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disagreeable to the king of England in the treaty were then corrected according to his pleasure. When all relating to the peace had been concluded, king Henry, according to the custom of France, affianced the lady Catherine.

QUEEN KAthARINE.—From an old carved oak chest at York.

On the morrow of Trinity-day, the king of England espoused her in the parish church near to which he was lodged ; great pomp and magnificence were displayed by him and his princes, as if he were at that moment king of all the world. On the part of the king of France was present at this ceremony Philip duke of Burgundy, by whose means this treaty and alliance had been brought about. He was attended by Pierre de Luxembourg count de Conversan, sir John de Luxembourg his brother, the prince of Orange, the lord de Joinville, the lord de Chastellus, the lord de Chateau Vilain, the lord de Montagu, sir Regnier Pot, le veau de Bar bailiff of Auxois, sir James de Courtejambe, sir John de Coquebrune marshal of Burgundy and of Picardy, the lord de Croy, the lord de Longueval, sir Actis de Brimeu, sir David his brother, the lords de Roubaix, de Humbercourt bailiff of Amiens, sir Hugh de Launois, sir Gilbert his brother, with numbers of other notable knights, and some prelates and churchmen from the states of the duke. The principal of these last were, master John de Torsay bishop of Tournay and chancellor of Burgundy, master Eustace de Lactre, master John de Mailly; all, or at least the greater part, joined with the duke in promising for ever to preserve inviolate the peace, the terms of which were as follow :

“Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to all our bailiffs, provosts, seneschals, and to all the principal of our officers of justice, or to their lieutenants, greeting. Be it known, that we have this day concluded a perpetual peace, in our town of Troyes, with. our very dear and well-beloved son Henry king of England, heir and regent of France, in our name and in his own, in consequence of his marriage with our well-beloved daughter Catherine, and by other articles in the treaty concluded between us, for the welfare and good of our subjects, and for the security of the realm; so that henceforward our subjects, and


those of our said son, may traffic and have a mutual intercourse with each other, as well on
this as on the other side of the sea.—Item, it has been agreed that our said son king Henry,
shall henceforth honour us as his father, and our consort the queen as his mother, but shall
not by any means prevent us from the peaceable enjoyment of our crown during our life.—
Item, our said son king Henry, engages that he will not interfere with the rights and royalties
of our crown so long as we may live, nor with the revenues, but that they may be applied
as before to the support of our government and the charges of the state; and that our
consort the queen shall enjoy her state and dignity of queen, according to the custom of the
realm, with the unmolested enjoyment of the revenues and domains attached to it. – Item,
it is agreed that our said daughter Catherine shall have such dower paid her from the
revenues of England as English queens have hitherto enjoyed,—namely, sixty thousand
crowns, two of which are of the value of an English noble.”—Item, it is agreed that our said
son king Henry, shall, by every means in his power, without transgressing the laws he has
sworn to maintain, and the customs of England, assure to our said daughter Catherine the
punctual payment of the aforesaid dower of sixty thousand crowns from the moment of his
decease.—Item, it is agreed, that should it happen that our said daughter survive our said
son, king Henry, she shall receive, as her dower from the kingdom of France, the sum of
forty thousand francs yearly ; and this sum shall be settled on the lands and lordships which
were formerly held in dower by our very dear and well beloved the lady Blanche, consort
to king Philip of France, of happy memory, our very redoubted lord and great grandfather.
—Item, it is agreed that immediately on our decease, and from thenceforward, our crown
and kingdom of France, with all its rights and appurtenances, shall devolve for ever to our
said son king Henry, and to his heirs.
“Item, because we are for the greater part of our time personally prevented from attending
to the affairs and government of our realm with the attention they deserve, the government
of our kingdom shall in future be conducted by our said son king Henry, during our life,
calling to his assistance and council such of our nobles as have remained obedient to us, and
who have the welfare of the realm and the public good at heart, so that affairs may be
conducted to the honour of God, of ourself and consort, and to the general welfare and
security of the kingdom ; and that tranquillity may be restored to it, and justice and equity
take place everywhere by the aid of the great lords, barons, and nobles of the realm.—
Item, our said son shall, to the utmost of his power, support the courts of parliament of
France, in all parts that are subject to us, and their authority shall be upheld and maintained
with rigour from this time forward.—Item, our said son shall exert himself to defend and
maintain each of our nobility, cities, towns and municipalities in all their accustomed rights,
franchises, and privileges, so that they be not individually nor collectively molested in them.
—Item, our said son shall labour diligently, that justice be administered throughout the
realm, according to the accustomed usages, without exception of any one, and will bodily
defend and guard all our subjects from all violence and oppression whatever.
“Item, it is agreed that our said son king Henry shall appoint to all vacant places, as
well in the court of parliament as in the bailiwicks, seneschalships, provostships, and to all
other offices within our realm, observing that he do nominate fit and proper persons for such
offices, fully acquainted with the laws and customs of the country, so that tranquillity may
be preserved, and the kingdom flourish.-Item, our said son will most diligently exert
himself to reduce to our obedience all cities, towns, castles and forts, now in rebellion against
us, and of the party commonly called Dauphinois or Armagnac.—Item, for the more secure
observance of these articles, and the more effectually to enable our said son king Henry to
carry them into execution, it is agreed that all the great lords, as well spiritual as temporal,
—all the cities, towns, and municipalities within our realm, and under our obedience, shall
cach of them take the following oaths: They shall swear obedience and loyalty to our said
son king Henry, in so much as we have invested him with the full power of governing our
kingdom of France in conjunction with such counsel of able men as he may appoint. They
will likewise swear to observe punctually whatever we, in conjunction with our consort the

