in the time of the Letany, of the Common Prayer, of the Sermon, and when the priest readeth the Scripture to the parishioners, no manner of persons, without a just and urgent cause, shall use any walking in the church, nor shall depart out of the church; and all ringing and knolling of bells shall be utterly forborn at that time, except one bell in convenient time to be rung or knolled before the Sermon. But yet, for the retaining of the perambulation of the circuits of parishes, they shall, once in the year, at the time accustomed, with the curate and the substantial men of the parish, walk about the parishes as they were accustomed, and at their return to the church make their common prayers.”

48. Service on Wednesdays and Fridays." Item, That weekly, upon Wednesdays and Fridays, not being holy-days, the curate, at the accustomed hours of service, shall resort to church, and cause warning to be given to the people by knolling of a bell, and say the Letany and pravers."

49. Continuance of Singing in the Church. " Item, Because in divers collegiate, and also some parish churches, heretofore there have been livings appointed for the maintenance of men and children to use singing in the church, by means whereof the laudable service of musick hath been had in estimation, and preserved in knowledge; the Queens Majesty neither meaning in any wise the decay of any thing that might conveniently tend to the use and continuance of the said science, neither to have the same in any part so abused in the church, that thereby the Common Prayer should be the worse understanded of the hearers, willeth and commandeth, that first no alterations be made of such assignments of living, as heretofore hath been appointed to the use of singing or musick in the church, but that the same so remain. And that there be a modest and distinct song so used in all parts of the Common Prayers in the church, that the same may be as plainly understanded as if it were read without singing, and yet nevertheless for the comforting of such that delight in musick, it may be permitted that in the beginning or in the end of Common Prayers, either at morning or evening, there may be sung an hymn, or such like song, to the praise of Almighty God, in the best sort of melody and musick that may be conveniently devised, having respect that the sentence of the hymn may be understanded and perceived."

52. Reverence of Prayers.---Honour to the Name of Jesus.- Item, Although Almighty God is all times to be honoured with all manner of reverence that may be devised; yet of all other times, in time of Common Prayer the same is most to be regarded. Therefore it is to be necessarily received that in time of the Letany, and all other collects and common supplications to Almighty God, all manner of people shall devoutly and humbly kneel upon their knees and give ear thereunto, and that whensoever the name of Jesus shall be in any lesson, sermon, or otherwise in the church pronounced, that due reverence be made of all persons young and old, with lowness of courtesse, and uncovering of heads of the menkind, as thereunto doth necessarily belong, and heretofore hath been accustomed."

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