* The queen's dower was 40,000 crowns, which was confirmed in the first parliament of Henry VI., on petition from her.—Barl. IIist. - -

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queen, our said son king Henry, and the council, may ordain. The cities, towns, and municipalities, will also swear to obey and diligently follow whatever orders may particularly affect them. Instantly on our decease the whole of the subjects of our kingdom shall swear to become liegemen and vassals to our said son king Henry, and obey him as the true king of France, and, without any opposition or dispute, shall receive him as such, and never pay obedience to any other as king or regent of France but to our said son king Henry, unless our said son should lose life or limb, or be attacked by a mortal disease, or suffer diminution in person, state, honour, or goods. But should they know of any evil designs plotted against him, they will counteract them to the utmost of their power, and give him information thereof by letters or messages. - “Item, it is agreed that whatever conquests our said son may make from our disobedient subjects shall belong to us, and their profits shall be applied to our use ; but should any of these conquests appertain to any noble who at this moment is obedient to us, and who shall swear that he will faithfully defend them, they shall be punctually restored to him as to the lawful owner.—Item, it is agreed that all ecclesiastics within the duchy of Normandy and the realm of France, obedient to us, to our said son, and attached to the party of the duke of Burgundy, who shall swear faithfully to keep and observe all the articles of this treaty, shall peaceably enjoy their said benefices in the duchy of Normandy, and in all other parts of our realm.—Item, all universities, colleges, churches, and monasteries, within the duchy of Normandy or elsewhere, subject to us, and in time to come to our said son king Henry, shall freely enjoy all rights and privileges claimed by them, saving the rights of the crown and of individuals. – Item, whenever the crown of France shall devolve by our decease on our said son king Henry, the duchy of Normandy, and all the other conquests which he may have made within the kingdom of France, shall thenceforward remain under the obedience and jurisdiction of the monarchy of France.— Item, it is agreed that our said son king Henry, on coming to the throne of France, will make ample compensation to all of the Burgundian party who may have been deprived of their inheritances by his conquest of the duchy of Normandy, from lands to be conquered from our rebellious subjects, without any diminution from the crown of France. Should the estates of such not have

been disposed of by our said son, he will instantly have the same restored to their proper OWImers.

“Item, during our life all ordinances, edicts, pardons and privileges, must be written in our name, and signed with our seal; but as cases may arise which no human wisdom can foresee, it may be proper that our said son king Henry should write letters in his own name, and in such cases it shall be lawful for him so to do, for the better security of our person, and the maintaining good government; and he will then command and order in our name, and in his own, as regent of the realm, according as the exigency of the occasion may require: – Item, during our life our said son king Henry will neither sign nor style himself king of France, but will most punctually abstain therefrom so long as we shall live.—Item, it is agreed that during our life we shall write, call and style our said son king Henry as follows: ‘Our very dear son Henry, king of England, heir to France; and in the Latin tongue, ‘Noster praecharissimus filius Henricus rex Angliae haeres Francia.’

“Item, our said son king Henry will not impose any taxes on our subjects, except for a sufficient cause, or for the general good of the kingdom, and according to the approved laws and usages observed in such cases.—Item, that perfect concord and peace may be preserved between the two kingdoms of France and England henceforward, and that obstacles tending to a breach thereof (which God forbid) may be obviated, it is agreed that our said son king Henry, with the aid of the three estates of each kingdom, shall labour most earnestly to devise the surest means to prevent this treaty from being infringed : that on our said son succeeding to the throne of France, the two crowns shall ever after remain united in the same Person, that is to say, in the person of our said son, and at his decease, in the persons of those of his heirs who shall successively follow him: that from the time our said son shall become king of France the two kingdoms shall no longer be divided, but the sovereign of the one shall be the sovereign of the other, and to each kingdom its own separate laws and customs shall be most religiously preserved.—Item, thenceforward, therefore, all hatreds and rancour that may have existed between the two nations of England and France shall be put an end to, and mutual love and friendship subsist in their stead: they shall enjoy perpetual peace, and assist each other against all who may any way attempt to injure either of them. They will carry on a friendly intercourse and commerce, paying the accustomed duties that each kingdom has established.—Item, when the confederates and allies of the kingdoms of France and of England shall have had due notice of this treaty of peace, and within eight months after shall have signified their intentions of adhering to it, they shall be comprehended and accounted as the allies of both kingdoms, saving always the rights of our crown and of that of our said son king Henry, and without any hindrance to our subjects from seeking that redress they may think just from any individuals of these our allies. “Item, it is agreed that our said son king Henry, with the advice of our well-beloved Philip duke of Burgundy, and others of the nobles of our realm, assembled for this purpose, shall provide for the security of our person conformably to our royal estate and dignity, in such wise that it may redound to the glory of God, to our honour, and to that of the kingdom of France and our subjects; and that all persons employed in our personal service, noble or otherwise, and in any charge concerning the crown, shall be Frenchmen born in France, and in such places where the French language is spoken, and of good and decent character, loyal subjects, and well suited to the offices they shall be appointed to.—Item, we will that our residence be in some of the principal places within our dominions, and not elsewhere. “Item, considering the horrible and enormous crimes that have been perpetrated in our kingdom of France, by Charles, calling himself dauphin of Vienne, it is agreed that neither our said son king Henry, nor our well beloved Philip duke of Burgundy, shall enter into any treaty of peace or concord with the said Charles, without the consent of us three and of our council, and the three estates of the realm for that purpose assembled. “Item, it is agreed, that in addition to the above articles being sealed with our great seal, we shall deliver to our said son king Henry, confirmatory letters from our said consort the queen, from our said well-beloved Philip duke of Burgundy, and from others of our blood royal, the great lords, barons, and cities, and towns under our obedience, and from all from whom our said son king Henry may wish to have them.—Item, in like manner, our said son king Henry, on his part, shall deliver to us, besides the treaty itself sealed with his great seal, ratifications of the same from his well-beloved brothers, the great lords of his realm, and from all the principal cities and towns of his kingdom, and from any others from whom we may choose to demand them. “In regard to the above articles, we, Charles king of France, do most solemnly, on the word of a king, promise and engage punctually to observe them; and we swear on the holy Evangelists, personally touched by us, to keep every article of this peace inviolate, and to make all our subjects do the same, without any fraud or deceit whatever, so that none of our heirs may in time to come infringe them, but that they may be for ever stable and firm. In confirmation whereof, we have affixed our seal to these presents. “Given at Troyes, 21st day of May, in the year 1420, and of our reign the 40th. Sealed at Paris with our signet, in the absence of the great seal.” Signed by the king in his grand council. Countersigned, “J. MILLET.”


AFTER the conclusion of the treaty of peace, and the feasts and ceremonies of the marriage, the two kings of France and of England, accompanied by their queens, the duke of Burgundy, and the whole army, departed from the city of Troyes and the adjacent parts. They marched toward the town of Sens in Burgundy, which was occupied by a party of the dauphin's men, and, when near, blockaded it completely; so that at the end of twelve days the garrison, seeing no hope of succour, surrendered it to the king of France on having their lives and fortunes spared, and liberty for such as pleased to depart in safety, with the exception of those who had been concerned in the murder of duke John of Burgundy, should any such be found within the town. The inhabitants, and those men at arms who should remain, were to take oaths of obedience to the king of France. The greater part of them, however, made oath to the English, and pretended to wear the red cross, notwithstanding which they again turned to the dauphin. When the town of Sens had been re-garrisoned, the besiegers departed for Montereau-faut-Yonne. During their stay at Sens, master Eustace de Lactre, chancellor of France, died there : he had been for a long time the principal adviser of the duke of Burgundy. Master John le Clerc, president of the parliament, was appointed chancellor in his stead. At the beginning of the month of June, the king of England and the duke of Burgundy formed the siege of the town and castle of Montereau, and were for some time employed before it with their engines to batter down the walls and gates. The governor of the place for the dauphin was sir Pierre de Guitry", having under his command five hundred combatants, who made a gallant defence, killing and wounding many of the assailants: among the first was sir Butor bastard of Croy, a valiant knight, and expert man-at-arms. This, however, did not avail them much, for on St. John Baptist's day, some English and Burgundians assembled without orders from their prince, and made an attack on the town at several places at once, and continued it so long, that they forced an entrance into it, without meeting with any great resistance from the besieged. They then advanced toward the castle, whither the greater part of the Dauphinois had retreated, and drove the remainder before them, not, however, without loss, for they had hastened with such impatience that many fell into the ditches and were drowned, and from sixteen to twenty were made prisoners, the most part gentlemen. By this conquest, the besieged were more alarmed than before. The king of England quartered a large detachment from his army in the town, fronting the castle; and when this had been done, some of the duke of Burgundy's people, by the direction of the women of the town, went to the spot where duke John had been buried, and instantly placed over the grave a mourning cloth, and lighted tapers at each end of it. On the morrow, by orders of the duke of Burgundy, several noble knights and esquires of his household were sent thither to raise the corpse and to examine it. On their arrival, they had the body dug up, but in truth it was a melancholy sight, for he had still on his pourpoint and drawers; and there was not a man present that could refrain from weeping. The body was again put into a leaden coffin, filled with salt and spices, and carried to Burgundy, to be interred in the convent of the Carthusians without Dijon, which was founded by his father duke Philip, by whose side it was placed, according to the orders of the duke his son. While the siege of Montereau was carrying on, Charles king of France and his ministers sent copies of the treaty of peace to Paris, and to all the bailiwicks, provostships, and seneschalships of the realm, that it might be proclaimed in the places where proclamations had been usually made. After the capture of the town of Montereau, the king of England and the duke of Burgundy decamped with the army, and, crossing the Seine by a newlyerected bridge, encamped between the two rivers Seine and Yonne, and more effectually surrounded the castle with their warlike engines to batter it down. The king of England sent all the prisoners from the town under a good escort, to hold a parley with those in the castle, from the ditches, to prevail on the governor to surrender the place. When within hearing they fell on their knees, and pitifully implored him to surrender, for by so doing he would save their lives, and that he could not much longer hold out, considering the large force that was before it. The governor replied, that they must do the best they could, for that he would not surrender. The prisoners, having no longer hopes of life, asked to speak with their wives, or friends and relatives, that were in the castle; and they took leave of each other with many tears and lamentations. When they were brought back to the army,

* Q. If not William de Chaumont, lord of Guitry, and grand-master of waters and forests, in 1424, by Charles counsellor and chamberlain to the king, and captain of VII. His son Charles was killed at the battle of Verneuil Sens and Auxerre 2. He was made count de Chaumont, in 1423.

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